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Kidney Imaging

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62 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Isabel Acosta-Ochoa Nephrology senior staff. Valladolid. Spain
Andrew M Hall, Claus D Schuh, Dominik Haenni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravital imaging with multiphoton microscopy enables the detailed study of dynamic cellular processes within functioning organs in living animals, in ways that would not otherwise be possible. It therefore represents a powerful tool in translational kidney research. In this article, we will discuss several new technical developments that have significantly increased the capabilities of kidney imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Important contemporary advances in biomedical imaging technology include longer wavelength excitation lasers, far-red emitting fluorescent reporters, highly sensitive detectors, fluorescence lifetime measurements, adaptive optics, microendoscopes, high-throughput automated analysis algorithms and tissue clearing techniques...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Ling Wang, Chandra Mohan
This article reviews the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in gauging renal microvascular perfusion in diverse renal diseases. The unique nature of the contrast agents used in CEUS provides real-time and quantitative imaging of the vasculature. In addition to the traditional use of CEUS for evaluation of kidney masses, it also emerges as a safe and effective imaging approach to assess microvascular perfusion in diffuse renal lesions, non-invasively. Although the precise CEUS parameters that may best predict disease still warrant systematic evaluation, animal models and limited clinical trials in humans raise hopes that CEUS could outcompete competing modalities as a first-line tool for assessing renal perfusion non-invasively, even in ailments such as acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
Yu-Zhe Cai, Zhi-Cheng Li, Pan-Li Zuo, Josef Pfeuffer, Yu-Ming Li, Fang Liu, Rong-Bo Liu
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of 3D arterial spin labeling (ASL) for noninvasive quantification of renal blood flow (RBF) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CKD patients (n = 27) and healthy volunteers (n = 36) underwent renal 3T ASL magnetic resonance imaging, with inversion times from 1200 to 2000 msec for volunteers in the preliminary test, and 1800 to 2000 msec for volunteers and CKD patients in the formal experiments...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Leonardo Spatola, Simeone Andrulli
Doppler ultrasound has been extensively used in detecting reno-vascular diseases, showing to be a non-invasive, safe, low cost and repeatable tool. The Renal Resistive Index (RRI) [(peak systolic velocity - end diastolic velocity)/peak systolic velocity] is a semi-quantitative index derived by Doppler evaluation of renal vascular bed. Normally RRI is in the range of 0.47-0.70, it increases with aging and, usually, it shows a difference between the two kidneys less than 5-8 %. RRI is an important prognostic marker in chronic kidney diseases (CKD), both in diabetic and non-diabetic kidney diseases, because, in longitudinal prospective studies, it significantly correlated with hemodynamic (ABPM, SBP, DBP, pulse pressure) and histopathological parameters (glomerular sclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, interstitial infiltration)...
December 2016: Journal of Ultrasound
Maria Boddi
Ultrasound (US) allows the non-invasive evaluation of morphological changes of kidney structure (by means of B-Mode) and patterns of renal and extrarenal vascularization (by means of color-Doppler and contrast-enhanced US). In hypertensive subjects it offers a relevant contribution to the diagnosis of early renal damage, acute or chronic nephropathies and nephrovascular disease. However, morphological changes are often detected late and non-specific and in recent years evidence has increased regarding the clinical relevance of renal resistive index (RRI) for the study of vascular and renal parenchymal renal abnormalities...
