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By Faye Kehler Family Physician and GP Anesthetist since 1987 interested in all aspects of Medicine
John M Jakicic, Kelliann K Davis, Renee J Rogers, Wendy C King, Marsha D Marcus, Diane Helsel, Amy D Rickman, Abdus S Wahed, Steven H Belle
Importance: Effective long-term treatments are needed to address the obesity epidemic. Numerous wearable technologies specific to physical activity and diet are available, but it is unclear if these are effective at improving weight loss. Objective: To test the hypothesis that, compared with a standard behavioral weight loss intervention (standard intervention), a technology-enhanced weight loss intervention (enhanced intervention) would result in greater weight loss...
September 20, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
John P Mordes, Chao Liu, Shuhang Xu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Overweight and obesity together with their comorbidities have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. The need for well tolerated, effective interventions has become increasingly urgent. Here we review the pharmacology, benefits, and risks of Western and Chinese medications used for weight loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Lifestyle interventions for weight loss are efficacious, but have had limited long-term durability. Bariatric surgery is very effective for weight loss and reversal of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but it is invasive and not consistently durable in all patients...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Bradley C Johnston, Steve Kanters, Kristofer Bandayrel, Ping Wu, Faysal Naji, Reed A Siemieniuk, Geoff D C Ball, Jason W Busse, Kristian Thorlund, Gordon Guyatt, Jeroen P Jansen, Edward J Mills
IMPORTANCE: Many claims have been made regarding the superiority of one diet or another for inducing weight loss. Which diet is best remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine weight loss outcomes for popular diets based on diet class (macronutrient composition) and named diet. DATA SOURCES: Search of 6 electronic databases: AMED, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE from inception of each database to April 2014. STUDY SELECTION: Overweight or obese adults (body mass index ≥25) randomized to a popular self-administered named diet and reporting weight or body mass index data at 3-month follow-up or longer...
September 3, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Anthony Fardet, Yves Boirie
Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs...
December 2014: Nutrition Reviews
Nathalie Esser, Nicolas Paquot, André J Scheen
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These observations suggest that pharmacological strategies, which reduce inflammation, may be therapeutically useful in treating obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated CVD. AREA COVERED: The article covers novel strategies, using either small molecules or monoclonal antibodies...
March 2015: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Carmen de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Miguel Angel Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar Zazpe, Zenaida Vazquez-Ruiz, Silvia Benito-Corchon, Maira Bes-Rastrollo
BACKGROUND: To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort. METHODS: We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption...
2014: BMC Public Health
Steven Woloshin, Lisa M Schwartz
In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration approved 2 drugs for long-term weight loss: lorcaserin hydrochloride (Belviq; Eisai Inc) and phentermine-topiramate (Qysmia; Vivus Inc). The approvals were based on 1-year trials showing that on top of recommendations to follow a calorie-restricted diet and to increase exercise, patients randomized to either drug lost more weight than patients randomized to placebo (3% [95% CI, 3%-4%] more weight lost with lorcaserin; 7% [95% CI, 3%-4%] more with phentermine /topiramate)...
April 2014: JAMA Internal Medicine
Nancy Puzziferri, Thomas B Roshek, Helen G Mayo, Ryan Gallagher, Steven H Belle, Edward H Livingston
IMPORTANCE: Bariatric surgery is an accepted treatment for obesity. Despite extensive literature, few studies report long-term follow-up in cohorts with adequate retention rates. OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of evidence and treatment effectiveness 2 years after bariatric procedures for weight loss, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in severely obese adults. EVIDENCE REVIEW: MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched from 1946 through May 15, 2014...
September 3, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
S Dippacher, C Willaschek, R Buchhorn
Autonomic imbalance, measured as heart rate variability (HRV), and an increased cardiovascular risk are described for overweight children, as well as for patients with anorexia nervosa. We investigate whether body mass index or actual caloric intake influences HRV. In our cross-sectional study, we compared HRV parameters for a healthy control group (n=52), anorexia nervosa patients (n=17), thin (n=18) and overweight children (n=19). Anorexia nervosa patients showed significantly lower heart rates at night (P<0...
November 2014: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jonathan P Singer, Eric R Peterson, Mark E Snyder, Patricia P Katz, Jeffrey A Golden, Frank D'Ovidio, Matthew Bacchetta, Joshua R Sonett, Jasleen Kukreja, Lori Shah, Hilary Robbins, Kristin Van Horn, Rupal J Shah, Joshua M Diamond, Nancy Wickersham, Li Sun, Steven Hays, Selim M Arcasoy, Scott M Palmer, Lorraine B Ware, Jason D Christie, David J Lederer
RATIONALE: Obesity and underweight are contraindications to lung transplantation based on their associations with mortality in studies performed before implementation of the lung allocation score (LAS)-based organ allocation system in the United States Objectives: To determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) and plasma leptin levels with survival after lung transplantation. METHODS: We used multivariable-adjusted regression models to examine associations between BMI and 1-year mortality in 9,073 adults who underwent lung transplantation in the United States between May 2005 and June 2011, and plasma leptin and mortality in 599 Lung Transplant Outcomes Group study participants...
