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Gastrointestinal diseases

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514 papers 100 to 500 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26614611/the-clinical-phenotypes-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Qixia Wang, Fan Yang, Qi Miao, Edward L Krawitt, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) fulfills the generally accepted contemporary criteria of an autoimmune liver disease: the presence of autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells, a female gender bias, association with other autoimmune diseases, response to immunosuppressive therapy and strong associations with the major histocompatibility complex HLA loci. It occurs worldwide in both children and adults and is marked by both etiopathogenic and clinical heterogeneity, differing from the other putative autoimmune liver diseases, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), albeit occasionally presenting with overlapping features of PBC or PSC...
January 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24261965/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-clinical-manifestations-and-management-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-in-the-elderly
#2
REVIEW
J Chen, G D Eslick, M Weltman
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis is an uncommon chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the liver, characterised by hypergammaglobulianemia, circulating autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis histologically. It is traditionally thought to be a disease of young women. However, recent epidemiological and retrospective studies suggest that it might be a disease predominantly of older women. Studies of AIH in elderly patients have been fairly limited. AIM: To investigate the differences in the clinical presentations and the management of AIH in the elderly and the younger patients...
January 2014: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785449/hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Julius Balogh, David Victor, Emad H Asham, Sherilyn Gordon Burroughs, Maha Boktour, Ashish Saharia, Xian Li, R Mark Ghobrial, Howard P Monsour
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths. Despite advances in prevention techniques, screening, and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for the development of HCC regardless of etiology. Hepatitis B and C are independent risk factors for the development of cirrhosis...
2016: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825384/inhibiting-the-proton-pump-mechanisms-benefits-harms-and-questions
#4
Jeffrey K Aronson
Inhibition of the H(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (the proton pump) is the final common mechanistic pathway in reducing gastric acid secretion pharmacologically. Proton pump inhibitors are widely used in upper gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with antibiotics, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulceration...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864004/beta-adrenergic-blockade-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#5
REVIEW
Thomas Reiberger, Mattias Mandorfer
Non-selective betablockers (NSBBs) remain the cornerstone of medical treatment of portal hypertension. The evidence for their efficacy to prevent variceal bleeding is derived from prospective trials, which largely excluded patients with refractory ascites and renal failure. In parallel to the increasing knowledge on portal hypertension-induced changes in systemic hemodynamics, cardiac function, and renal perfusion, emerging studies have raised concerns about harmful effects of NSBBs. Clinicians are facing an ongoing controversy on the use of NSBBs in patients with advanced cirrhosis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19280533/appropriateness-of-colonoscopy-in-europe-epage-ii-chronic-diarrhea-and-known-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
S Schusselé Filliettaz, P Juillerat, B Burnand, C Arditi, A Windsor, C Beglinger, R W Dubois, I Peytremann-Bridevaux, V Pittet, J-J Gonvers, F Froehlich, J-P Vader
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: To summarize the published literature on assessment of appropriateness of colonoscopy for investigation of chronic diarrhea, management of patients with known inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and for colorectal cancer (CRC) surveillance in such patients, and to report report appropriateness criteria developed by an expert panel, the 2008 European Panel on the Appropriateness of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, EPAGE II. METHODS: A systematic search of guidelines, systematic reviews, and primary studies regarding the evaluation of chronic diarrhea, the management of IBD, and colorectal cancer surveillance in IBD was performed...