December 14, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mario Meola, Federico Nalesso, Ilaria Petrucci, Sara Samoni, Claudio Ronco
Kidneys' imaging provides useful information in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and management. Today, several imaging techniques give information on kidneys anatomy, urinary obstruction, differential diagnosis between AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Ultrasound is a safe, non-invasive and repeatable imaging technique so it is widely used in the first level work-up of AKI. The utility of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in AKI or in AKI during CKD is limited because of renal toxicity associated with contrast agents used...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Mario Meola, Sara Samoni, Ilaria Petrucci
Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the most important manifestations of end-stage kidneys' structural changes. ACKD is caused by kidney damage or scarring and it is characterized by the presence of small, multiple cortical and medullary cysts filled with a fluid similar to preurine. ACKD prevalence varies according to predialysis and dialysis age and its pathogenesis is unknown, although it is stated that progressive destruction of renal tissue induces hypertrophy/compensatory hyperplasia of residual nephrons and may trigger the degenerative process...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Hazel H Szeto, Shaoyi Liu, Yi Soong, Surya V Seshan, Leona Cohen-Gould, Viacheslav Manichev, Leonard C Feldman, Torgny Gustafsson
The innate immune system has been implicated in both AKI and CKD. Damaged mitochondria release danger molecules, such as reactive oxygen species, DNA, and cardiolipin, which can cause NLRP3 inflammasome activation and upregulation of IL-18 and IL-1β It is not known if mitochondrial damage persists long after ischemia to sustain chronic inflammasome activation. We conducted a 9-month study in Sprague-Dawley rats after 45 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia. We detected glomerular and peritubular capillary rarefaction, macrophage infiltration, and fibrosis at 1 month...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Noriko Uesugi, Yoshihito Shimazu, Kazunori Kikuchi, Michio Nagata
The renal microvasculature is targeted during aging, sometimes producing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Overdiagnosis of CKD in older persons is concerning. To prevent it, a new concept of "healthy aging" is arising from a healthy renal donor study. We investigated the renal microcirculatory changes of three older persons and compared them with that of one patient with nephrosclerosis using a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique that we previously developed. This method uses a virtual slide system and paraffin-embedded serial sections of surgical material that was double-immunostained by anti-CD34 and anti-α smooth muscle actin (SMA) antibodies for detecting endothelial cells and medial smooth muscle cells, respectively...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mustafa Yaprak, Özgür Çakır, Mehmet Nuri Turan, Ramazan Dayanan, Selçuk Akın, Elif Değirmen, Mustafa Yıldırım, Faruk Turgut
PURPOSE: Ultrasonography (US) is an inexpensive, noninvasive and easy imaging procedure to comment on the kidney disease. Data are limited about the relation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) and all 3 renal US parameters, including kidney length, parenchymal thickness and parenchymal echogenicity, in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between e-GFR and ultrasonographic CKD score calculated via these ultrasonographic parameters...
October 28, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Jean-Michel Correas, Dany Anglicheau, Dominique Joly, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Mickael Tanter, Olivier Hélénon
In recent years, several novel ultrasound (US)-based techniques have emerged for kidney diagnostic imaging, including tissue stiffness assessment with elastography, Ultrasensitive Doppler techniques, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to assess renal microvascularization. Renal elastography has become available with the development of noninvasive quantitative techniques, following the rapidly growing field of liver fibrosis diagnosis. With the increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, noninvasive diagnosis of renal fibrosis can be of critical value...
December 2016: Kidney International
Luke Xie, Kevin M Bennett, Chunlei Liu, G Allan Johnson, Jeff Lei Zhang, Vivian S Lee
MRI can provide excellent detail of renal structure and function. Recently, novel MR contrast mechanisms and imaging tools have been developed to evaluate microscopic kidney structures including the tubules and glomeruli. Quantitative MRI can assess local tubular function and is able to determine the concentrating mechanism of the kidney noninvasively in real time. Measuring single nephron function is now a near possibility. In parallel to advancing imaging techniques for kidney microstructure is a need to carefully understand the relationship between the local source of MRI contrast and the underlying physiological change...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Ileana Peride, Daniela Rădulescu, Andrei Niculae, Vladimir Ene, Ovidiu Gabriel Bratu, Ionel Alexandru Checheriță
In the last decade, ultrasound elastography, an already widely used technique in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis, has raised the attention of nephrologists as a potential valuable noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of renal fibrosis. Due to renal deep location and anatomic complexity, the shear wave techniques are the most appropriate elastography methods for exploring native kidneys. Recent research offers promising results, but further larger studies are required for a better standardization of this method and also for establishing reference values of normal kidney elasticity...
