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By Varun Shetty A Med-Peds resident
Erin Frazee, Kianoush Kashani
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids (IVF) are frequently utilized to restore intravascular volume in patients with distributive and hypovolemic shock. Although the benefits of the appropriate use of fluids in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospitals are well described, there is growing knowledge regarding the potential risks of volume overload and its impact on organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are developed and utilized more often among ICU patients...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Peter A McCullough, James P Choi, Georges A Feghali, Jeffrey M Schussler, Robert M Stoler, Ravi C Vallabahn, Ankit Mehta
Coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention rely on the use of iodinated intravascular contrast for vessel and chamber imaging. Despite advancements in imaging and interventional techniques, iodinated contrast continues to pose a risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) for a subgroup of patients at risk for this complication. There has been a consistent and graded signal of risk for associated outcomes including need for renal replacement therapy, rehospitalization, and death, according to the incidence and severity of CI-AKI...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
James McCaffrey, Ajaya Kumar Dhakal, David V Milford, Nicholas J A Webb, Rachel Lennon
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in children admitted to hospital and existing serum and urine biomarkers are insensitive. There have been significant developments in stratifying the risk of AKI in children and also in the identification of new AKI biomarkers. Risk stratification coupled with a panel of AKI biomarkers will improve future detection of AKI, however, paediatric validation studies in mixed patient cohorts are required. The principles of effective management rely on treating the underlying cause and preventing secondary AKI by the appropriate use of fluids and medication...
August 5, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Thomas F Patterson, George R Thompson, David W Denning, Jay A Fishman, Susan Hadley, Raoul Herbrecht, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Kieren A Marr, Vicki A Morrison, M Hong Nguyen, Brahm H Segal, William J Steinbach, David A Stevens, Thomas J Walsh, John R Wingard, Jo-Anne H Young, John E Bennett
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
August 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul, Naichaya Chamroonkul, Disaya Chavalitdhamrong
Bacterial infection is common and accounts for major morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are immunocompromised and increased susceptibility to develop spontaneous bacterial infections, hospital-acquired infections, and a variety of infections from uncommon pathogens. Once infection develops, the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines on a pre-existing hemodynamic dysfunction in cirrhosis further predispose the development of serious complications such as shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure, renal failure, and death...
February 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Marcello Di Nisio, Nick van Es, Harry R Büller
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer testing. Imaging and anticoagulation can be safely withheld in patients who are unlikely to have venous thromboembolism and have a normal D-dimer. All other patients should undergo ultrasonography in case of suspected deep vein thrombosis and CT in case of suspected pulmonary embolism...
June 30, 2016: Lancet
Alexander Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Boris Böll, Matthias Kochanek, Éli Azoulay, Michael S von Bergwelt-Baildon
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The increasing prevalence of patients living with cancer in conjunction with the rapid progress in cancer therapy will lead to a growing number of patients with cancer who will require intensive care treatment. Fortunately, the development of more effective oncologic therapies, advances in critical care, and improvements in patient selection have led to an increased survival of critically ill patients with cancer. As a consequence, critical care has become an important cornerstone in the continuum of modern cancer care...
June 27, 2016: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Michael Auerbach, John W Adamson
It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is anemic, the majority being due to iron deficiency (ID). In adults, ID is associated with fatigue in the absence of anemia, restless legs syndrome, pica and, in neonates, delayed growth and development. In adolescents, ID is associated with decrements in learning and behavioral abnormalities. In the absence of a clear cause, search for a source of bleeding is indicated. No single test is diagnostic of ID unless the serum ferritin is low or the percent transferrin saturation is low with an elevated total iron binding capacity...
January 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Alan G Japp, Ankur Gulati, Stuart A Cook, Martin R Cowie, Sanjay K Prasad
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is best understood as the final common response of myocardium to diverse genetic and environmental insults. A rigorous work-up can exclude alternative causes of left ventricular (LV) dilation and dysfunction, identify etiologies that may respond to specific treatments, and guide family screening. A significant proportion of DCM cases have an underlying genetic or inflammatory basis. Measurement of LV size and ejection fraction remain central to diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment, but other aspects of cardiac remodeling inform prognosis and carry therapeutic implications...
