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Sports nutrition

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By Howie Real Anesthetist
Jose Antonio, Anya Ellerbroek, Tobin Silver, Steve Orris, Max Scheiner, Adriana Gonzalez, Corey A Peacock
BACKGROUND: The consumption of a high protein diet (>4 g/kg/d) in trained men and women who did not alter their exercise program has been previously shown to have no significant effect on body composition. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if a high protein diet in conjunction with a periodized heavy resistance training program would affect indices of body composition, performance and health. METHODS: Forty-eight healthy resistance-trained men and women completed this study (mean ± SD; Normal Protein group [NP n = 17, four female and 13 male]: 24...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Paola Frati, Francesco P Busardò, Luigi Cipolloni, Enrico De Dominicis, Vittorio Fineschi
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA...
January 2015: Current Neuropharmacology
M P Schwellnus
Exercise Associated Muscle Cramps (EAMC) is one of the most common conditions that require medical attention during or immediately after sports events. Despite the high prevalence of this condition the aetiology of EAMC in athletes is still not well understood. The purpose of this review is to examine current scientific evidence in support of (1) the "electrolyte depletion" and "dehydration" hypotheses and (2) the "altered neuromuscular control" hypothesis in the aetiology of EAMC. In this review, scientific evidence will, as far as possible, be presented using evidence-based medicine criteria...
June 2009: British Journal of Sports Medicine
I Heinonen, P Rinne, S T Ruohonen, S Ruohonen, M Ahotupa, E Savontaus
AIM: Nutrition contributes to increased adiposity, but it remains to be determined whether high fat rather than Western diet exacerbates the development of obesity and other characteristics of metabolic syndrome and vascular function. METHODS: We studied the effects of high fat (45% kcal) diet (HFD) and equal caloric Western diet (WD) high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 8 weeks in male C57B1/6N mice. RESULTS: Mice fed with HFD and WD showed substantially higher body adiposity (body fat %) compared with control mice receiving low fat (10%) diet (LFD)...
July 2014: Acta Physiologica
Anouk Funke, Marijke Schreurs, Marcela Aparicio-Vergara, Fareeba Sheedfar, Nanda Gruben, Niels J Kloosterhuis, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov, Albert K Groen, Bart van de Sluis, Marten H Hofker, Debby P Y Koonen
OBJECTIVE: It is generally assumed that hepatic inflammation in obesity is linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Several recent studies have shed doubt on this view, which questions the causality of this association. This study focuses on Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic inflammation as a possible driver of insulin resistance in the absence and presence of obesity. METHODS: We used male mice deficient for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr(-/-)) and susceptible to cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation...
February 2014: Atherosclerosis
Nicolas Babault, Gaëlle Deley, Pascale Le Ruyet, François Morgan, François André Allaert
BACKGROUND: The effects of protein supplementation on muscle thickness, strength and fatigue seem largely dependent on its composition. The current study compared the effects of soluble milk protein, micellar casein, and a placebo on strength and fatigue during and after a resistance training program. METHODS: Sixty-eight physically active men participated in this randomized controlled trial and underwent 10 weeks of lower-body resistance training. Participants were randomly assigned to the Placebo (PLA), Soluble Milk Protein (SMP, with fast digestion rate) or Micellar Casein (MC, with slow digestion rate) group...
2014: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Matthew Stark, Judith Lukaszuk, Aimee Prawitz, Amanda Salacinski
The purpose of this review was to determine whether past research provides conclusive evidence about the effects of type and timing of ingestion of specific sources of protein by those engaged in resistance weight training. Two essential, nutrition-related, tenets need to be followed by weightlifters to maximize muscle hypertrophy: the consumption of 1.2-2.0 g -1 of body weight, and ≥44-50 of body weight. Researchers have tested the effects of timing of protein supplement ingestion on various physical changes in weightlifters...
2012: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Alan Albert Aragon, Brad Jon Schoenfeld
Nutrient timing is a popular nutritional strategy that involves the consumption of combinations of nutrients--primarily protein and carbohydrate--in and around an exercise session. Some have claimed that this approach can produce dramatic improvements in body composition. It has even been postulated that the timing of nutritional consumption may be more important than the absolute daily intake of nutrients. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutrient timing. Theoretically, consuming the proper ratio of nutrients during this time not only initiates the rebuilding of damaged muscle tissue and restoration of energy reserves, but it Does So in a supercompensated fashion that enhances both body composition and exercise performance...
