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Gastrointestinal diseases

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794 papers 500 to 1000 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23801855/evaluation-of-hepatic-cystic-lesions
#1
REVIEW
Marten A Lantinga, Tom J G Gevers, Joost P H Drenth
Hepatic cysts are increasingly found as a mere coincidence on abdominal imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These cysts often present a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we performed a review of the recent literature and developed an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm to guide clinicians in characterising these lesions. Simple cysts are the most common cystic liver disease, and diagnosis is based on typical USG characteristics. Serodiagnostic tests and microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are invaluable in differentiating complicated cysts, echinococcosis and cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma when USG, CT and MRI show ambiguous findings...
June 21, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24124322/pathophysiology-epidemiology-classification-and-treatment-options-for-polycystic-liver-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Bassam Abu-Wasel, Caolan Walsh, Valerie Keough, Michele Molinari
Polycystic liver diseases (PLD) represent a group of genetic disorders in which cysts occur in the liver (autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease) or in combination with cysts in the kidneys (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). Regardless of the genetic mutations, the natural history of these disorders is alike. The natural history of PLD is characterized by a continuous increase in the volume and the number of cysts. Both genders are affected; however, women have a higher prevalence. Most patients with PLD are asymptomatic and can be managed conservatively...
September 21, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981166/terlipressin-current-and-emerging-indications-in-chronic-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
Timothy Papaluca, Paul Gow
Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin that has potent vasoactive properties and has been available for use in most countries for nearly two decades. It has both established roles and emerging indications in the management of complications of decompensated chronic liver disease. We explore historic and emerging literature regarding the use of terlipressin for a range of indications including hepatorenal syndrome, portal hypertensive bleeding, and disruptions in sodium homeostasis. Novel methods of infusion-based terlipressin administration including the beneficial effect in reduction of adverse events are explored, in addition to new indications for the use of terlipressin in decompensated cirrhosis in an outpatient setting...
March 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845739/hepatorenal-syndrome-in-the-era-of-acute-kidney-injury
#4
REVIEW
Cristina Solé, Elisa Pose, Elsa Solà, Pere Ginès
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of patients with advanced cirrhosis that it is associated with increased hospital admissions and decreased survival. The definition of AKI in cirrhosis has been recently modified and the new diagnostic criteria are based on small changes in serum creatinine with respect to previous values, occurring within a short period of time. The use of this new definition may lead to an earlier identification of renal impairment and better prognostic stratification. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a unique form of AKI developing in patients with end-stage liver disease...
May 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921773/renal-impairment-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Hiroteru Kamimura, Toru Setsu, Naruhiro Kimura, Takeshi Yokoo, Akira Sakamaki, Kenya Kamimura, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Masaaki Takamura, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of proteins. Liver dysfunction affects many organs because it communicates with the spleen and all digestive organs through the portal vein. Additionally, the kidney is an organ that is closely related to the liver and is involved in liver diseases. Glomerulonephritis is an important extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy effectively suppresses HBV replication by inhibiting HBV polymerase, thus decreasing the levels of serum HBV-DNA and delaying the progression of cirrhosis...
June 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025810/viral-gastroenteritis
#6
REVIEW
Krisztián Bányai, Mary K Estes, Vito Martella, Umesh D Parashar
Enteric viruses, particularly rotaviruses and noroviruses, are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotaviruses primarily affect young children, accounting for almost 40% of hospital admissions for diarrhoea and 200 000 deaths worldwide, with the majority of deaths occurring in developing countries. Two vaccines against rotavirus were licensed in 2006 and have been implemented in 95 countries as of April, 2018. Data from eight high-income and middle-income countries showed a 49-89% decline in rotavirus-associated hospital admissions and a 17-55% decline in all-cause gastroenteritis-associated hospital admissions among children younger than 5 years, within 2 years of vaccine introduction...
July 14, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624860/hepatic-encephalopathy-diagnosis-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Piero Amodio
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a peculiar kind of brain dysfunction caused by liver insufficiency and/or portal-systemic shunting. It is related to gut-derived substances. It is a relevant cause of morbidity and hospitalisation for patients with cirrhosis. The prognosis of HE is important in terms of survival and re-hospitalisation. It is related to impaired quality of life, falls and poor driving; presents a relevant burden for caregivers and health services; and may negatively impact on patient's job and income...
