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A Repository for Review Articles

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70 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Varun Shetty A Med-Peds resident
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034871/how-i-evaluate-and-treat-thrombocytopenia-in-the-intensive-care-unit-patient
#1
REVIEW
Andreas Greinacher, Sixten Selleng
Multiple causes (pseudothrombocytopenia, hemodilution, increased consumption, decreased production, increased sequestration, and immune-mediated destruction of platelets) alone or in combination make thrombocytopenia very common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Persisting thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients is associated with, but not causative of, increased mortality. Identification of the underlying cause is key for management decisions in individual patients. While platelet transfusion might be indicated in patients with impaired platelet production or increased platelet destruction, it could be deleterious in patients with increased intravascular platelet activation...
December 29, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013206/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-diagnosis-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Bernard Thong, Nancy J Olsen
SLE presents many challenges for clinicians. The onset of disease may be insidious, with many different symptoms and signs, making early and accurate diagnosis challenging. Tests for SLE in the early stages lack specificity; those that are useful later often appear only after organ damage is manifest. Disease patterns are highly variable; flares are not predictable and not always associated with biomarkers. Children with SLE may have severe disease and present special management issues. Older SLE patients have complicating co-morbid conditions...
December 24, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522622/lactic-acidosis-an-update
#3
Jansen Seheult, Gerard Fitzpatrick, Gerard Boran
Lactate is one of the most crucial intermediates in carbohydrate and nonessential amino acid metabolism. The complexity of cellular interactions and metabolism means that lactate can be considered a waste product for one cell but a useful substrate for another. The presence of elevated lactate levels in critically ill patients has important implications for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the metabolism of lactate, the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis, the clinical significance of D-lactate, the role of lactate measurement in acutely ill patients, the methods used to measure lactate in blood or plasma and some of the methodological issues related to interferences in these assays, especially in the case of ethylene glycol poisoning...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029394/non-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-a-clinical-approach%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-evaluation
#4
Mandana Rastegar, Glenn T Nagami
Acid-base disturbances can result from kidney or nonkidney disorders. We present a case of high-volume ileostomy output causing large bicarbonate losses and resulting in a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis. Non-anion gap metabolic acidosis can present as a form of either acute or chronic metabolic acidosis. A complete clinical history and physical examination are critical initial steps to begin the evaluation process, followed by measuring serum electrolytes with a focus on potassium level, blood gas, urine pH, and either direct or indirect urine ammonium concentration...
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992852/paracetamol-in-fever-in-critically-ill-patients-an-update
#5
REVIEW
D Chiumello, M Gotti, G Vergani
Fever, which is arbitrary defined as an increase in body temperature above 38.3°C, can affect up to 90% of patients admitted in intensive care unit. Induction of fever is mediated by the release of pyrogenic cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and interferons). Fever is associated with increased length of stay in intensive care unit and with a worse outcome in some subgroups of patients (mainly neurocritically ill patients). Although fever can increase oxygen consumption in unstable patients, on the contrary, it can activate physiologic systems that are involved in pathogens clearance...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993382/syphilis
#6
REVIEW
Edward W Hook
Syphilis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Treponema pallidum that is endemic in low-income countries and and occurs at lower rates in middle-income and high-income countries. The disease is of both individual and public health importance and, in addition to its direct morbidity, increases risk of HIV infection and can cause lifelong morbidity in children born to infected mothers. Without treatment the disease can progress over years through a series of clinical stages and lead to irreversible neurological or cardiovascular complications...
December 16, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875032/management-of-renal-failure-in-end-stage-liver-disease-a-critical-appraisal
#7
REVIEW
Xingxing S Cheng, Jane C Tan, W Ray Kim
Renal failure is a late consequence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Even with liver transplantation, pretransplant renal impairment remains a strong predictor of posttransplant mortality. This review seeks to summarize and critically appraise common therapies used in this setting, including pharmacologic agents, procedures (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, renal replacement therapy), and simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. More experimental extracorporal modalities, eg, albumin dialysis or bioartificial livers, will not be discussed...