June 28, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Yasuhiro Kuroda
This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Sumeet Reddy, Laurence Weinberg, Paul Young
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency medicine 2016. Other selected articles can be found online at Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Xinfang Xie, Emily Atkins, Jicheng Lv, Alexander Bennett, Bruce Neal, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Mark Woodward, Stephen MacMahon, Fiona Turnbull, Graham S Hillis, John Chalmers, Jonathan Mant, Abdul Salam, Kazem Rahimi, Vlado Perkovic, Anthony Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Recent hypertension guidelines have reversed previous recommendations for lower blood pressure targets in high-risk patients, such as those with cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or diabetes. This change represents uncertainty about whether more intensive blood pressure-lowering strategies are associated with greater reductions in risk of major cardiovascular and renal events. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of intensive blood pressure-lowering strategies. METHODS: For this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, we systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for trials published between Jan 1, 1950, and Nov 3, 2015...
January 30, 2016: Lancet
Mark H Ebell, Marlene Call, JoAnna Shinholser, Jack Gardner
IMPORTANCE: Early, accurate diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis can help clinicians target treatment, avoid antibiotics, and provide an accurate prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding the value of the clinical examination and white blood cell count for the diagnosis of mononucleosis. DATA SOURCES: The databases of PubMed (from 1966-2016) and EMBASE (from 1947-2015) were searched and a total of 670 articles and abstracts were reviewed for eligibility...
April 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Eric M Liotta, Kimberly E Levasseur-Franklin, Andrew M Naidech
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the available data related to reversing the anticoagulant effect of the oral direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors and provide our opinion on treating patients presenting with severe and life-threatening hemorrhage related to these agents. RECENT FINDINGS: No specific antidotes are currently available for the oral direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors but two promising agents are under investigation in phase 3 trials. No data are available on reversing these agents in bleeding patients...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Claire Masterson, Gail Otulakowski, Brian P Kavanagh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple clinical and laboratory studies have been conducted to illustrate the effects of hypercapnia in a range of injuries, and to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. The aim of this review is to highlight and interpret information obtained from these recent reports and discuss how they may inform the clinical context. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last decade, several important articles have addressed key elements of how carbon dioxide interacts in critical illness states...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Luciano Gattinoni, Michael Quintel
The Berlin definition criteria applied at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cm H2O reasonably predict lung edema and recruitabilty. To maintain viable gas exchange, the mechanical ventilation becomes progressively more risky going from mild to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Tidal volume, driving pressure, flow, and respiratory rate have been identified as causes of ventilation-induced lung injury. Taken together, they represent the mechanical power applied to the lung parenchyma...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Willem-Jan M Schellekens, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Jonne Doorduin, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Gert Jan Scheffer, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Leo M A Heunks
Respiratory muscle dysfunction may develop rapidly in critically ill ventilated patients and is associated with increased morbidity, length of intensive care unit stay, costs, and mortality. This review briefly discusses the pathophysiology of respiratory muscle dysfunction in intensive care unit patients and then focuses on strategies that prevent the development of muscle weakness or, if weakness has developed, how respiratory muscle function may be improved. We propose a simple strategy for how these can be implemented in clinical care...
April 19, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Yasuyuki Kakihana, Takashi Ito, Mayumi Nakahara, Keiji Yamaguchi, Tomotsugu Yasuda
Sepsis is aggravated by an inappropriate immune response to invading microorganisms, which occasionally leads to multiple organ failure. Several lines of evidence suggest that the ventricular myocardium is depressed during sepsis with features of diastolic dysfunction. Potential candidates responsible for septic cardiomyopathy include pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), cytokines, and nitric oxide. Extracellular histones and high-mobility group box 1 that function as endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) also contribute to the myocardial dysfunction associated with sepsis...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Kent Doi
Kidney injury, including acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), has become very common in critically ill patients treated in ICUs. Many epidemiological studies have revealed significant associations of AKI and CKD with poor outcomes of high mortality and medical costs. Although many basic studies have clarified the possible mechanisms of sepsis and septic AKI, translation of the obtained findings to clinical settings has not been successful to date. No specific drug against human sepsis or AKI is currently available...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
2016-06-23 02:56:55
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