March 2009: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660341/3-european-evidence-based-consensus-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-crohn-s-disease-2016-part-1-diagnosis-and-medical-management
#7
Fernando Gomollón, Axel Dignass, Vito Annese, Herbert Tilg, Gert Van Assche, James O Lindsay, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Garret J Cullen, Marco Daperno, Torsten Kucharzik, Florian Rieder, Sven Almer, Alessandro Armuzzi, Marcus Harbord, Jost Langhorst, Miquel Sans, Yehuda Chowers, Gionata Fiorino, Pascal Juillerat, Gerassimos J Mantzaris, Fernando Rizzello, Stephan Vavricka, Paolo Gionchetti
This paper is the first in a series of two publications relating to the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) evidence based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease and concerns the methodology of the consensus process, classification, diagnosis and medical management of active and quiescent Crohn's disease. Surgical management as well as special situations including management of perianal Crohn's disease of this ECCO Consensus are covered in a subsequent second paper [Gionchetti et al JCC 2016]...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840364/25-years-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-a-comprehensive-review
#8
REVIEW
Daniel S Strand, Daejin Kim, David A Peura
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were clinically introduced more than 25 years ago and have since proven to be invaluable, safe, and effective agents for the management of a variety of acid-related disorders. Although all members in this class act in a similar fashion, inhibiting active parietal cell acid secretion, there are slight differences among PPIs relating to their pharmacokinetic properties, metabolism, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved clinical indications. Nevertheless, each is effective in managing gastroesophageal reflux disease and uncomplicated or complicated peptic ulcer disease...
November 14, 2016: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512925/gamma-glutamyltransferase-friend-or-foe-within
#9
Setor K Kunutsor
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a liver enzyme, which is located on the plasma membranes of most cells and organ tissues, but more commonly in hepatocytes, and is routinely used in clinical practice to help indicate liver injury and as a marker of excessive alcohol consumption. Among the liver enzymes, important advances have especially been made in understanding the physiological functions of GGT. The primary role of GGT is the extracellular catabolism of glutathione, the major thiol antioxidant in mammalian cells, which plays a relevant role in protecting cells against oxidants produced during normal metabolism; GGT, therefore, plays an important role in cellular defence...
August 11, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818588/update-on-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#10
REVIEW
Manoochehr Makvandi
The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25819140/asia-pacific-consensus-statements-on-crohn-s-disease-part-1-definition-diagnosis-and-epidemiology-asia-pacific-crohn-s-disease-consensus-part-1
#11
REVIEW
Choon Jin Ooi, Govind K Makharia, Ida Hilmi, Peter R Gibson, Kwong Ming Fock, Vineet Ahuja, Khoon Lin Ling, Wee Chian Lim, Kelvin T Thia, Shu-chen Wei, Wai Keung Leung, Poh Koon Koh, Richard B Gearry, Khean Lee Goh, Qin Ouyang, Jose Sollano, Sathaporn Manatsathit, H Janaka de Silva, Rungsun Rerknimitr, Pises Pisespongsa, Muhamad Radzi Abu Hassan, Joseph Sung, Toshifumi Hibi, Christopher C M Boey, Neil Moran, Rupert W L Leong
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region...
January 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25819311/asia-pacific-consensus-statements-on-crohn-s-disease-part-2-management
#12
REVIEW
Choon Jin Ooi, Govind K Makharia, Ida Hilmi, Peter R Gibson, Kwong Ming Fock, Vineet Ahuja, Khoon Lin Ling, Wee Chian Lim, Kelvin T Thia, Shu-chen Wei, Wai Keung Leung, Poh Koon Koh, Richard B Gearry, Khean Lee Goh, Qin Ouyang, Jose Sollano, Sathaporn Manatsathit, H Janaka de Silva, Rungsun Rerknimitr, Pises Pisespongsa, Muhamad Radzi Abu Hassan, Joseph Sung, Toshifumi Hibi, Christopher C M Boey, Neil Moran, Rupert W L Leong
The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region...
January 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23090001/evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-crohn-s-disease-integrated-with-formal-consensus-of-experts-in-japan
#13
Fumiaki Ueno, Toshiyuki Matsui, Takayuki Matsumoto, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Mamoru Watanabe, Toshifumi Hibi
Crohn's disease is a disorder of unknown etiology and complicated pathogenesis. A substantial amount of evidence has accumulated recently and has been applied to clinical practice. The present guidelines were developed based on recent evidence and the formal consensus of experts relevant to this disease. Here we provide an overview of these guidelines, as follows. Target disease: Crohn's disease Users: Clinical practitioners in internal medicine, surgery, gastroenterology, and general practice Purpose: To provide appropriate clinical indicators to practitioners Scope of clinical indicators: Concept of Crohn's disease, epidemiology, classifications, diagnosis, treatment, follow up, and special situations Intervention: Diagnosis (interview, physical examination, clinical laboratory tests, imaging, and pathology) and treatment (lifestyle guidance, drug therapy, nutritional therapy, surgery, etc...