June 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928161/the-role-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-upper-gastrointestinal-disorders
#8
Muhammad Ali Khan, Colin W Howden
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been in use since the early 1990s and play a crucial role in the management of a number of conditions affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett esophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis, and dyspepsia. PPIs also play an important role in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection and in the prevention of upper gastrointestinal tract ulcers and bleeding among patients taking antiplatelet therapy and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
March 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29951360/occult-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Alyssa Austria, George Y Wu
Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OCI), first described in 2004, is defined as the presence of HCV RNA in hepatocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells without detectable HCV RNA in the serum. Here, we aimed to review the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, clinical implications and potential management recommendations currently described in the literature, as well as the future directions for investigation of this entity. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched with combination of the following keywords: "occult", "hepatitis C virus", and "occult HCV infection"...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012334/gastrointestinal-and-extra-intestinal-manifestations-of-immunoglobulin-g4-related-disease
#10
REVIEW
Katsuyuki Miyabe, Yoh Zen, Lynn D Cornell, Govindarajan Rajagopalan, Vaidehi R Chowdhary, Lewis R Roberts, Suresh T Chari
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic relapsing multi-organ fibro-inflammatory syndrome of presumed autoimmune etiology. It is characterized by increased serum levels of IgG subclass 4 (IgG4) and tissue infiltration by IgG4+ cells. Increased titers of autoantibodies against a spectrum of self-antigens and response to steroids have led to its characterization as an autoimmune disease. However, the pathognomonic antigens probably differ among manifestations, and different antigens or autoantibodies produce similar immune reactions in different organs...
July 13, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008472/rectal-cancer-in-2018-a-primer-for-the-gastroenterologist
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin A Goldenberg, Emma B Holliday, Ramzi M Helewa, Harminder Singh
The rectum has distinctive anatomic and physiologic features, which increase the risk of local spread and recurrence among rectal cancers as compared to colon cancers. Essential to the management of rectal cancers is accurate endoscopic localization as well as preoperative imaging assessment of local and distant disease. Successful oncologic care is multidisciplinary including input from Gastroenterologists, Surgeons, Medical and Radiation Oncologists, Radiologists, and Pathologists. Extensive planning of curative intent is mandatory as failures of upfront treatment present great long-term difficulty for patients and caregivers...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29980848/the-state-of-the-art-on-treatment-of-crohn-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Hai Yun Shi, Siew Chien Ng
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, progressive, and destructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Although its incidence appears to be stable or decreasing in most countries in the North America and Europe, the incidence is rising rapidly in Asian countries. Immunomodulators and biologics are increasingly used to avoid long-term bowel damage and subsequent disability. Therapeutic drug monitoring facilitates optimizing thiopurines and anti-TNFs use. New biologic agents targeting various pathological pathways of CD are blooming in recent years, and the high cost of biologics and expiration of patents for several biologic agents have driven the utility of biosimilars for CD treatment...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002466/current-management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#13
REVIEW
Chathur Acharya, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Hepatic encephalopathy is a state of brain dysfunction resulting from decompensation of cirrhosis. The mortality and morbidity associated with the overt form of hepatic encephalopathy are high, and even the covert form associates with poor outcomes and poor quality of life. We know that the dysfunction is not just an acute insult to the brain but rather results in long-standing cognitive issues that get worse with each episode of HE. Hence, there is an urgency to accurately diagnose these conditions, start appropriate therapy, and to maintain remission...