November 1, 2014: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
J Woo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasing number of reports suggesting that indicators of obesity for the general adult population may need to be modified; that the magnitude of risk is attenuated or that adiposity may even be protective; and that additional adverse outcomes specific to older persons need to be considered. Finally, there are benefits and adverse effects of weight loss programmes for older persons. This article reviews publications addressing these issues from 2013 to March 2014...
January 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Hamidreza Roohafza, Ali Kabir, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Pedram Shokouh, Seyed Hossein Aalaei-Andabili, Yadollah Mehrabi, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic disorders like coronary artery diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancers, and psychiatric disorders. Stress may contribute to weight gain by disrupting weight concern, and lead to uncontrolled eating behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stress on weight concern and control behaviors in normal weight and obese adults. METHODS: A total of 9544 subjects were selected by multi-stage random sampling from three provinces in central Iran...
September 2014: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Reeti Chawla, Sylvia E Badon, Janani Rangarajan, Anna C Reisetter, Loren L Armstrong, Lynn P Lowe, Margrit Urbanek, Boyd E Metzger, M Geoffrey Hayes, Denise M Scholtens, William L Lowe
CONTEXT: Macrosomic infants are at increased risk for adverse metabolic outcomes. Improving prediction of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birth may help prevent these outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether genes associated with obesity-related traits in adults are associated with newborn size, and whether a genetic risk score (GRS) predicts LGA birth. SETTING AND DESIGN: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 40 regions associated with adult obesity-related traits were tested for association with newborn size...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Corrine Hanson, Erica P Rutten, Emiel F M Wouters, Stephen Rennard
The global increase in the prevalence and incidence of obesity has called serious attention to this issue as a major public health concern. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and recently the role of overweight and obesity in lung disease has received new interest. Independently of obesity, diet also plays a role as a risk factor for many chronic diseases, and evidence is accumulating to support a role for diet in the prevention and management of several lung diseases...
2014: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Ersilia Nigro, Olga Scudiero, Maria Ludovica Monaco, Alessia Palmieri, Gennaro Mazzarella, Ciro Costagliola, Andrea Bianco, Aurora Daniele
Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined "adipocytokines," protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth...
2014: BioMed Research International
Nadège Padilla, Marie Maraninchi, Sophie Béliard, Bruno Berthet, Juan-Patricio Nogueira, Estelle Wolff, Alain Nicolay, Audrey Bégu, Noémie Dubois, Rachel Grangeot, Catherine Mattei, Bernard Vialettes, Changting Xiao, Gary F Lewis, René Valéro
OBJECTIVE: The dyslipidemia of obesity and other insulin-resistant states is characterized by the elevation of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) of both hepatic (apoB-100-containing very low-density lipoprotein) and intestinal (apoB-48-containing chylomicrons) origin. Bariatric surgery is a well-established and effective modality for the treatment of obesity and is associated with improvements in several metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, including a reduction in plasma triglycerides...
October 2014: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Masood Ali, Ian E Smith, Atul Gulati, John M Shneerson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reduced atmospheric pressure during air travel can cause significant hypoxaemia in some patients with respiratory disease. Our aims were to investigate the degree of hypoxaemia in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) during hypoxic challenge test (HCT), and to identify any predictors of a positive HCT. METHODS: Thirteen patients underwent assessment, including HCT, lung function and incremental shuttle walk test. All had OHS well controlled with long-term nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV)...
November 2014: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Dan Zhou, Min Yang, Zhe-Ping Yuan, Dan-Dan Zhang, Li Liang, Chun-Lin Wang, Shuai Zhang, Hong-Hong Zhu, Mao-De Lai, Yi-Min Zhu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of Waist-to-Height Ratio in early detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome in Chinese children and adolescents. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six cities in China in 2010 with 16,914 children and adolescents aged 7-17 years. Participants were randomly divided into the training and testing sets. Diagnostic values were estimated using sensitivity, specificity and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves...
October 2014: Preventive Medicine
Tiffany M Powell-Wiley, Colby Ayers, Priscilla Agyemang, Tammy Leonard, David Berrigan, Rachel Ballard-Barbash, Min Lian, Sandeep R Das, Christine M Hoehner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine a relationship between neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation and weight change in a multi-ethnic cohort from Dallas County, Texas and whether behavioral/psychosocial factors attenuate the relationship. METHODS: Non-movers (those in the same neighborhood throughout the study period) aged 18-65 (N=939) in Dallas Heart Study (DHS) underwent weight measurements between 2000 and 2009 (median 7-year follow-up). Geocoded home addresses defined block groups; a neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) was created (higher NDI=greater deprivation)...
September 2014: Preventive Medicine
J van der Leeuw, Y van der Graaf, H M Nathoe, G J de Borst, L J Kappelle, F L J Visseren
OBJECTIVES: A remarkable variation exists in the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity. We evaluated the separate and combined effects of adiposity and cardiometabolic dysfunction on the occurrence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with vascular disease. METHODS: We prospectively followed 5231 patients with a history of clinical cardiovascular disease without diabetes from the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) study. Patients were classified according to body mass index and cardiometabolic function...
September 15, 2014: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
2014-10-04 18:38:49
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