January 29, 2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Abbas Meamarbashi, Ali Rajabi
BACKGROUND: Enhancing athletic performance is a great desire among the athletes, coaches and researchers. Mint is one of the most famous natural herbs used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and vasoconstrictor effects. Even though inhaling mint aroma in athletes has been investigated, there were no significant effects on the exercise performance. METHODS: Twelve healthy male students every day consumed one 500 ml bottle of mineral water, containing 0...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Jose Antonio, Victoria Ciccone
BACKGROUND: Chronic supplementation with creatine monohydrate has been shown to promote increases in total intramuscular creatine, phosphocreatine, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and muscle fiber size. Furthermore, there is robust evidence that muscular strength and power will also increase after supplementing with creatine. However, it is not known if the timing of creatine supplementation will affect the adaptive response to exercise. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference between pre versus post exercise supplementation of creatine on measures of body composition and strength...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Vandré Casagrande Figueiredo, David Cameron-Smith
It is now well established that protein supplementation after resistance exercise promotes increased muscle protein synthesis, which ultimately results in greater net muscle accretion, relative to exercise alone or exercise with supplementary carbohydrate ingestion. However, it is not known whether combining carbohydrate with protein produces a greater anabolic response than protein alone. Recent recommendations have been made that the composition of the ideal supplement post-exercise would be a combination of a protein source with a high glycemic index carbohydrate...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Rodrigo Vitasovic Gomes, Caroline Dario Capitani, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Michael Christopher Zourdos, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion may be an interesting approach to avoid significant decrement to the tennis match performance. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the effects of CHO supplementation on tennis match play performance. METHODS: Twelve young tennis players (18.0 ± 1.0 years; 176 ± 3.4 cm; 68.0 ± 2.3 kg; body fat: 13.7 ± 2.4%) with national rankings among the top 50 in Brazil agreed to participate in this study, which utilized a randomized, crossover, double blind research design...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Surabhi Bhutani, Monica C Klempel, Cynthia M Kroeger, Eleanor Aggour, Yolian Calvo, John F Trepanowski, Kristin K Hoddy, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Alternate day fasting combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the behavioral adaptations that occur when ADF is combined with exercise, and to determine how these changes affect weight loss. DESIGN: Obese subjects (n = 64) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups: 1) combination (ADF + endurance exercise), 2) ADF, 3) exercise, or 4) control, for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Body weight decreased (P < 0...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Lydia Williamson, David New
Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal...
2014: BMJ Case Reports
Corbin Griffen, David Rogerson, Mayur Ranchordas, Alan Ruddock
This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions...
June 2015: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Dallon T Lamarche, Robert D Meade, Ryan McGinn, Martin P Poirier, Brian J Friesen, Glen P Kenny
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ingested water temperature on heat balance during exercise as assessed by direct calorimetry. METHODS: Ten healthy males (25 ± 4 yr) cycled at 50% V˙O2peak (equivalent rate of metabolic heat production (M-W) of 523 ± 84 W) for 75 min under thermocomfortable conditions (25°C, 25% relative humidity) while consuming either hot (50°C) or cold (1.5°C) water. Four 3.2 mL·kg⁻¹ boluses of hot or cold water were consumed 5 min before and at 15, 30, and 45 min after the onset of exercise...
June 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Eric R Helms, Alan A Aragon, Peter J Fitschen
The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate...
2014: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Lonnie M Lowery
The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits...
September 2004: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
B Pramuková, V Szabadosová, A Soltésová
The scientific literature contains an abundance of information on the nutritional demands of athletes. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult.The principal aim of this article is to summarize knowledge about sports nutrition, especially the intake of macronutrients and dietary supplements.
2011: Australasian Medical Journal
Gary Slater, Stuart M Phillips
Strength and power athletes are primarily interested in enhancing power relative to body weight and thus almost all undertake some form of resistance training. While athletes may periodically attempt to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy, key nutritional issues are broader than those pertinent to hypertrophy and include an appreciation of the sports supplement industry, the strategic timing of nutrient intake to maximize fuelling and recovery objectives, plus achievement of pre-competition body mass requirements...
2011: Journal of Sports Sciences
2014-09-20 07:42:39
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