July 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25798682/sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-veno-occlusive-disease-current-situation-and-perspectives-a-position-statement-from-the-european-society-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation-ebmt
#14
REVIEW
M Mohty, F Malard, M Abecassis, E Aerts, A S Alaskar, M Aljurf, M Arat, P Bader, F Baron, A Bazarbachi, D Blaise, F Ciceri, S Corbacioglu, J-H Dalle, R F Duarte, T Fukuda, A Huynh, T Masszi, M Michallet, A Nagler, M NiChonghaile, T Pagluica, C Peters, F B Petersen, P G Richardson, T Ruutu, B N Savani, E Wallhult, I Yakoub-Agha, E Carreras
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). This review aims to highlight, on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the current knowledge on SOS/VOD pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis and treatments. Our perspectives on SOS/VOD are (i) to accurately identify its risk factors; (ii) to define new criteria for its diagnosis; (iii) to search for SOS/VOD biomarkers and (iv) to propose prospective studies evaluating SOS/VOD prevention and treatment in adults and children...
June 2015: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24833355/how-i-treat-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome
#15
Nelson Chao
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), previously called veno-occlusive disease (VOD) can be a difficult problem after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The overall incidence has changed since the early days of allogeneic HCT. Prophylaxis and treatment remain important components of supportive care. As the indication and the comorbidities for HCT continue to change, especially with older and more infirm patients, SOS remains an important area for clinicians. I discuss how SOS could be addressed, from prophylaxis to diagnosis and potential therapy...
June 26, 2014: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29973706/refractory-ascites-in-liver-cirrhosis
#16
REVIEW
Danielle Adebayo, Shuet Fong Neong, Florence Wong
Ascites, a common complication of liver cirrhosis, eventually becomes refractory to diuretic therapy and sodium restriction in ~10% of patients. Multiple pathogenetic factors are involved in the development of refractory ascites, which ultimately lead to renal hypoperfusion and avid sodium retention. Therefore, renal dysfunction commonly accompanies refractory ascites. Management includes continuation of sodium restriction, which needs frequent reviews for adherence; and regular large volume paracentesis of 5 L or more with albumin infusions to prevent the development of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910463/autoimmune-pancreatitis
#17
REVIEW
Sajan Jiv Singh Nagpal, Ayush Sharma, Suresh T Chari
Over the course of the last 2 decades our knowledge of autoimmune pancreatitis has increased exponentially. In this review, we summarize the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of AIP, to better allow general gastroenterologists and primary care providers to consider AIP as a as a rare but important cause of painless obstructive jaundice and recurrent acute pancreatitis. While steroids remain the mainstay of first line therapy, a number of patients with type 1 AIP require immunomodulators or rituximab to maintain remission; recommendations on the management of relapses continue to evolve...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736167/mechanisms-and-management-of-acute-pancreatitis
#18
REVIEW
Ari Garber, Catherine Frakes, Zubin Arora, Prabhleen Chahal
Acute pancreatitis represents a disorder characterized by acute necroinflammatory changes of the pancreas and is histologically characterized by acinar cell destruction. Diagnosed clinically with the Revised Atlanta Criteria, and with alcohol and cholelithiasis/choledocholithiasis as the two most prominent antecedents, acute pancreatitis ranks first amongst gastrointestinal diagnoses requiring admission and 21st amongst all diagnoses requiring hospitalization with estimated costs approximating 2.6 billion dollars annually...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753761/grand-rounds-alcoholic-hepatitis
#19
REVIEW
Ashwani K Singal, Alexandre Louvet, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath
A 33-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to hospital with recent onset of jaundice of 2-3 weeks duration. He reported heavy use of alcohol for the last 10 years with the last drink a day prior to the onset of symptoms. At admission, he was alert and oriented to time, place, and person, and was deeply jaundiced. His laboratory profile can be summarised as follows: haemoglobin 12.1 g/dl, white blood cell count 18,700 with 81% neutrophils, serum bilirubin 33 (direct 22) mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase 147 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase 62 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 117 IU/L, serum albumin 2...
August 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24508989/laboratory-diagnostics-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#20
REVIEW
Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese, Gianfranco Cervellin, Martina Montagnana
The term peritonitis indicates an inflammatory process involving the peritoneum that is most frequently infectious in nature. Primary or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) typically occurs when a bacterial infection spreads to the peritoneum across the gut wall or mesenteric lymphatics or, less frequently, from hematogenous transmission in combination with impaired immune system and in absence of an identified intra-abdominal source of infection or malignancy. The clinical presentation of SBP is variable...
March 20, 2014: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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