December 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914657/ulcerative-colitis
#8
REVIEW
Ryan Ungaro, Saurabh Mehandru, Patrick B Allen, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Jean-Frédéric Colombel
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the colon, and its incidence is rising worldwide. The pathogenesis is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulated immune responses, and environmental factors. Patients with ulcerative colitis have mucosal inflammation starting in the rectum that can extend continuously to proximal segments of the colon. Ulcerative colitis usually presents with bloody diarrhoea and is diagnosed by colonoscopy and histological findings...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790273/clinical-practice-guideline-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Young-Jae Cho, Jae Young Moon, Ein-Soon Shin, Je Hyeong Kim, Hoon Jung, So Young Park, Ho Cheol Kim, Yun Su Sim, Chin Kook Rhee, Jaemin Lim, Seok Jeong Lee, Won-Yeon Lee, Hyun Jeong Lee, Sang Hyun Kwak, Eun Kyeong Kang, Kyung Soo Chung, Won-Il Choi
There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408698/mechanisms-of-low-back-pain-a-guide-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Massimo Allegri, Silvana Montella, Fabiana Salici, Adriana Valente, Maurizio Marchesini, Christian Compagnone, Marco Baciarello, Maria Elena Manferdini, Guido Fanelli
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a chronic pain syndrome in the lower back region, lasting for at least 3 months. CLBP represents the second leading cause of disability worldwide being a major welfare and economic problem. The prevalence of CLBP in adults has increased more than 100% in the last decade and continues to increase dramatically in the aging population, affecting both men and women in all ethnic groups, with a significant impact on functional capacity and occupational activities. It can also be influenced by psychological factors, such as stress, depression and/or anxiety...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807144/clinical-practice-guideline-on-management-of-older-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stage-3b-or-higher-egfr-45-ml-min-1-73-m2
#11
Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic, Fillipo Aucella, Naomi Clyne, Leen de Vos, Andrew Findlay, Denis Fouque, Tomasz Grodzicki, Osasuyi Iyasere, Kitty J Jager, Hanneke Joosten, Juan Florencio Macias, Andrew Mooney, Dorothea Nitsch, Marijke Stryckers, Maarten Taal, James Tattersall, Dieneke Van Asselt, Nele Van den Noortgate, Ionut Nistor, Wim Van Biesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536694/fluid-management-for-critically-ill-patients-a-review-of-the-current-state-of-fluid-therapy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#12
REVIEW
Erin Frazee, Kianoush Kashani
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids (IVF) are frequently utilized to restore intravascular volume in patients with distributive and hypovolemic shock. Although the benefits of the appropriate use of fluids in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospitals are well described, there is growing knowledge regarding the potential risks of volume overload and its impact on organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are developed and utilized more often among ICU patients...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670788/acute-kidney-injury-2016-diagnosis-and-diagnostic-workup
#13
REVIEW
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659469/contrast-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#14
REVIEW
Peter A McCullough, James P Choi, Georges A Feghali, Jeffrey M Schussler, Robert M Stoler, Ravi C Vallabahn, Ankit Mehta
Coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention rely on the use of iodinated intravascular contrast for vessel and chamber imaging. Despite advancements in imaging and interventional techniques, iodinated contrast continues to pose a risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) for a subgroup of patients at risk for this complication. There has been a consistent and graded signal of risk for associated outcomes including need for renal replacement therapy, rehospitalization, and death, according to the incidence and severity of CI-AKI...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496911/recent-developments-in-the-detection-and-management-of-acute-kidney-injury
#15
REVIEW
James McCaffrey, Ajaya Kumar Dhakal, David V Milford, Nicholas J A Webb, Rachel Lennon
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in children admitted to hospital and existing serum and urine biomarkers are insensitive. There have been significant developments in stratifying the risk of AKI in children and also in the identification of new AKI biomarkers. Risk stratification coupled with a panel of AKI biomarkers will improve future detection of AKI, however, paediatric validation studies in mixed patient cohorts are required. The principles of effective management rely on treating the underlying cause and preventing secondary AKI by the appropriate use of fluids and medication...
January 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365388/practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-aspergillosis-2016-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america
#16
Thomas F Patterson, George R Thompson, David W Denning, Jay A Fishman, Susan Hadley, Raoul Herbrecht, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Kieren A Marr, Vicki A Morrison, M Hong Nguyen, Brahm H Segal, William J Steinbach, David A Stevens, Thomas J Walsh, John R Wingard, Jo-Anne H Young, John E Bennett
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
August 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962397/bacterial-infections-in-cirrhosis-a-critical-review-and-practical-guidance
#17
REVIEW
Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul, Naichaya Chamroonkul, Disaya Chavalitdhamrong
Bacterial infection is common and accounts for major morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are immunocompromised and increased susceptibility to develop spontaneous bacterial infections, hospital-acquired infections, and a variety of infections from uncommon pathogens. Once infection develops, the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines on a pre-existing hemodynamic dysfunction in cirrhosis further predispose the development of serious complications such as shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure, renal failure, and death...
February 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375038/deep-vein-thrombosis-and-pulmonary-embolism
#18
REVIEW
Marcello Di Nisio, Nick van Es, Harry R Büller
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer testing. Imaging and anticoagulation can be safely withheld in patients who are unlikely to have venous thromboembolism and have a normal D-dimer. All other patients should undergo ultrasonography in case of suspected deep vein thrombosis and CT in case of suspected pulmonary embolism...
17, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348695/critical-care-of-patients-with-cancer
#19
Alexander Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Boris Böll, Matthias Kochanek, Éli Azoulay, Michael S von Bergwelt-Baildon
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The increasing prevalence of patients living with cancer in conjunction with the rapid progress in cancer therapy will lead to a growing number of patients with cancer who will require intensive care treatment. Fortunately, the development of more effective oncologic therapies, advances in critical care, and improvements in patient selection have led to an increased survival of critically ill patients with cancer. As a consequence, critical care has become an important cornerstone in the continuum of modern cancer care...
June 27, 2016: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26408108/how-we-diagnose-and-treat-iron-deficiency-anemia
#20
REVIEW
Michael Auerbach, John W Adamson
It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is anemic, the majority being due to iron deficiency (ID). In adults, ID is associated with fatigue in the absence of anemia, restless legs syndrome, pica and, in neonates, delayed growth and development. In adolescents, ID is associated with decrements in learning and behavioral abnormalities. In the absence of a clear cause, search for a source of bleeding is indicated. No single test is diagnostic of ID unless the serum ferritin is low or the percent transferrin saturation is low with an elevated total iron binding capacity...
January 2016: American Journal of Hematology
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