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Gastrointestinal diseases

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587 papers 100 to 500 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592442/the-low-fodmap-diet-recent-advances-in-understanding-its-mechanisms-and-efficacy-in-ibs
#1
REVIEW
Heidi M Staudacher, Kevin Whelan
There is an intensifying interest in the interaction between diet and the functional GI symptoms experienced in IBS. Recent studies have used MRI to demonstrate that short-chain fermentable carbohydrates increase small intestinal water volume and colonic gas production that, in those with visceral hypersensitivity, induces functional GI symptoms. Dietary restriction of short-chain fermentable carbohydrates (the low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet) is now increasingly used in the clinical setting...
June 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23314803/an-update-on-the-hepatitis-e-virus
#2
REVIEW
Seth N Sclair, Eugene R Schiff
There have been recent key advances in the understanding of hepatitis E virus infection. Since the early 1980s, when the virus was first discovered, hepatitis E has been described as a disease that is endemic only in the African and Asian subcontinents, a disease that is transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and a disease that causes an acute illness that typically resolves, with the exception of the third trimester of pregnancy, when infection can be deadly. We now know that genotype 3 is likely a porcine zoonotic disease that is quite prevalent in certain industrialized nations...
February 2013: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585310/direct-acting-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#3
REVIEW
Janus C Jakobsen, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Kristina Fobian, Goran Hauser, Goran Poropat, Snezana Djurisic, Karl Heinz Weiss, Milica Bjelakovic, Goran Bjelakovic, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jian Ping Liu, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Ronald L Koretz, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood (sustained virological response). However, it is still questionable if eradication of hepatitis C virus in the blood eliminates hepatitis C in the body, and improves survival and leads to fewer complications...
June 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450390/british-society-of-gastroenterology-position-statement-on-serrated-polyps-in-the-colon-and-rectum
#4
James E East, Wendy S Atkin, Adrian C Bateman, Susan K Clark, Sunil Dolwani, Shara N Ket, Simon J Leedham, Perminder S Phull, Matt D Rutter, Neil A Shepherd, Ian Tomlinson, Colin J Rees
Serrated polyps have been recognised in the last decade as important premalignant lesions accounting for between 15% and 30% of colorectal cancers. There is therefore a clinical need for guidance on how to manage these lesions; however, the evidence base is limited. A working group was commission by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) Endoscopy section to review the available evidence and develop a position statement to provide clinical guidance until the evidence becomes available to support a formal guideline...
July 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602971/new-developments-in-hepatorenal-syndrome
#5
Ayse L Mindikoglu, Stephen C Pappas
Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS) continues to be one of the major complications of decompensated cirrhosis leading to death in the absence of liver transplantation. Challenges in precisely evaluating renal function in the patient with cirrhosis remain due to the limitations of serum creatinine (Cr) alone in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR); current GFR estimating models appear to underestimate renal function. Newer models incorporating renal biomarkers, such as the Cr-Cystatin C GFR Equation for Cirrhosis appear to more accurately estimate true GFR...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600072/colorectal-cancer-screening-recommendations-for-physicians-and-patients-from-the-u-s-multi-society-task-force-on-colorectal-cancer
#6
Douglas K Rex, C Richard Boland, Jason A Dominitz, Francis M Giardiello, David A Johnson, Tonya Kaltenbach, Theodore R Levin, David Lieberman, Douglas J Robertson
This document updates the colorectal cancer (CRC) screening recommendations of the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force of Colorectal Cancer (MSTF), which represents the American College of Gastroenterology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. CRC screening tests are ranked in 3 tiers based on performance features, costs, and practical considerations. The first-tier tests are colonoscopy every 10 years and annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Colonoscopy and FIT are recommended as the cornerstones of screening regardless of how screening is offered...
June 2, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554655/hemorrhagic-angiodysplasia-of-the-digestive-tract-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Aymeric Becq, Gabriel Rahmi, Guillaume Perrod, Christophe Cellier
Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia (GIA) is an acquired vascular superficial lesion, which presents typically as a bright red, irregular, round-shaped, slightly elevated lesion. GIAs are often seen in patients over 60 years of age and are mostly located in the colon (cecum and ascending).The cause and mechanisms of GIA have yet to be completely understood. Small-bowel GIAs are often diagnosed in the setting of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). In some cases, GIAs are associated with aortic stenosis, Von Willebrand's disease, chronic renal disease, and liver disease...
