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Gastrointestinal diseases

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498 papers 100 to 500 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
Laura W Lamps
CONTEXT: Many diseases that cause granulomas or granulomatous inflammation involve the liver. Some of these disease processes are intrinsic hepatic diseases, whereas others are disseminated systemic diseases that involve the liver as well as other organs. OBJECTIVE: To review the evaluation of granulomas in the liver with an emphasis on infectious causes, as well as the use of special stains, serologic studies, and molecular diagnostic techniques. Pertinent noninfectious causes of hepatic granulomas that are in the differential diagnosis are also discussed...
July 2015: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Manon C W Spaander, Todd H Baron, Peter D Siersema, Lorenzo Fuccio, Brigitte Schumacher, Àngels Escorsell, Juan-Carlos Garcia-Pagán, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Massimo Conio, Antonella de Ceglie, Janusz Skowronek, Marianne Nordsmark, Thomas Seufferlein, André Van Gossum, Cesare Hassan, Alessandro Repici, Marco J Bruno
This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), endorsed by the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), the European Society of Digestive Endoscopy (ESDO), and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations for malignant disease 1 ESGE recommends placement of partially or fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) for palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia over laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, and esophageal bypass (strong recommendation, high quality evidence)...
October 2016: Endoscopy
Amy E Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Zoon Tariq, Charlotte J Green, Leanne Hodson
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not a single disease entity, rather it describes a spectrum of liver conditions that range from fatty liver (steatosis) to more severe steatosis coupled with marked inflammation and fibrosis [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] to severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and possibly hepatocellular carcinoma. Obesity, notably abdominal obesity, is a common risk factor for NAFLD. The pathogenesis from steatosis to NASH is poorly understood, and the 'two hit' model, as suggested nearly two decades ago, provides a feasible starting point for characterization of underlying mechanisms...
August 2014: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Teun van Gelder, Dennis A Hesselink
The patent of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has expired, and for enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS), this will happen in 2017. In the twenty years these drugs have been used, they have become extremely popular. In this review, the reasons for the popularity of mycophenolate are discussed, including the benefits compared to azathioprine. MMF and EC-MPS are therapeutically equivalent. Although neither is considered to be a narrow therapeutic index drug, this should not lead to careless switching between the innovator drug and generic formulations, or between one generic formulation and another...
May 2015: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Elizabeth C Goode, Simon M Rushbrook
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that progresses to end-stage liver disease and cirrhosis. Recurrent biliary inflammation is thought to lead to dysplasia, and as such PSC confers a high risk of cholangiocarcinoma. PSC accounts for 10% of all UK liver transplants, although transplantation does not guarantee a cure with 20% recurrence in the graft. At present there are no effective medical treatment options for PSC, and trials of novel therapeutic agents are limited by the time taken to reach clinically significant endpoints with no well defined early surrogate markers for disease outcome...
January 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
Gustav Paumgartner, Ulrich Beuers
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) is increasingly used for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases. Experimental evidence suggests three major mechanisms of action: (1) protection of cholangiocytes against cytotoxicity of hydrophobic bile acids, resulting from modulation of the composition of mixed phospholipid-rich micelles, reduction of bile acid cytotoxicity of bile and, possibly, decrease of the concentration of hydrophobic bile acids in the cholangiocytes; (2) stimulation of hepatobiliary secretion, putatively via Ca(2+)- and protein kinase C-alpha-dependent mechanisms and/or activation of p38(MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) resulting in insertion of transporter molecules (e...
September 2002: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Michael Camilleri
Bile acids (BA) are actively reabsorbed in the terminal ileum by the apical Na(+)-dependent bile salt transporter. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of BA diarrhea (BAD). BAD is typically caused by ileal resection or disease; 25-33% of patients with chronic functional diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) have BAD, possibly from deficiency in the ileal hormone, FGF-19, which normally provides feedback inhibition of BA synthesis. Diagnosis of BAD is typically based on reduced BA retention of radiolabeled BA ((75)SeHCAT), increased BA synthesis (serum C4) or increased fecal BA loss...
January 2014: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Michael Camilleri, Gregory J Gores
The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation...
August 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Tiangang Li, John Y L Chiang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the latest understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex interactions between intestine and liver bile acid signaling, gut microbiota, and their impact on whole-body lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Hepatic bile acid synthesis is tightly regulated by the bile acid negative feedback mechanisms. Modulating the enterohepatic bile acid signaling greatly impacts the whole-body metabolic homeostasis...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Pavlina Dzekova Vidimliski, Igor Nikolov, Nadica Matevska Geshkovska, Aleksandar Dimovski, Lionel Rostaing, Aleksandar Sikole
Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in the liver cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients whose serum samples test negative for HCV RNA, with or without presence of HCV antibodies. The present study reviews the existing literature on the persistence of occult hepatitis C virus infection, with description of the clinical characteristics and methods for identification of occult hepatitis C. Occult hepatitis C virus infection was detected in patients with abnormal results of liver function tests of unknown origin, with HCV antibodies and HCV RNA negativity in serum, and also in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery from hepatitis C...