January 2013: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24184171/european-evidence-based-consensus-for-endoscopy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Vito Annese, Marco Daperno, Matthew D Rutter, Aurelien Amiot, Peter Bossuyt, James East, Marc Ferrante, Martin Götz, Konstantinos H Katsanos, Ralf Kießlich, Ingrid Ordás, Alessandro Repici, Bruno Rosa, Shaji Sebastian, Torsten Kucharzik, Rami Eliakim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2013: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25767636/imaging-techniques-and-combined-medical-and-surgical-treatment-of-perianal-crohn-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
F Botti, A Losco, C Viganò, B Oreggia, M Prati, E Contessini Avesani
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which may involve any segment of the gastrointestinal tract, most frequently the terminal ileum, the large intestine, and the perianal region. The symptoms of perianal Crohn's disease include skin disorders, hemorrhoids, anal ulcers, anorectal stenosis, perianal abscesses and fistulas, rectovaginal fistulas and carcinoma of the perianal region. The perianal manifestations of Crohn's disease cause great discomfort to the patient and are among the most difficult aspects to treat...
March 2015: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22500519/evaluation-for-postoperative-recurrence-of-crohn-disease
#16
REVIEW
Jason M Swoger, Miguel Regueiro
Disease recurrence following resective surgery for Crohn disease remains a challenging clinical problem, and more studies are needed to better define risk stratification and treatment recommendations in the postoperative setting. Endoscopy remains the gold standard for the assessment of postoperative disease recurrence, and all Crohn disease patients who undergo surgery should undergo ileocolonoscopy within 6 to 12 months of surgery. The degree of endoscopic recurrence in the neoterminal ileum during this procedure provides prognostic information regarding the severity of the future disease course...
June 2012: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26125427/hepatic-granulomas-a-review-with-emphasis-on-infectious-causes
#17
REVIEW
Laura W Lamps
CONTEXT: Many diseases that cause granulomas or granulomatous inflammation involve the liver. Some of these disease processes are intrinsic hepatic diseases, whereas others are disseminated systemic diseases that involve the liver as well as other organs. OBJECTIVE: To review the evaluation of granulomas in the liver with an emphasis on infectious causes, as well as the use of special stains, serologic studies, and molecular diagnostic techniques. Pertinent noninfectious causes of hepatic granulomas that are in the differential diagnosis are also discussed...
July 2015: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626318/esophageal-stenting-for-benign-and-malignant-disease-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-clinical-guideline
#18
Manon C W Spaander, Todd H Baron, Peter D Siersema, Lorenzo Fuccio, Brigitte Schumacher, Àngels Escorsell, Juan-Carlos Garcia-Pagán, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Massimo Conio, Antonella de Ceglie, Janusz Skowronek, Marianne Nordsmark, Thomas Seufferlein, André Van Gossum, Cesare Hassan, Alessandro Repici, Marco J Bruno
This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), endorsed by the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), the European Society of Digestive Endoscopy (ESDO), and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. Main recommendations for malignant disease 1 ESGE recommends placement of partially or fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) for palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia over laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, and esophageal bypass (strong recommendation, high quality evidence)...
October 2016: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623476/diverticulosis-and-diverticulitis
#19
Amy E Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24621397/are-oxidative-stress-mechanisms-the-common-denominator-in-the-progression-from-hepatic-steatosis-towards-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#20
REVIEW
Zoon Tariq, Charlotte J Green, Leanne Hodson
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not a single disease entity, rather it describes a spectrum of liver conditions that range from fatty liver (steatosis) to more severe steatosis coupled with marked inflammation and fibrosis [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] to severe liver disease such as cirrhosis and possibly hepatocellular carcinoma. Obesity, notably abdominal obesity, is a common risk factor for NAFLD. The pathogenesis from steatosis to NASH is poorly understood, and the 'two hit' model, as suggested nearly two decades ago, provides a feasible starting point for characterization of underlying mechanisms...
August 2014: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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