September 2016: Medical Ultrasonography
Trygve Syversveen, Knut Brabrand, Karsten Midtvedt, Erik H Strøm, Anders Hartmann, Jarl A Jakobsen, Audun E Berstad
Chronic allograft nephropathy characterized by interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy is a major cause of renal transplant failure. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification is a promising noninvasive method for assessing tissue stiffness. We evaluated if the method could reveal renal transplant fibrosis. In a prospective study, 30 adult renal transplant recipients were included. ARFI quantification, given as shear wave velocity (SWV), of the renal cortex was performed by two observers. SWV was compared to grade of fibrosis (0-3) in biopsies...
January 2011: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Anika Klingberg, Anja Hasenberg, Isis Ludwig-Portugall, Anna Medyukhina, Linda Männ, Alexandra Brenzel, Daniel R Engel, Marc Thilo Figge, Christian Kurts, Matthias Gunzer
The total number of glomeruli is a fundamental parameter of kidney function but very difficult to determine using standard methodology. Here, we counted all individual glomeruli in murine kidneys and sized the capillary tufts by combining in vivo fluorescence labeling of endothelial cells, a novel tissue-clearing technique, lightsheet microscopy, and automated registration by image analysis. Total hands-on time per organ was <1 hour, and automated counting/sizing was finished in <3 hours. We also investigated the novel use of ethyl-3-phenylprop-2-enoate (ethyl cinnamate) as a nontoxic solvent-based clearing reagent that can be handled without specific safety measures...
February 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Sara Samoni, Federico Nalesso, Mario Meola, Gianluca Villa, Massimo De Cal, Silvia De Rosa, Ilaria Petrucci, Alessandra Brendolan, Mitchell H Rosner, Claudio Ronco
An increase of glomerular filtration rate after protein load represents renal functional reserve (RFR) and is due to afferent arteriolar vasodilation. Lack of RFR may be a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI), but is cumbersome to measure. We sought to develop a non-invasive, bedside method that would indirectly measure RFR. Mechanical abdominal pressure, through compression of renal vessels, decreases blood flow and activates the auto-regulatory mechanism which can be measured by a fall in renal resistive index (RRI)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Keith A Gillis, Christie McComb, Rajan K Patel, Kathryn K Stevens, Markus P Schneider, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Scott T W Morris, Giles H Roditi, Christian Delles, Patrick B Mark
AIMS: Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MRI measures perfusion without administration of contrast agent. While ASL has been validated in animals and healthy volunteers (HVs), application to chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been limited. We investigated the utility of ASL MRI in patients with CKD. METHODS: We studied renal perfusion in 24 HVs and 17 patients with CKD (age 22-77 years, 40% male) using ASL MRI at 3.0T. Kidney function was determined using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
2016: Nephron
Jennifer G Wilson, Kristine E W Breyer
The use of point-of-care ultrasound in the intensive care unit, both for diagnostic and procedural purposes, has rapidly proliferated, and evidence supporting its use is growing. Conceptually, critical care ultrasound (CCUS) should be considered an extension of the physical examination and should not be considered a replacement for formal echocardiography or radiology-performed ultrasound. Several CCUS applications are of particular relevance to nephrologists, including focused renal ultrasound in patients at high risk for urinary tract obstruction, real-time ultrasound guidance and verification during the placement of central venous catheters, and ultrasound-augmented assessment of shock and volume status...
May 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nicolas Grenier, Pierre Merville, Christian Combe
Radiologic imaging has the potential to identify several functional and/or structural biomarkers of acute and chronic kidney diseases that are useful diagnostics to guide patient management. A renal ultrasound examination can provide information regarding the gross anatomy and macrostructure of the renal parenchyma, and ultrasound imaging modalities based on Doppler or elastography techniques can provide haemodynamic and structural information, respectively. CT is also able to combine morphological and functional information, but the use of CT is limited due to the required exposure to X-ray irradiation and a risk of contrast-induced nephropathy following intravenous injection of a radio-contrast agent...
June 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
János Peti-Peterdi, Kengo Kidokoro, Anne Riquier-Brison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to provide a brief summary and evaluation of the current state of research that uses multiphoton fluorescence microscopy for intravital kidney imaging. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct visualization of the glomerular filter, proximal and distal tubule segments, and the renal vasculature in the living, intact kidney in zebrafish, mouse, and rat models with high temporal and spatial resolution provided new insights into the function of the normal and diseased kidney...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
2016-03-27 13:26:22
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