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LLSA 2013

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12 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Sean Fox Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physician, Associate Professor
Paul B Cornia, Adam L Hersh, Benjamin A Lipsky, Thomas B Newman, Ralph Gonzales
CONTEXT: Pertussis is often overlooked as a cause of chronic cough, especially in adolescents and adults. Several symptoms are classically thought to be suggestive of pertussis, but the diagnostic value of each of them is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence regarding the diagnostic value of 3 classically described symptoms of pertussis: paroxysmal cough, posttussive emesis, and inspiratory whoop. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: We searched MEDLINE (January 1966-April 2010), EMBASE (January 1969 to April 2010), and the bibliographies of pertinent articles to identify relevant English-language studies...
August 25, 2010: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Constantine A Manthous
BACKGROUND: In many hospitals, emergency physicians commonly initiate invasive positive-pressure ventilation. OBJECTIVES: To review common patient- and ventilator-related factors that can promote hemodynamic instability during and after endotracheal intubation. DISCUSSION: Venous return is proportional to mean systemic pressure (Pms) minus right atrial pressure (Pra). Endotracheal intubation with positive-pressure ventilation often reduces Pms while always increasing Pra, so venous return inevitably decreases, resulting in hypotension in almost one-third of patients...
June 2010: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Stephen J Wolf, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Carl J Bonnett, Peter T Pons, Stephen V Cantrill
Health-care providers are increasingly faced with the possibility of needing to care for people injured in explosions, but can often, however, feel undertrained for the unique aspects of the patient's presentation and management. Although most blast-related injuries (eg, fragmentation injuries from improvised explosive devices and standard military explosives) can be managed in a similar manner to typical penetrating or blunt traumatic injuries, injuries caused by the blast pressure wave itself cannot. The blast pressure wave exerts forces mainly at air-tissue interfaces within the body, and the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and auditory systems are at greatest risk...
August 1, 2009: Lancet
Lewis B Morgenstern, J Claude Hemphill, Craig Anderson, Kyra Becker, Joseph P Broderick, E Sander Connolly, Steven M Greenberg, James N Huang, R Loch MacDonald, Steven R Messé, Pamela H Mitchell, Magdy Selim, Rafael J Tamargo
PURPOSE: The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: A formal literature search of MEDLINE was performed. Data were synthesized with the use of evidence tables. Writing committee members met by teleconference to discuss data-derived recommendations. The American Heart Association Stroke Council's Levels of Evidence grading algorithm was used to grade each recommendation...
September 2010: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Bentley J Bobrow, Daniel W Spaite, Robert A Berg, Uwe Stolz, Arthur B Sanders, Karl B Kern, Tyler F Vadeboncoeur, Lani L Clark, John V Gallagher, J Stephan Stapczynski, Frank LoVecchio, Terry J Mullins, Will O Humble, Gordon A Ewy
CONTEXT: Chest compression-only bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be as effective as conventional CPR with rescue breathing for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using compression-only CPR (COCPR) compared with conventional CPR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: A 5-year prospective observational cohort study of survival in patients at least 18 years old with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009, in Arizona...
October 6, 2010: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ivan C Rokos, William J French, Amal Mattu, Graham Nichol, Michael E Farkouh, James Reiffel, Gregg W Stone
During the last few decades, acute ST-elevation on an electrocardiogram (ECG) in the proper clinical context has been a reliable surrogate marker of acute coronary occlusion requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). In 2004, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) guidelines specified ECG criteria that warrant immediate angiography in patients who are candidates for primary PPCI, but new findings have emerged that suggest a reappraisal is warranted...
December 2010: American Heart Journal
Nikolaos Samaras, Thierry Chevalley, Dimitrios Samaras, Gabriel Gold
Older patients account for up to a quarter of all emergency department (ED) visits. Atypical clinical presentation of illness, a high prevalence of cognitive disorders, and the presence of multiple comorbidities complicate their evaluation and management. Increased frailty, delayed diagnosis, and greater illness severity contribute to a higher risk of adverse outcomes. This article will review the most common conditions encountered in older patients, including delirium, dementia, falls, and polypharmacy, and suggest simple and efficient strategies for their evaluation and management...
September 2010: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Francis M Fesmire, Michael D Brown, James A Espinosa, Richard D Shih, Scott M Silvers, Stephen J Wolf, Wyatt W Decker
This clinical policy from the American College of Emergency Physicians is the revision of a 2003 clinical policy on the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE).(1) A writing subcommittee reviewed the literature to derive evidence-based recommendations to help clinicians answer the following critical questions: (1) Do objective criteria provide improved risk stratification over gestalt clinical assessment in the evaluation of patients with possible PE? (2) What is the utility of the Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria (PERC) in the evaluation of patients with suspected PE? (3)What is the role of quantitative D-dimer testing in the exclusion of PE? (4) What is the role of computed tomography pulmonary angiogram of the chest as the sole diagnostic test in the exclusion of PE? (5) What is the role of venous imaging in the evaluation of patients with suspected PE? (6) What are the indications for thrombolytic therapy in patients with PE? Evidence was graded and recommendations were given based on the strength of the available data in the medical literature...
June 2011: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Bradley W Frazee, Christopher Fee, Larry Lambert
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in adult septic arthritis patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional retrospective review in 2 urban academic EDs in northern California, one tertiary care and one public. Subjects included patients who underwent arthrocentesis in the ED from April 2006 through July 2007. We queried the microbiology laboratory databases for synovial fluid cultures sent from the ED...
November 2009: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Sukhjit S Takhar, Gregory W Hendey
There are several musculoskeletal conditions that are specific or unique to the patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These conditions affecting the patient with HIV can be divided into 4 categories: disseminated diseases, bone disorders, joint disease, and myopathies. This review focuses on the manifestations of HIV on musculoskeletal disease as they relate to the emergency physician.
May 2010: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Sonia Butalia, Valerie A Palda, Robert J Sargeant, Allan S Detsky, Ophyr Mourad
CONTEXT: Osteomyelitis of the lower extremity is a commonly encountered problem in patients with diabetes and is an important cause of amputation and admission to the hospital. The diagnosis of lower limb osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes remains a challenge. OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of historical features, physical examination, and laboratory and basic radiographic testing. We searched for systematic reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of lower extremity osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes to compare its performance with the reference standard...
February 20, 2008: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jay A Fishman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2007: New England Journal of Medicine
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