May 26, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742010/the-management-of-hepatitis-b-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#8
REVIEW
Sammy Saab, Ping-Yu Chen, Clara E Saab, Myron J Tong
Liver transplant (LT) is now an established indication for patients with chronic hepatitis B, mainly because of the development and use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and oral antivirals for prophylaxis. The combination of low-dose HBIG and antivirals has been considered the standard prophylaxis regimen to prevent post-LT recurrence of hepatitis B. The important remaining issues are related to the long-term cost of HBIG and the risk of escape hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants. Strategies for prevention of HBV after LT are constantly improving...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528705/complications-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Michael F Vaezi, Yu-Xiao Yang, Colin W Howden
Safety issues associated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have recently attracted widespread media and lay attention. Gastroenterologists are frequently asked about the appropriateness of PPI therapy for specific patients. Furthermore, some patients may have had PPI therapy discontinued abruptly or inappropriately due to safety concerns. Faced with such a wide variety of potentially serious adverse consequences, prescribers need to evaluate the evidence objectively to discern the likelihood that any reported association might actually be causal...
May 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395784/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-part-i-incidence-etiologies-and-how-to-improve-early-diagnosis
#10
REVIEW
Jussi M Kärkkäinen, Stefan Acosta
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is generally thought to be a rare disease, but in fact, it is more common cause of acute abdomen than appendicitis or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients over 75 years of age. In occlusive AMI, surgical treatment without revascularization is associated with as high as 80% overall mortality. It has been shown that early diagnosis with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and revascularization can reduce the overall mortality in AMI by up to 50%. However, only a minority of patients with AMI are being treated actively with revascularization in the United States, and the situation is very likely similar in Europe as well...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429247/a-review-of-the-novel-application-and-potential-adverse-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitors
#11
REVIEW
Li-Yuan Yu, Lu-Ning Sun, Xue-Hui Zhang, Yue-Qi Li, Lei Yu, Zi-Qing-Yun Yuan, Ling Meng, Hong-Wen Zhang, Yong-Qing Wang
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are known as a class of pharmaceutical agents that target H(+)/K(+)-ATPase, which is located in gastric parietal cells. PPIs are widely used in the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases including peptic ulcer disease, erosive esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and so on. These drugs present an excellent safety profile and have become one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in primary and specialty care. Except for gastric acid-related diseases, PPIs can also be used in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, viral infections, respiratory system diseases, cancer and so on...
May 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14526393/intrahepatic-cholestasis-after-liver-transplantation
#12
REVIEW
Ziv Ben-Ari, Orit Pappo, Eytan Mor
Cholestasis is a common sequela of liver transplantation. Although the majority of cases remain subclinical, severe cholestasis may be associated with irreversible liver damage, requiring retransplantation. Therefore, it is essential that clinicians be able to identify and treat the syndromes associated with cholestasis. In this review, we consider causes of intrahepatic cholestasis. These may be categorized by time of occurrence, namely, within 6 months of liver transplantation (early) and thereafter (late), although there may be an overlap in their causes...
October 2003: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18242500/intrahepatic-cholestasis-after-liver-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
A Corbani, A K Burroughs
Biochemical cholestasis after liver transplantation is common and often has no clinical significance if biliary anastomosis strictures and leaks have been excluded. There is no agreed upon definition for severe cholestasis, but it is associated with a worse mortality. There has been little evaluation on risk factors, but these include cryoprecipitate and platelet transfusion intraoperatively, nonidentical blood group, suboptimal graft appearance, inpatient status before transplant, and bacteremia within the first month...
