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Psychogenomics

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62 papers 100 to 500 followers GWAS? SNP? Psychopharmacogenomics? Gut microbiomes? Metagenomics?
By Edwin Kim Resident Physician, Aspiring Addiction Psychiatrist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240173/personalized-medicine-of-alcohol-addiction-pharmacogenomics-and-beyond
#1
Vangelis George Manolopoulos, Georgia Ragia
Alcohol addiction or alcoholism is the most severe form of problem drinking. A variety of treatment methods for alcoholism are currently available that combine medications, behavioral treatment and peer support. The drugs that are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of alcohol dependence are disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate. For many patients, however, these treatments are not effective. Evidence from a number of different studies suggests that different factors, both psychosocial and economic, as well as genetic variation, are significant contributors to interindividual variation both of clinical presentation of alcohol problems and response to a given treatment...
February 23, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25895022/biomarkers-of-response-to-smoking-cessation-pharmacotherapies-progress-to-date
#2
REVIEW
Michael Mamoun, Andrew W Bergen, Jennifer Shieh, Anna Wiggins, Arthur L Brody
For the past 30 years, research examining predictors of successful smoking cessation treatment response has focused primarily on clinical variables, such as levels of tobacco dependence, craving, and self-efficacy. However, recent research has begun to determine biomarkers (such as genotype, nicotine and metabolite levels, and brain imaging findings) that may have utility in predicting smoking cessation. For genotype, genes associated with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and related proteins have been found to predict response to first-line medications (e...
May 2015: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19219857/genetic-association-studies-of-methamphetamine-use-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-synthesis
#3
REVIEW
Chad A Bousman, Stephen J Glatt, Ian P Everall, Ming T Tsuang
Efforts to understand the biological processes that increase susceptibility to methamphetamine (METH) use disorders (i.e., abuse, dependence, and psychosis) have uncovered several putative genotypic variants. However, to date a synthesis of this information has not been conducted. Thus, systematic searches of the current literature were undertaken for genetic-association studies of METH use disorders. Each gene's chromosomal location, function, and examined polymorphic markers were extracted. Frequencies, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk alleles, as well as sample size and power, were calculated...
December 5, 2009: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861439/trends-in-tramadol-pharmacology-metabolism-and-misuse
#4
REVIEW
Karen Miotto, Arthur K Cho, Mohamed A Khalil, Kirsten Blanco, Jun D Sasaki, Richard Rawson
Tramadol is a unique analgesic medication, available in variety of formulations, with both monoaminergic reuptake inhibitory and opioid receptor agonist activity increasingly prescribed worldwide as an alternative for high-affinity opioid medication in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It is a prodrug that is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to its more potent opioid analgesic metabolites, particularly the O-demethylation product M1. The opioid analgesic potency of a given dose of tramadol is influenced by an individual's CYP genetics, with poor metabolizers experiencing little conversion to the active M1 opioid metabolite and individuals with a high metabolic profile, or ultra-metabolizers, experiencing the greatest opioid analgesic effects...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26441289/million-veteran-program-a-mega-biobank-to-study-genetic-influences-on-health-and-disease
#5
John Michael Gaziano, John Concato, Mary Brophy, Louis Fiore, Saiju Pyarajan, James Breeling, Stacey Whitbourne, Jennifer Deen, Colleen Shannon, Donald Humphries, Peter Guarino, Mihaela Aslan, Daniel Anderson, Rene LaFleur, Timothy Hammond, Kendra Schaa, Jennifer Moser, Grant Huang, Sumitra Muralidhar, Ronald Przygodzki, Timothy J O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: To describe the design and ongoing conduct of the Million Veteran Program (MVP), as an observational cohort study and mega-biobank in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data are being collected from participants using questionnaires, the VA electronic health record, and a blood sample for genomic and other testing. Several ongoing projects are linked to MVP, both as peer-reviewed research studies and as activities to help develop an infrastructure for future, broad-based research uses...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431457/precision-medicine-and-pharmacogenetics-what-does-oncology-have-that-addiction-medicine-does-not
#6
Henry R Kranzler, Rachel V Smith, Robert Schnoll, Afaf Moustafa, Emma Greenstreet-Akman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Precision, personalized or stratified medicine, which promises to deliver the right treatment to the right patient, is a topic of international interest in both the lay press and the scientific literature. A key aspect of precision medicine is the identification of biomarkers that predict the response to medications (i.e. pharmacogenetics). We examined why, despite the great strides that have been made in biomarker identification in many areas of medicine, only in oncology has there been substantial progress in their clinical implementation...
