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By Yasir Imam Trainee in opthalmology with interest in vitreoretinal diseases
Michael W Stewart
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in industrialized countries. Remarkable advances in the diagnosis and treatment of DR have been made during the past 30 years, but several important management questions and treatment deficiencies remain unanswered. The global diabetes epidemic threatens to overwhelm resources and increase the incidence of blindness, necessitating the development of innovative programs to diagnose and treat patients. The introduction and rapid adoption of intravitreal pharmacologic agents, particularly drugs that block the actions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and corticosteroids, have changed the goal of DR treatment from stabilization of vision to improvement...
August 25, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
Rohan Merani, Zachary E McPherson, Alan P Luckie, Jagjit S Gilhotra, Jim Runciman, Shane Durkin, James Muecke, Mark Donaldson, Albert Aralar, Anupam Rao, Peter E Davies
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of endophthalmitis in a large clinical series using aqueous chlorhexidine for antisepsis before intravitreal injection and to review the ophthalmic literature regarding chlorhexidine efficacy and safety. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: All patients receiving intravitreal injections from 7 retinal specialists. METHODS: An audit of intravitreal injections performed by retinal specialists who exclusively used aqueous chlorhexidine 0...
October 6, 2016: Ophthalmology
Bruno Leonardo Barranco Esporcatte, Ivan Maynart Tavares
Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a progressive optic neuropathy with intraocular pressure (IOP) within the statistically normal range (≤21 mmHg). The prevalence of NTG varies widely among different population studies, being the most prevalent open-angle glaucoma subtype in some reports. The etiology of NTG possibly is multifactorial and still not well defined. Alternative treatments have been proposed based on pathogenesis details. However, in clinical practice, adequate reduction of IOP remains the keystone of managing patients with NTG...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Jessica Gomez, Dara D Koozekanani, Alex Z Feng, Mitchell Holt, Paul Drayna, Melissa R Mackley, Frederik J G M van Kuijk, Robert M Beardsley, Richard H Johnston, Joseph M Terry, Sandra R Montezuma
INTRODUCTION: Many ocular diseases require intravitreal injections of pharmacological agents. Optimizing patients' experiences during injections is important to ensure compliance and maintenance of quality of life. The objective of this study was to identify strategies to help alleviate discomfort during intravitreal injections. METHODS: A cross-sectional study surveying 128 patients during clinic visits between 2014 and 2015 in two outpatient Retina Clinics (one academic and one private)...
August 2, 2016: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Farhat Butt, Kamron Khan, Saadia Chaudhry, Rehna Khan
INTRODUCTION: We describe a proactive method using electronic patient records (EPR) to identify pseudophakic patients with diabetic macular oedema (DMO) that might benefit from treatment with 0.2 µg/day fluocinolone acetonide (FAc; ILUVIEN(®)) implant. METHODS: Our EPR audit tool (Medisoft(®)) identified diabetic patients (May 2011-December 2014) with National Screening Committee-confirmed grade M1 maculopathy. Searches segmented this DMO patient population into patient groups who: (1) had received ranibizumab therapy, (2) had received ≥2 macular laser treatments, or (3) were unsuitable for macular laser or ranibizumab therapy...
June 2016: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Francisco J Goñi, Ingeborg Stalmans, Philippe Denis, Jean-Philippe Nordmann, Simon Taylor, Michael Diestelhorst, Antonio R Figueiredo, David F Garway-Heath
INTRODUCTION: With the increasing use of intravitreal administration of corticosteroids in macular edema, steroid-induced intraocular pressure (IOP) rise is becoming an emergent issue. However, for patients in whom intravitreal steroids are indicated, there are no specific recommendations for IOP monitoring and management after intravitreal administration of corticosteroids. METHOD: An expert panel of European ophthalmologists reviewed evidence on corticosteroid-induced IOP elevation...
June 2016: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Nafees Baig, Ka-Wai Kam, Clement C Y Tham
Trabeculectomy has been the gold standard in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients, no matter it is angle closure or open angle glaucoma. However in primary angle closure glaucoma, no matter the lens is cataractous or not, it is likely to be pathological, this thicker than usual lens, with or without a more anterior position, is often regarded as a strong contributing factor to angle closure. Lens extraction, no matter it is cataractous or clear, can theoretically eliminate this anatomical predisposing factor of angle closure, and thus IOP can be reduced...
2016: Open Ophthalmology Journal
Jens Heichel, Elisabeth Kuehn, Astrid Eichhorst, Thomas Hammer, Iris Winter
INTRODUCTION: Subhyaloid hemorrhage, whether spontaneous or in the context of a Valsalva maneuver, can lead to an acute decrease in vision when located in the premacular region. Nd:YAG laser hyaloidotomy (NYLH) is a minimally invasive treatment option. METHODS: We examined two different clinical courses based on two case reports of NYLH. One case report described a 52-year-old female patient who presented with a painless decrease of vision to 20/200. The fundoscopy verified a subhyaloid premacular hemorrhage...
June 2016: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Ibrahim Elaraoud, Alaa Attawan, Fahd Quhill
INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetic macular edema (DME), a chronic, vision-limiting condition, may be insufficiently responsive to standard-of-care anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and/or laser therapies. One approved treatment for such patients is 0.2 μg/day fluocinolone acetonide (FAc) sustained-release implant; however, data are limited for treatment strategies in patients with bilateral chronic DME insufficiently responsive to standard-of-care therapies. METHODS: Six pseudophakic patients with bilateral, chronic DME previously treated with laser and anti-VEGF therapy (and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in 10 eyes) were retrospectively investigated for visual and anatomical outcomes, 6 months post-0...