February 2008: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931635/complications-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy
#14
REVIEW
Tomas Hucl, Julius Spicak
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has become the method of choice for mid-to long-term enteral feeding. The majority of complications that occur are minor, but the rare major complications may be life threatening. Some complications occur soon after tube placement, others develop later, when the gastrostomy tract has matured. Older patients with comorbidities and infections appear to be at a greater risk of developing complications. Apart from being aware of indications and contraindications, proper technique of PEG placement, including correct positioning of the external fixation device, and daily tube care are important preventive measures...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420030/role-of-endoscopy-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-and-european-association-for-the-study-of-the-liver-easl-clinical-guideline
#15
Lars Aabakken, Tom H Karlsen, Jörg Albert, Marianna Arvanitakis, Olivier Chazouilleres, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Martti Färkkilä, Peter Fickert, Gideon M Hirschfield, Andrea Laghi, Marco Marzioni, Michael Fernandez, Stephen P Pereira, Jürgen Pohl, Jan-Werner Poley, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Christoph Schramm, Fredrik Swahn, Andrea Tringali, Cesare Hassan
1 ESGE/EASL recommend that, as the primary diagnostic modality for PSC, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) should be preferred over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).Moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation. 2 ESGE/EASL suggest that ERCP can be considered if MRC plus liver biopsy is equivocal or contraindicated in patients with persisting clinical suspicion of PSC. The risks of ERCP have to be weighed against the potential benefit with regard to surveillance and treatment recommendations...
April 18, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26199624/optimal-endpoint-of-therapy-in-ibd-an-update-on-factors-determining-a-successful-drug-withdrawal
#16
REVIEW
Anita Annaházi, Tamás Molnár
Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic inflammatory disorders, which require long term treatment to achieve remission and to prevent relapses and cancer. While current therapies are effective in most cases, they can have rare but serious side effects and are often associated with high costs. On the other hand, early discontinuation of an effective treatment may lead to a quick relapse and to complications at the restart of therapy. Therefore it is essential to determine the optimal duration of maintenance therapy, but clear guidelines are missing...
2015: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25685145/five-aminosalicylic-acid-an-update-for-the-reappraisal-of-an-old-drug
#17
REVIEW
Cristiana Perrotta, Paolo Pellegrino, Eliana Moroni, Clara De Palma, Davide Cervia, Piergiorgio Danelli, Emilio Clementi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises several conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal apparatus, of which ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the commonest forms. This disease has a significant prevalence and it is of an unknown aethiology. Five-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and its derivatives are among the oldest drugs approved for the treatment of the IBD. In this review we reapprise aspects of 5-ASA mechanism of action, safety, and efficacy that in our opinion make it a valuable drug that can be fruitfully tailored in personalised treatments as a therapeutic option alongside other immune-modifying agents...
2015: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20951918/clinical-pharmacology-of-5-asa-compounds-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
REVIEW
Irene Sonu, Ming Valerie Lin, Wojciech Blonski, Gary R Lichtenstein
Mesalamine has been the first-line of therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) since the 1960s. This article serves as a review of the different 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds, release formulations, use and dosing in the treatment of IBD, in particular ulcerative colitis.
September 2010: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19077129/systematic-review-does-concurrent-therapy-with-5-asa-and-immunomodulators-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-improve-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
J M Andrews, S P L Travis, P R Gibson, C Gasche
BACKGROUND: With greater use of immunomodulators in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is uncertain whether concurrent therapy with both 5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA, mesalazine (mesalamine)] and an immunomodulator is necessary. AIM: To determine whether concurrent therapy with both 5-ASA and immunomodulator(s) improves outcomes in IBD. METHODS: Systematic review with search terms 'azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, thiopurine(s), 5 aminosalicylic acid, mesalazine, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, immunosuppressant(s), immunomodulator and methotrexate' in November 2007 to identify clinical trials on concurrent 5-ASA and immunomodulator therapy...
March 1, 2009: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24659874/histopathological-evaluation-of-recurrent-hepatitis-c-after-liver-transplantation-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Francesco Vasuri, Deborah Malvi, Elisa Gruppioni, Walter F Grigioni, Antonia D'Errico-Grigioni
Although the morphological features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have been well established in the last decades, the differential diagnosis still represents a challenge for the pathologist, especially early recurrent hepatitis C vs mild acute cellular rejection. The present review focuses on the role of the pathologist and the pathology laboratory in the management of recipients with recurrent hepatitis C, the usefulness of early and late post-OLT liver biopsies, and the potential role of ancillary techniques (immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR)...
March 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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