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12 papers 100 to 500 followers
Julian L Seifter, Hsin-Yun Chang
Clinical assessment of acid-base disorders depends on measurements made in the blood, part of the extracellular compartment. Yet much of the metabolic importance of these disorders concerns intracellular events. Intracellular and interstitial compartment acid-base balance is complex and heterogeneous. This review considers the determinants of the extracellular fluid pH related to the ion transport processes at the interface of cells and the interstitial fluid, and between epithelial cells lining the transcellular contents of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts that open to the external environment...
September 2017: Physiology
Rafael Obrador, Sarah Musulin, Bernie Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To summarize current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for changes occurring during red blood cell (RBC) storage, collectively known as the storage lesion, and to review the biological and clinical consequences of increasing storage time of RBCs. DATA SOURCES: Human and veterinary clinical studies, experimental animal model studies, and reviews of the RBC storage lesion with no date restrictions. HUMAN DATA SYNTHESIS: Experimental studies have characterized the evolution of human RBC and supernatant changes that occur during storage and form the basis for concern about the potential for harm from long-term storage of RBCs...
March 2015: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Roswitha Dorsch, Clara von Vopelius-Feldt, Georg Wolf, Reinhard K Straubinger, Katrin Hartmann
The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify bacterial species in cats with bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to investigate their antimicrobial susceptibilities over a 10-year period. Three hundred and thirty cultures from 280 cats were included in the study. The mean age of affected cats was 9.9 years; female cats with bacterial UTIs were significantly older than male cats with UTIs. The most common pathogen identified was Escherichia coli (42.3 per cent), followed by Streptococcus species (19...
February 21, 2015: Veterinary Record
Thaísa D Cândido, Francisco J Teixeira-Neto, Miriely S Diniz, Felipe S Zanuzzo, Lídia R Teixeira, Denise T Fantoni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) and atropine on changes in global perfusion variables induced by hemorrhage and volume replacement (VR) in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS: 8 adult dogs. PROCEDURES: Each dog was anesthetized twice, with a 2-week interval between anesthetic sessions. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 times the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane with and without dexmedetomidine (1...
November 2014: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Jessica M Quimby, William T Brock, Kelsey Moses, David Bolotin, Kayla Patricelli
OBJECTIVES: Maropitant is commonly used for acute vomiting. A pharmacokinetic and toxicity study in cats indicated that longer term usage appears safe. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of maropitant for management of chronic vomiting and inappetence associated with feline chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Forty-one cats with stable International Renal Interest Society Stage II or III CKD, no known concurrent illness, and a complaint of chronic vomiting and inappetence attributed to CKD were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded clinical study...
August 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Edward Ned E Patterson
Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency for companion animals, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Therapy in companion animals and people has been largely with sedatives and anesthetics, many of which have gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-mediated mechanisms. Early aggressive treatment includes staged first-line therapy with benzodiazepines, and second- and third-line protocols when needed. Recently, intravenous levetiracetam has also been used in for SE in dogs and people, and there are other human intravenous drug preparations that may hold promise for future use in companion animals...
November 2014: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Nicholas D Jeffery
Glucocorticoid drugs are frequently used nonspecifically by veterinarians to control clinical signs associated with central nervous system disease. However, this use is infrequently justified and can also be associated with detrimental long-term patient outcomes. First, there are few diseases for which glucocorticoids are the preferred or definitive treatment. Second, their actions may blunt subsequent diagnostic efforts, for instance, by altering MRI appearance or cerebrospinal fluid cell content, or lead owners to abandon pursuit of more appropriate therapies if they perceive the first-line steroid therapy to be a failure...
November 2014: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Philipp D Mayhew, Peter J Pascoe, Yael Shilo-Benjamini, Philip H Kass, Lynelle R Johnson
OBJECTIVES: To document a technique for one-lung ventilation (OLV) in cats and evaluate the effect of low-pressure carbon dioxide insufflation and OLV (OLV-CDI) on cardiorespiratory variables in cats. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized study. ANIMALS: Cats (n = 6). METHODS: General anesthesia was induced using a standardized anesthetic protocol. A thermodilution catheter was placed into the pulmonary artery using fluoroscopic guidance...
July 2015: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Stefano Cortellini, Mayank Seth, Lindsay M Kellett-Gregory
OBJECTIVE: To determine if absolute plasma lactate concentration or lactate clearance in dogs with septic peritonitis is associated with morbidity or mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from 2007 to 2012. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Eighty-three dogs with septic peritonitis were included. Patients had at least 1 plasma lactate measurement during the course of the hospitalization. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent of the patients survived to discharge, 22% were euthanized, and 14% died during hospitalization...
May 2015: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
R Rabozzi, P Franci
Systolic pressure variation (SPV), the maximum variation in systolic pressure values following a single positive pressure breath delivered by controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), is highly correlated with volaemia in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine an SPV value that would indicate when fluid administration would be beneficial in clinical practice. Twenty-six client-owned dogs were anaesthetised, following which CMV with a peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) of 8 cmH2O was applied. After SPV measurement and recording of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), 3 mL/kg fluid were administered, then HR and BP were recorded again...
November 2014: Veterinary Journal
Robert J Adams, Ronan S Doyle, Jonathan P Bray, Carolyn A Burton
OBJECTIVE: To determine survival rate in dogs with septic peritonitis of confirmed gastrointestinal origin treated with closed suction drainage. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Dogs (n = 20) with septic peritonitis. METHODS: Medical records (2007-2010) of dogs with septic peritonitis of confirmed gastrointestinal origin treated by closed suction drainage were reviewed. Information on signalment, clinicopathologic abnormalities, underlying cause, surgical procedure performed, postoperative management, complications, and outcome was obtained...
October 2014: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Lydia Love, Martha G Cline
OBJECTIVE: To review the available literature concerning the physiologic and pharmacologic alterations induced by obesity in canine and feline patients and their relevance to perioperative care. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. DATABASES: PubMed, CAB, Web of Science. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity of cats and dogs is a chronic inflammatory condition that is increasingly prevalent. Similar to the situation in humans, small animal obesity may be associated with changes in endocrine, respiratory, and cardiovascular function...
March 2015: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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