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By Andrew Buelt Questioningmedicine, intern in residency
Kurt Kroenke
Physical symptoms account for more than half of all outpatient visits, yet the predominant disease-focused model of care is inadequate for many of these symptom-prompted encounters. Moreover, the amount of clinician training dedicated to understanding, evaluating, and managing common symptoms is disproportionally small relative to their prevalence, impairment, and health care costs. This narrative review regarding physical symptoms addresses 4 common epidemiologic questions: cause, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy...
October 21, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Brian M Gilfix
Folic acid is an essential nutrient involved in one-carbon metabolism. Insufficient folate can result in megaloblastic anemia and an increased risk of neural tube defects. In response to the latter, some governments have mandated the fortification of flour with folate. This had resulted in a documented rise in the serum and red blood cell folate levels in the population. This has impacted the potential utility of folate measurements to detect folate deficiency in the clinical context. Folate measurements, whether done in serum or red blood cells, are subject to analytical variation, especially the latter, which also affects the utility of such measurements...
May 2014: Clinical Biochemistry
Shlomo Vinker, Eli Krantman, Michal Shani, Sasson Nakar
BACKGROUND: Fortification of cereal products with folic acid is not mandatory in Israel, yet folate deficiency remains rare and is usually associated with poor diet, malabsorption, alcoholism, or use of certain drugs. A retrospective review of all folate level determinations performed between January 2004 and January 2007 in the central district of Clalit Health Services in Israel revealed that only 4.3% of the 43,176 tests ordered were below the norm (5.6 nmol/L). OBJECTIVES: To determine parameters that identify folate-deficient patients without known risk factors and to establish principles that aid the physician in deciding when to order folate determinations...
2013: American Journal of Managed Care
M Javed Ashraf, James R Cook, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: Serum folic acid tests are routinely ordered by physicians for evaluating anemia and sometimes ordered for evaluating dementia and altered mental status. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of routine folic acid testing for patients with anemia or dementia/altered mental status in the era of folic acid fortification. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of consecutive folic acid tests performed on adults over a 4-month period; chart review of patients without anemia...
June 2008: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Keith J Petrie, Rebekah Sherriff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2014: Evidence-based Medicine
Alexandra Rolfe, Christopher Burton
IMPORTANCE: Diagnostic tests are often ordered by physicians in patients with a low pretest probability of disease to rule out conditions and reassure the patient. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of diagnostic tests on worry about illness, anxiety, symptom persistence, and subsequent use of health care resources in patients with a low pretest probability of serious illness. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and ProQuest Dissertations electronic databases through December 31, 2011, for eligible randomized controlled trials...
March 25, 2013: JAMA Internal Medicine
Rita Redberg, Mitchell Katz, Deborah Grady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2011: Archives of Internal Medicine
Owen J Driskell, David Holland, Fahmy W Hanna, Peter W Jones, R John Pemberton, Martin Tran, Anthony A Fryer
BACKGROUND: Estimates suggest that approximately 25% of requests for pathology tests are unnecessary. Even in diabetes, for which international guidance provides recommended testing frequency, considerable variability in requesting practice exists. Using the diabetes marker, Hb A(1c), we examined (a) the prevalence of under- and overrequesting, (b) the impact of international guidance on prevalence, and (c) practice-to-practice variability. METHODS: We examined Hb A(1c) requests (519 664 requests from 115 730 patients, January 2001 to March 2011) processed by the Clinical Biochemistry Department, University Hospital of North Staffordshire, and prevalence of requesting outside guidance from intervals between requests was calculated...
May 2012: Clinical Chemistry
Si Si, John R Moss, Thomas R Sullivan, Skye S Newton, Nigel P Stocks
BACKGROUND: A recent review concluded that general health checks fail to reduce mortality in adults. AIM: This review focuses on general practice-based health checks and their effects on both surrogate and final outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. METHOD: Relevant data were extracted from randomised trials comparing the health outcomes of general practice-based health checks versus usual care in middle-aged populations...
January 2014: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Jennifer Pecina, Gregory M Garrison, Matthew E Bernard
OBJECTIVE: In patients treated for hypothyroidism, the usual practice is to monitor thyroid-stimulating hormone values yearly once a therapeutic dosage of levothyroxine is determined. This study investigates whether there are any clinical predictors that could identify a subset of patients who might be monitored safely on a less frequent basis. METHODS: With the use of a retrospective study design, 715 patients treated for hypothyroidism who had a normal (ie, therapeutic) thyroid-stimulating hormone value in 2006 while taking levothyroxine were identified...
March 2014: American Journal of Medicine
Lasse T Krogsbøll, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen, Peter C Gøtzsche
CLINICAL QUESTION: What are the benefits and harms of general health checks for adult populations? BOTTOM LINE: Compared with usual care, offers of health checks were not associated with lower rates of all-cause mortality, mortality from cardiovascular disease, or mortality from cancer. Health checks may be associated with more diagnoses and more drug treatment. Morbidity was infrequently reported, as were most harms, such as use of diagnostic procedures.