June 2016: Ophthalmology and Therapy
Michael F Marmor, Ulrich Kellner, Timothy Y Y Lai, Ronald B Melles, William F Mieler
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations on screening for chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy are revised in light of new information about the prevalence of toxicity, risk factors, fundus distribution, and effectiveness of screening tools. PATTERN OF RETINOPATHY: Although the locus of toxic damage is parafoveal in many eyes, Asian patients often show an extramacular pattern of damage. DOSE: We recommend a maximum daily HCQ use of ≤5...
June 2016: Ophthalmology
Julie Foreman-Larkin, Peter A Netland, Sarwat Salim
Malignant glaucoma remains one of the most challenging complications of ocular surgery. Although it has been reported to occur spontaneously or after any ophthalmic procedure, it is most commonly encountered after glaucoma surgery in eyes with prior chronic angle closure. The clinical diagnosis is made in the setting of a patent peripheral iridotomy and axial flattening of the anterior chamber. Intraocular pressure is usually elevated, but it may be normal in some cases. Although the exact etiology of this condition is not fully understood, several mechanisms have been proposed and it is thought to result from posterior misdirection of aqueous humor into or behind the vitreous...
2015: Journal of Ophthalmology
Salman Sarwar, Elizabeth Clearfield, Mohamed Kamel Soliman, Mohammad Ali Sadiq, Andrew J Baldwin, Mostafa Hanout, Aniruddha Agarwal, Yasir J Sepah, Diana V Do, Quan Dong Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Central vision loss caused by age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Neovascular AMD is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Growth of new blood vessels in patients with neovascular AMD is driven by a complex process that involves a signal protein called vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Anti-VEGF drugs that block this protein include ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Andreas Frings, Nastassija Markau, Toam Katz, Birthe Stemplewitz, Christos Skevas, Vasyl Druchkiv, Lars Wagenfeld
AIMS: To investigate the influence of lag time between the onset of central visual acuity loss and surgical intervention of macula-off retinal detachment. METHODS: This retrospective case series examined all consecutively treated eyes with primary macula-off retinal detachment at the University Hospital Hamburg (Germany) from February 2010 to February 2015. Records of 1727 patients operated by six surgeons were reviewed. Eighty-nine eyes (5.2%) from 89 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 11, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Jwu Jin Khong, Alan A McNab, Peter R Ebeling, Jamie E Craig, Dinesh Selva
Orbital changes in thyroid orbitopathy (TO) result from de novo adipogenesis, hyaluronan synthesis, interstitial oedema and enlargement of extraocular muscles. Cellular immunity, with predominantly CD4+ T cells expressing Th1 cytokines, and overexpression of macrophage-derived cytokines, perpetuate orbital inflammation. Orbital fibroblasts appear to be the major effector cells. Orbital fibroblasts express both thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) at higher levels than normal fibroblasts...
January 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Colin J Chu, Robert L Johnston, Charlotte Buscombe, Ahmed B Sallam, Queresh Mohamed, Yit C Yang
PURPOSE: To define the incidence of pseudophakic macular edema (PME) after cataract surgery and to identify contributory risk factors. DESIGN: Retrospective database study of electronic medical records (EMRs). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 81984 eyes undergoing cataract surgery between December 2010 and December 2014 from 8 independent United Kingdom clinical sites. METHODS: Structured clinical data mandated by the EMR were anonymized and extracted for each eye undergoing cataract surgery including: perioperative visual acuity, copathologic features, simultaneous surgical procedures, and the presence or absence of a specified list of intraoperative complications...
February 2016: Ophthalmology
Joao F Lopes, Douglas A Hubatsch, Patricia Amaris
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). METHODS: This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0...
2015: BMC Ophthalmology
Dina Gewaily, Karthikeyan Muthuswamy, Paul B Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common retinal vascular abnormality associated with conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, and a wide variety of hematologic disorders. Macular edema (ME) represents an important vision-threatening complication of CRVO. Intravitreal steroids (IVS), such as triamcinolone acetonide, have been utilized to treat macular edema stemming from a variety of etiologies and may be a treatment option for CRVO-ME. OBJECTIVES: To explore the effectiveness and safety of intravitreal steroids in the treatment of CRVO-ME...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Uday B Kompella, Rajendra S Kadam, Vincent H L Lee
Topical ocular drug bioavailability is notoriously poor, in the order of 5% or less. This is a consequence of effective multiple barriers to drug entry, comprising nasolacrimal drainage, epithelial drug transport barriers and clearance from the vasculature in the conjunctiva. While sustained drug delivery to the back of the eye is now feasible with intravitreal implants such as Vitrasert (-6 months), Retisert (-3 years) and Iluvien (-3 years), currently there are no marketed delivery systems for long-term drug delivery to the anterior segment of the eye...
September 2010: Therapeutic Delivery
Xingyi Li, Wei Wang, Xiulan Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine possible differences in clinical outcomes between selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) and topical medication in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Pertinent prospective comparative controlled trials comparing SLT with medication were selected through extensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedicine Database, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database from their inception up to March 2014...
2015: BMC Ophthalmology
Steve Chih-Hsuan Cheng, Ying-Yu Lin, Chien-Neng Kuo, Li-Ju Lai
BACKGROUND: Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of infectious keratitis in tropical countries. Symptoms of fungal keratitis consist of blurred vision, redness, tearing, photophobia, pain and foreign body sensation. If not treated effectively, it could lead to blindness. Common causes include Candida spp., Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp.. With the limited choices of topical antifungal agents, we were faced with Cladosporium keratitis, a rare cause of fungal keratitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old Asian male construction worker came to us with intense ocular pain, injection of the conjunctiva, blurred vision, and foreign body sensation in his left eye...
2015: BMC Ophthalmology
2015-09-07 20:26:39
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