September 2014: Journal of Medical Virology
Vicente Carreño
Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) was first described in anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA negative patients with abnormal values of liver enzymes but who presented HCV-RNA in liver and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Up to now, two types of OCI are recognized: seronegative OCI (anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA negative) and seropositive OCI (anti-HCV positive and serum HCV-RNA negative). The concept of OCI is still a matter of debate, probably because both types of OCI are not considered as different entities...
November 2014: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Manuel Romero-Gómez, Marina Berenguer, Esther Molina, José Luis Calleja
The addition of protease inhibitors, boceprevir or telaprevir, to peginterferon+ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) increases the frequency as well as the severity, and hence, clinical relevance of anemia, which has now become one of the major complications associated with triple therapy. Most significant factors associated with anemia in patients receiving triple therapy include older age, lower body mass index (BMI), advanced fibrosis, and lower baseline hemoglobin. The variability in inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) gene, which encodes a protein that hydrolyses inosine triphosphate (ITP), has been identified as an essential genetic factor for anemia both in dual and triple therapy...
December 2013: Journal of Hepatology
Christoph A Thaiss, Niv Zmora, Maayan Levy, Eran Elinav
The intestinal microbiome is a signalling hub that integrates environmental inputs, such as diet, with genetic and immune signals to affect the host's metabolism, immunity and response to infection. The haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells of the innate immune system are located strategically at the host-microbiome interface. These cells have the ability to sense microorganisms or their metabolic products and to translate the signals into host physiological responses and the regulation of microbial ecology...
July 6, 2016: Nature
Cynthia Herrick, Samira Bahrainy, Edward A Gill
Lipid lowering, particularly with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors ("statins"), reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Patients with chronic liver disease present challenges to the use of lipid medications. In the case of most liver disorders, the concern has been one of safety. There is evidence that most lipid-lowering medications can be used safely in many situations, although large outcomes trials are lacking. This review examines lipid physiology and cardiovascular risk in specific liver diseases and reviews the evidence for lipid lowering and the use of statins in chronic liver disease...
March 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Nick Baniak, Rani Kanthan
Cytomegalovirus latency, though ubiquitous in the human population, is known to cause colitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Furthermore, the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic appearance of cytomegalovirus colitis can mimic that of inflammatory bowel disease, an extremely well-documented disease. In this context, though many reports have looked at inflammatory bowel disease with superimposed cytomegalovirus infection, less attention has been paid to cytomegalovirus as a primary cause of isolated colitis...
August 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Anurag Maheshwari, Rajnish Mishra, Paul J Thuluvath
Anemia is common after liver transplantation, with the incidence ranging from 4.3% to 28.2% depending on the criteria used to define anemia. The cause of anemia is unidentified in the majority of patients, and it is likely to be multifactorial. Immunosuppressive-medication-induced bone marrow suppression is perhaps the most common cause of unexplained anemia. Chronic blood loss, iron deficiency, hemolysis, and renal insufficiency are other potential causes of chronic anemia. Rare causes, somewhat unique to transplantation, include aplastic anemia, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and lymphoproliferative disease...
February 2004: Liver Transplantation
Philip M Ginsburg, Paul J Thuluvath
Diarrhea is common after liver transplantation (LT). The true incidence of diarrhea in liver transplant recipients is unknown but possibly ranges from 10% to 43% based on a few published studies in other solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. Infectious etiologies, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), Clostridium difficile, and occasional atypical intestinal infections, are the most common causes. Diarrhea is also a frequent side effect of immunosuppressive medications. To variable extents, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporine A (CSA), tacrolimus, and sirolimus are all known to be associated with diarrhea...
August 2005: Liver Transplantation
Patrizia Burra, Kryssia I Rodriguez-Castro
De novo neoplasms account for almost 30% of deaths 10 years after liver transplantation and are the most common cause of mortality in patients surviving at least 1 year after transplant. The risk of malignancy is two to four times higher in transplant recipients than in an age- and sex-matched population, and cancer is expected to surpass cardiovascular complications as the primary cause of death in transplanted patients within the next 2 decades. Since exposure to immunosuppression is associated with an increased frequency of developing neoplasm, long-term immunosuppression should be therefore minimized...
August 7, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Martin-Walter Welker, Wolf-Otto Bechstein, Stefan Zeuzem, Joerg Trojan
In western countries, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major reason for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) with estimated recurrence rates between 15% and 20%. This selective literature review addresses follow-up care after OLT in HCC and current treatment options. Recurrence prediction is based on pathological tumor stage, vascular invasion, serum alfafetoprotein levels, and histological differentiation, but further advances are expected by molecular profiling techniques. Lower levels of immunosuppressive agents are associated with a lower risk for HCC recurrence...
February 2013: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
2016-08-25 11:24:21
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