April 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217151/mood-stress-and-longevity-convergence-on-ank3
#7
S Rangaraju, D F Levey, K Nho, N Jain, K D Andrews, H Le-Niculescu, D R Salomon, A J Saykin, M Petrascheck, A B Niculescu
Antidepressants have been shown to improve longevity in C. elegans. It is plausible that orthologs of genes involved in mood regulation and stress response are involved in such an effect. We sought to understand the underlying biology. First, we analyzed the transcriptome from worms treated with the antidepressant mianserin, previously identified in a large-scale unbiased drug screen as promoting increased lifespan in worms. We identified the most robust treatment-related changes in gene expression, and identified the corresponding human orthologs...
August 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134463/review-pharmacogenetics-of-alcoholism-treatment-implications-of-ethnic-diversity
#8
Anita Cservenka, Megan M Yardley, Lara A Ray
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pharmacogenetic studies of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have suggested that the efficacy of treatments for AUD is, in part, influenced by the genetic background of an individual. Since the frequency of alleles associated with pharmacotherapy for AUD varies by ancestral background, the effectiveness of medications used to treat AUD may vary among different populations. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing pharmacogenetic studies of treatments for AUD in individuals of European, East Asian, African, and American Indian/Alaska Native ancestry...
November 4, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248224/the-role-of-clinical-proteomics-lipidomics-and-genomics-in-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Ian James Martins
The early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become important to the reversal and treatment of neurodegeneration, which may be relevant to premature brain aging that is associated with chronic disease progression. Clinical proteomics allows the detection of various proteins in fluids such as the urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of AD. Interest in lipidomics has accelerated with plasma testing for various lipid biomarkers that may with clinical proteomics provide a more reproducible diagnosis for early brain aging that is connected to other chronic diseases...
March 31, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053341/gut-brain-axis-in-2016-brain-gut-microbiota-axis-mood-metabolism-and-behaviour
#10
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25640677/joint-analysis-of-psychiatric-disorders-increases-accuracy-of-risk-prediction-for-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Robert Maier, Gerhard Moser, Guo-Bo Chen, Stephan Ripke, William Coryell, James B Potash, William A Scheftner, Jianxin Shi, Myrna M Weissman, Christina M Hultman, Mikael Landén, Douglas F Levinson, Kenneth S Kendler, Jordan W Smoller, Naomi R Wray, S Hong Lee
Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk prediction is low. Here we use a multivariate linear mixed model and apply multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction for genetic risk prediction. This method exploits correlations between disorders and simultaneously evaluates individual risk for each disorder...
February 5, 2015: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24247043/further-evidence-for-the-impact-of-a-genome-wide-supported-psychosis-risk-variant-in-znf804a-on-the-theory-of-mind-network
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sebastian Mohnke, Susanne Erk, Knut Schnell, Claudia Schütz, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Oliver Grimm, Leila Haddad, Lydia Pöhland, Maria Garbusow, Mike M Schmitgen, Peter Kirsch, Christine Esslinger, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Markus M Nöthen, Sven Cichon, Manuel Mattheisen, Thomas Mühleisen, Jimmy Jensen, Björn H Schott, Wolfgang Maier, Andreas Heinz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Henrik Walter
The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 in ZNF804A is one of the best-supported risk variants for psychosis. We hypothesized that this SNP contributes to the development of schizophrenia by affecting the ability to understand other people's mental states. This skill, commonly referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM), has consistently been found to be impaired in schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously showed that in healthy individuals rs1344706 impacted on activity and connectivity of key areas of the ToM network, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and the posterior cingulate cortex, which show aberrant activity in schizophrenia patients, too...