June 19, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Benjamin Crocker, Elizabeth-Lee Lewandrowski, Nicole Lewandrowski, Kimberly Gregory, Kent Lewandrowski
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care laboratory testing (POCT) offers reduced turnaround time and may facilitate medical decision-making and improve clinical operations. However, there is very little published data concerning the impact of POCT on patient satisfaction. METHODS: We implemented POCT for hemoglobin A1c, lipid panel and comprehensive metabolic panel in a primary care practice and monitored patient satisfaction with on-site testing using an anonymous survey. RESULTS: A total of 97 surveys (65% response rate) were reviewed...
September 23, 2013: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Luigi Cantoni, Luca Ronfani, Rosalia Da Riol, Sergio Demarini
OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 approaches in the management of neonates at risk for group B Streptococcus early-onset sepsis: laboratory tests plus standardized physical examination and standardized physical examination alone. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, sequential study over 2 consecutive 12-month periods, carried out in the maternity hospitals of the region Friuli-Venezia Giulia (north-eastern Italy). All term infants were included (7628 in the first period, 7611 in the second)...
August 2013: Journal of Pediatrics
Pim M W Janssens, Gerd Wasser
BACKGROUND: Modern computer systems allow limits to be set on the periods allowed for repetitive testing. We investigated a computerised system for managing potentially overtly frequent laboratory testing, calculating the financial savings obtained. METHODS: In consultation with hospital physicians, tests were selected for which 'spare periods' (periods during which tests are barred) might be set to control repetitive testing. The tests were selected and spare periods determined based on known analyte variations in health and disease, variety of tissues or cells giving rise to analytes, clinical conditions and rate of change determining analyte levels, frequency with which doctors need information about the analytes and the logistical needs of the clinic...
June 2013: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Lasse T Krogsbøll, Karsten Juhl Jørgensen, Christian Grønhøj Larsen, Peter C Gøtzsche
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the benefits and harms of general health checks in adults with an emphasis on patient-relevant outcomes such as morbidity and mortality rather than on surrogate outcomes. DESIGN: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. For mortality, we analysed the results with random effects meta-analysis, and for other outcomes we did a qualitative synthesis as meta-analysis was not feasible. DATA SOURCES: Medline, EMBASE, Healthstar, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, EPOC register, ClinicalTrials...
2012: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Christopher G Winearls, Richard J Glassock
The average glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is lower in the elderly than in the young and is usually a consequence of biological ageing, the rate of which varies between individuals. In some subjects, the decline is aggravated by concomitant vascular disease. The prevalence of significant kidney disease in the elderly has been overestimated - largely by rendering a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease by reference to estimates of GFR which are found in the young. A stable low GFR in the elderly, provided it is physiologically sufficient to meet homeostatic demands, is not a disease per se and seldom progresses to true kidney failure...
2011: Nephron. Clinical Practice
Ross D Brown, Mark R Langshaw, Elaine J Uhr, John N Gibson, Douglas E Joshua
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact that mandatory fortification with folic acid of wheat flour used in breadmaking has had on the blood folate levels of an Australian population since it was introduced in September 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: A retrospective analysis of serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate levels of 20,592 blood samples collected between April 2007 and April 2010 from a wide variety of inpatients and outpatients and analysed in a large public hospital diagnostic pathology laboratory...
January 17, 2011: Medical Journal of Australia
Robert J Berry, Lynn Bailey, Joe Mulinare, Carol Bower
BACKGROUND: After randomized, controlled trials established that consumption of folic acid before pregnancy and during the early weeks of gestation reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancy, the United States Public Health Service recommended in 1992 that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg folic acid daily. In 1998, folic acid fortification of all enriched cereal grain product flour was fully implemented in the United States and Canada. OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on national fortification of wheat and maize flours to prevent 50 to 70% of the estimated 300,000 NTD-affected pregnancies worldwide...
March 2010: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Linda M Thienpont, Katleen Van Uytfanghe, Graham Beastall, James D Faix, Tamio Ieiri, W Greg Miller, Jerald C Nelson, Catherine Ronin, H Alec Ross, Jos H Thijssen, Brigitte Toussaint
BACKGROUND: Laboratory testing of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is an essential tool for the diagnosis and management of various thyroid disorders whose collective prevalence lies between 4% and 8%. However, between-assay discrepancies in TSH results limit the application of clinical practice guidelines. METHODS: We performed a method comparison study with 40 sera to assess the result comparability and performance attributes of 16 immunoassays. RESULTS: Thirteen of 16 assays gave mean results within 10% of the overall mean...
June 2010: Clinical Chemistry
2014-09-11 03:28:23
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