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Internal Medicine

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22 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Jose M. Barria Castro MD from Panama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193452/pathogenesis-of-myeloproliferative-disorders
#1
Jyoti Nangalia, Jacob Grinfeld, Anthony R Green
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a set of chronic hematopoietic neoplasms with overlapping clinical and molecular features. Recent years have witnessed considerable advances in our understanding of their pathogenetic basis. Due to their protracted clinical course, the evolution to advanced hematological malignancies, and the accessibility of neoplastic tissue, the study of MPNs has provided a window into the earliest stages of tumorigenesis. With the discovery of mutations in CALR, the majority of MPN patients now bear an identifiable marker of clonal disease; however, the mechanism by which mutated CALR perturbs megakaryopoiesis is currently unresolved...
May 23, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068665/pain-control-in-the-presence-of-drug-addiction
#2
REVIEW
Nalini Vadivelu, Leandro Lumermann, Richard Zhu, Gopal Kodumudi, Amir O Elhassan, Alan David Kaye
Drug addiction is present in a significant proportion of the population in the USA and worldwide. Drug addiction can occur with the abuse of many types of substances including cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, opioids, and tranquilizers. There is a high likelihood that clinicians will encounter patients with substance abuse disorders on a regular basis with the prevalence of the use of illicit substances and the high rate of abuse of prescription drugs. The use of abuse deterrent formulations of prescription opioid agents, pill counts, and urine drug abuse screenings are all useful strategies...
May 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880451/treatment-of-hyperkalemia-something-old-something-new
#3
REVIEW
Richard H Sterns, Marvin Grieff, Paul L Bernstein
Treatment options for hyperkalemia have not changed much since the introduction of the cation exchange resin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Covis Pharmaceuticals, Cary, NC), over 50 years ago. Although clinicians of that era did not have ready access to hemodialysis or loop diuretics, the other tools that we use today-calcium, insulin, and bicarbonate-were well known to them. Currently recommended insulin regimens provide too little insulin to achieve blood levels with a maximal kalemic effect and too little glucose to avoid hypoglycemia...
March 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27083327/transfusion-reactions-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Meghan Delaney, Silvano Wendel, Rachel S Bercovitz, Joan Cid, Claudia Cohn, Nancy M Dunbar, Torunn O Apelseth, Mark Popovsky, Simon J Stanworth, Alan Tinmouth, Leo Van De Watering, Jonathan H Waters, Mark Yazer, Alyssa Ziman
Blood transfusion is one of the most common procedures in patients in hospital so it is imperative that clinicians are knowledgeable about appropriate blood product administration, as well as the signs, symptoms, and management of transfusion reactions. In this Review, we, an international panel, provide a synopsis of the pathophysiology, treatment, and management of each diagnostic category of transfusion reaction using evidence-based recommendations whenever available.
April 12, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115383/tp53-gene-and-cancer-resistance-in-elephants
#5
LETTER
Claudio Casola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903338/the-third-international-consensus-definitions-for-sepsis-and-septic-shock-sepsis-3
#6
Mervyn Singer, Clifford S Deutschman, Christopher Warren Seymour, Manu Shankar-Hari, Djillali Annane, Michael Bauer, Rinaldo Bellomo, Gordon R Bernard, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Craig M Coopersmith, Richard S Hotchkiss, Mitchell M Levy, John C Marshall, Greg S Martin, Steven M Opal, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Tom van der Poll, Jean-Louis Vincent, Derek C Angus
IMPORTANCE: Definitions of sepsis and septic shock were last revised in 2001. Considerable advances have since been made into the pathobiology (changes in organ function, morphology, cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, and circulation), management, and epidemiology of sepsis, suggesting the need for reexamination. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and, as needed, update definitions for sepsis and septic shock. PROCESS: A task force (n = 19) with expertise in sepsis pathobiology, clinical trials, and epidemiology was convened by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine...
February 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900952/understanding-cachexia-as-a-cancer-metabolism-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
P E Porporato
Metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumors to foster cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastasis, but as well at a systemic level affecting the whole organism, eventually leading to cancer cachexia. Indeed, as cancer cells rely on external sources of nitrogen and carbon skeleton to grow, systemic metabolic deregulation promoting tissue wasting and metabolites mobilization ultimately supports tumor growth. Cachectic patients experience a wide range of symptoms affecting several organ functions such as muscle, liver, brain, immune system and heart, collectively decreasing patients' quality of life and worsening their prognosis...
February 22, 2016: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26825588/evidence-based-management-of-polyps-of-the-gall-bladder-a-systematic-review-of-the-risk-factors-of-malignancy
#8
REVIEW
Nikita R Bhatt, Amy Gillis, Craig O Smoothey, Faisal N Awan, Paul F Ridgway
BACKGROUND: There are no evidence-based guidelines to dictate when Gallbladder Polyps (GBPs) of varying sizes should be resected. AIM: To identify factors that accurately predict malignant disease in GBP; to provide an evidence-based algorithm for management. METHODS: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was performed using terms "gallbladder polyps" AND "polypoid lesion of gallbladder", from January 1993 and September 2013. Inclusion criteria required histopathological report or follow-up of 2 years...