April 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25726949/negative-and-paranoid-symptoms-are-associated-with-negative-performance-beliefs-and-social-cognition-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#13
Maude Schneider, Martial Van der Linden, Sarah Menghetti, Martin Debbané, Stephan Eliez
AIMS: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a neurogenetic condition associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Previous studies have shown that negative symptoms represent the most specific clinical characteristic of psychosis in 22q11.2DS and are strongly associated with outcome. However, the psychological mechanisms associated with these symptoms in this population are poorly understood. In accordance with recent conceptualizations in the field of schizophrenia, the present study aims at investigating whether negative symptoms are associated with the presence of negative performance beliefs and cognitive deficits...
April 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25714000/large-scale-candidate-gene-study-to-identify-genetic-risk-factors-predictive-of-paliperidone-treatment-response-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Dai Wang, Dong-Jing Fu, Xiaodong Wu, Alice Shapiro, Reyna Favis, Adam Savitz, Hedy Chung, Larry Alphs, Srihari Gopal, Magali Haas, Nadine Cohen, Qingqin Li
OBJECTIVE: Clinical response to antipsychotic medications can vary markedly in patients with schizophrenia. Identifying genetic variants associated with treatment response could help optimize patient care and outcome. To this end, we carried out a large-scale candidate gene study to identify genetic risk factors predictive of paliperidone efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A central nervous system custom chip containing single nucleotide polymorphisms from 1204 candidate genes was utilized to genotype a discovery cohort of 684 schizophrenia patients from four clinical studies of paliperidone extended-release and paliperidone palmitate...
April 2015: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25560537/genetic-testing-and-fda-regulation-overregulation-threatens-the-emergence-of-genomic-medicine
#15
James P Evans, Michael S Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25689247/gut-brain-axis-and-the-microbiota
#16
REVIEW
Emeran A Mayer, Kirsten Tillisch, Arpana Gupta
Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems...
March 2, 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24372835/pilot-investigation-of-isradipine-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-depression-motivated-by-genome-wide-association
#17
Michael J Ostacher, Dan V Iosifescu, Aleena Hay, Sarah R Blumenthal, Pamela Sklar, Roy H Perlis
OBJECTIVES: Motivated by genetic association data implicating L-type calcium channels in bipolar disorder liability, we sought to estimate the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of isradipine in the adjunctive treatment of bipolar depression. METHODS: A total of 12 patients with bipolar I or II depression entered this pilot, proof-of-concept eight-week investigation and 10 returned for at least one post-baseline visit. They were initiated on isradipine at 2.5 mg and titrated up to 10 mg daily, with blinded assessments of depression using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as well as adverse effects...
March 2014: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25272014/a-breakthrough-in-schizophrenia-genetics
#18
Kenneth S Kendler, Michael C O'Donovan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2014: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25562672/seasonality-shows-evidence-for-polygenic-architecture-and-genetic-correlation-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#19
Enda M Byrne, Uttam K Raheja, Sarah H Stephens, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden, Dipika Vaswani, Gagan V Nijjar, Kathleen A Ryan, Hassaan Youssufi, Philip R Gehrman, Alan R Shuldiner, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Naomi R Wray, Elliot C Nelson, Braxton D Mitchell, Teodor T Postolache
OBJECTIVE: To test common genetic variants for association with seasonality (seasonal changes in mood and behavior) and to investigate whether there are shared genetic risk factors between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. METHOD: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were conducted in Australian (between 1988 and 1990 and between 2010 and 2013) and Amish (between May 2010 and December 2011) samples in whom the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) had been administered, and the results were meta-analyzed in a total sample of 4,156 individuals...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25424661/examining-the-role-of-common-genetic-variants-on-alcohol-tobacco-cannabis-and-illicit-drug-dependence-genetics-of-vulnerability-to-drug-dependence
#20
Rohan H C Palmer, Leslie Brick, Nicole R Nugent, L Cinnamon Bidwell, John E McGeary, Valerie S Knopik, Matthew C Keller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Twin and family studies suggest that genetic influences are shared across substances of abuse. However, despite evidence of heritability, genome-wide association and candidate gene studies have indicated numerous markers of limited effects, suggesting that much of the heritability remains missing. We estimated (1) the aggregate effect of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on multiple indicators of comorbid drug problems that are typically employed across community and population-based samples, and (2) the genetic covariance across these measures...
March 2015: Addiction
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