October 2016: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26558188/hepatorenal-syndrome-update-on-diagnosis-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Olga Baraldi, Chiara Valentini, Gabriele Donati, Giorgia Comai, Vania Cuna, Irene Capelli, Maria Laura Angelini, Maria Ilaria Moretti, Andrea Angeletti, Fabio Piscaglia, Gaetano La Manna
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients with end-stage liver disease and advanced cirrhosis regardless of the underlying cause. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a functional form of kidney failure, is one of the many possible causes of AKI. HRS is potentially reversible but involves highly complex pathogenetic mechanisms and equally complex clinical and therapeutic management. Once HRS has developed, it has a very poor prognosis. This review focuses on the diagnostic approach to HRS and discusses the therapeutic protocols currently adopted in clinical practice...
November 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26034862/how-to-lower-your-blood-pressure-without-medicines
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2015: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26188218/should-we-try-longer-duration-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-the-emergency-department-and-association-with-survival
#11
EDITORIAL
Katherine M Berg, Lars W Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26045965/mechanical-ventilation-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Ryoichi Ochiai
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been intensively and continuously studied in various settings, but its mortality is still as high as 30-40 %. For the last 20 years, lung protective strategy has become a standard care for ARDS, but we still do not know the best way to ventilate patients with ARDS. Tidal volume itself does not seem to have an important role to develop ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the driving pressure, which is inspiratory plateau pressure-PEEP, is the most important to predict and affect the outcome of ARDS, though there is no safe limit for the driving pressure...
2015: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26068897/fluid-therapy-in-2015-and-beyond-the-mini-fluid-challenge-and-mini-fluid-bolus-approach
#13
EDITORIAL
P E Marik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24042368/determining-the-noninfectious-complications-of-indwelling-urethral-catheters-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
John M Hollingsworth, Mary A M Rogers, Sarah L Krein, Andrew Hickner, Latoya Kuhn, Alex Cheng, Robert Chang, Sanjay Saint
BACKGROUND: Although the epidemiology of catheter-associated urinary tract infection is well-described, little is known about noninfectious complications resulting from urethral catheter use. PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of noninfectious complications after catheterization. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Conference Papers Index, BIOSIS Previews, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for human studies without any language limits and through 30 July 2012...
September 17, 2013: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24007975/intracranial-atherosclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Adnan I Qureshi, Louis R Caplan
Atherosclerotic disease often involves the intracranial arteries including those encased by cranial bones and dura, and those located in the subarachnoid space. Age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial atherosclerosis can result in thromboembolism with or without hypoperfusion leading to transient or permanent cerebral ischaemic events. High rates of recurrent ischaemic stroke and other cardiovascular events mandate early diagnosis and treatment...
March 15, 2014: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25047428/fluid-resuscitation-in-sepsis-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Bram Rochwerg, Waleed Alhazzani, Anees Sindi, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Lehana Thabane, Alison Fox-Robichaud, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Wojciech Szczeklik, Fayez Alshamsi, Sultan Altayyar, Wang-Chun Ip, Guowei Li, Michael Wang, Anna Wludarczyk, Qi Zhou, Gordon H Guyatt, Deborah J Cook, Roman Jaeschke, Djillali Annane
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is the cornerstone of sepsis treatment. However, whether balanced or unbalanced crystalloids or natural or synthetic colloids confer a survival advantage is unclear. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of different resuscitative fluids on mortality in patients with sepsis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ACP Journal Club, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through March 2014...
September 2, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25154332/medical-cannabis-laws-and-opioid-analgesic-overdose-mortality-in-the-united-states-1999-2010
#17
Marcus A Bachhuber, Brendan Saloner, Chinazo O Cunningham, Colleen L Barry
IMPORTANCE: Opioid analgesic overdose mortality continues to rise in the United States, driven by increases in prescribing for chronic pain. Because chronic pain is a major indication for medical cannabis, laws that establish access to medical cannabis may change overdose mortality related to opioid analgesics in states that have enacted them. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the presence of state medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality...
October 2014: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25350321/ebola-virus-disease-and-the-need-for-new-personal-protective-equipment
#18
Michael B Edmond, Daniel J Diekema, Eli N Perencevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 17, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25129328/body-mass-index-and-risk-of-22-specific-cancers-a-population-based-cohort-study-of-5%C3%A2-24-million-uk-adults
#19
Krishnan Bhaskaran, Ian Douglas, Harriet Forbes, Isabel dos-Santos-Silva, David A Leon, Liam Smeeth
BACKGROUND: High body-mass index (BMI) predisposes to several site-specific cancers, but a large-scale systematic and detailed characterisation of patterns of risk across all common cancers adjusted for potential confounders has not previously been undertaken. We aimed to investigate the links between BMI and the most common site-specific cancers. METHODS: With primary care data from individuals in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink with BMI data, we fitted Cox models to investigate associations between BMI and 22 of the most common cancers, adjusting for potential confounders...
August 30, 2014: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25268440/clinical-management-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Thomas L Holland, Christopher Arnold, Vance G Fowler
IMPORTANCE: Several management strategies may improve outcomes in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. OBJECTIVES: To review evidence of management strategies for S. aureus bacteremia to determine whether transesophageal echocardiography is necessary in all adult cases and what is the optimal antibiotic therapy for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. EVIDENCE REVIEW: A PubMed search from inception through May 2014 was performed to identify studies addressing the role of transesophageal echocardiography in S...
October 1, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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