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Gastrointestinal diseases

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568 papers 100 to 500 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
Francesco Vasuri, Deborah Malvi, Elisa Gruppioni, Walter F Grigioni, Antonia D'Errico-Grigioni
Although the morphological features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have been well established in the last decades, the differential diagnosis still represents a challenge for the pathologist, especially early recurrent hepatitis C vs mild acute cellular rejection. The present review focuses on the role of the pathologist and the pathology laboratory in the management of recipients with recurrent hepatitis C, the usefulness of early and late post-OLT liver biopsies, and the potential role of ancillary techniques (immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR)...
March 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Sadhna Dhingra, Stephen C Ward, Swan N Thung
Liver biopsy evaluation plays a critical role in management of patients with viral hepatitis C. In patients with acute viral hepatitis, a liver biopsy, though uncommonly performed, helps to rule out other non-viral causes of deranged liver function. In chronic viral hepatitis C, it is considered the gold standard in assessment of the degree of necroinflammation and the stage of fibrosis, to help guide treatment and determine prognosis. It also helps rule out any concomitant diseases such as steatohepatitis, hemochromatosis or others...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Douglas K Rex, Cesare Hassan, Michael J Bourke
Prevention of colorectal cancer by colonoscopy requires effective and safe insertion technique, high level detection of precancerous lesions, and skillful use of curative endoscopic resection techniques. Lesion detection, characterization, use of appropriate resection methods, prediction of cancer at colonoscopy, and management of malignant polyps, all depend on an accurate and complete understanding of an extensive vocabulary describing the histology and morphology of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Incomplete understanding of vocabulary terms can lead to management errors...
April 7, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Manuel Ramos-Casals, Anna Linda Zignego, Clodoveo Ferri, Pilar Brito-Zerón, Soledad Retamozo, Milvia Casato, Peter Lamprecht, Alessandra Mangia, David Saadoun, Athanasios G Tzioufas, Zobair M Younossi, Patrice Cacoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Felix Brunner, Annalisa Berzigotti, Jaime Bosch
Variceal haemorrhage is a major complication of portal hypertension that still causes high mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Improved knowledge of the pathophysiology of portal hypertension has recently led to a more comprehensive approach to prevent all the complications of this condition. Thus, optimal treatment of portal hypertension requires a strategy that takes into account the clinical stage of the disease and all the major variables that affect the risk of progression to the next stage and death...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Gideon M Hirschfield, Ulrich Beuers, Christophe Corpechot, Pietro Invernizzi, David Jones, Marco Marzioni, Christoph Schramm
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune cholestatic liver disease, which when untreated will culminate in end-stage biliary cirrhosis. Diagnosis is usually based on the presence of serum liver tests indicative of a cholestatic hepatitis in association with circulating antimitochondrial antibodies. Patient presentation and course can be diverse and risk stratification is important to ensure all patients receive a personalised approach to their care. The goals of treatment and management are the prevention of end-stage liver disease, and the amelioration of associated symptoms...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
W Moon, E V Loftus
BACKGROUND: Azathioprine and mercaptopurine have a pivotal role in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, because of their complex metabolism and potential toxicities, optimal use of biomarkers to predict adverse effects and therapeutic response is paramount. AIM: To provide a comprehensive review focused on pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics for safe and effective thiopurine therapy in IBD. METHODS: A literature search up to July 2015 was performed in PubMed using a combination of relevant MeSH terms...
April 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Daniel Burger, Simon Travis
Conventional therapies for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD) include aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, thiopurines, methotrexate, and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. A time-structured approach is required for appropriate management. Traditional step-up therapy has been partly replaced during the last decade by potent drugs and top-down therapies, with an accelerated step-up approach being the most appropriate in the majority of patients. When patients are diagnosed with CD or ulcerative colitis, physicians should consider the probable pattern of disease progression so that effective therapy is not delayed...
May 2011: Gastroenterology
B Pariente, D Laharie
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic objectives are currently evolving in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) from control of symptoms towards improvement of long-term disease outcomes. In patients achieving remission, safety concerns - infections or neoplasia - and economic issues are prompting de-escalation strategies. AIM: To give a complete overview of studies on de-escalating therapy in IBD. METHODS: A structured search in Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE was performed using defined key words (inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, immunosuppressants, azathioprine, methotrexate, anti-TNF, infliximab, adalimumab, de-escalation, dose reduction, cessation, stopping, withdrawal), including full text articles and abstracts in English language...
August 2014: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Siddharth Singh, Edward V Loftus, Jayant A Talwalkar
The course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) after liver transplantation (LT) for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is complex, with several IBD-, PSC-, and transplant-related factors interplaying with each other. Approximately one-third of patients with known IBD improve, and one-third paradoxically worsen, after LT for PSC. Active IBD, discontinuation of 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA) at time of LT and tacrolimus-based immunosuppression may be associated with an unfavorable course of IBD after LT. Approximately 14-30% patients with PSC may develop de novo IBD 10 years after LT...
September 2013: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Jacques Moreau, Emmanuel Mas
The management of patients with moderate to severe inflammatory bowel diseases, that is, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, remains challenging. In recent years, therapeutic goal evolved from clinical remission to mucosal healing and deep remission. In order to achieve remission, it is important to appropriately choose and use available drugs. Therefore, anti-TNFα treatment should be rapidly used for severe and at-risk patients, sometimes in association with thiopurines or methotrexate. The monitoring of through levels and antibodies to anti-TNFα is relevant to optimize the treatment and to reduce drug inefficacy...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Marta Casal Moura, Rodrigo Liberal, Hélder Cardoso, Ana Maria Horta E Vale, Guilherme Macedo
In autoimmune hepatitis, patients who are intolerant or with toxicity experience, non-responders, relapsers or refractory are challenging. Non-standard drugs are being tried to preemptively avoid corticosteroid-related side effects. Prognosis and quality of life of life rely on treatment optimization. Recently, emergence of powerful immunosuppressive agents, mainly from liver transplantation, challenged the supremacy of the corticosteroid regime and promise greater immunosuppression than conventional medications, offer site-specific actions and satisfactory patient tolerance...
June 27, 2014: World Journal of Hepatology
Alberto Unzueta, Roniel Cabrera
Liver transplantation (LT) provides a good chance of cure for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA). Patients with HCC on a waiting list for LT are at risk for tumor progression and dropout. Treatment of HCC with locoregional therapies may lessen dropout due to tumor progression. Strict selection and adherence to the LT criteria for patients with pCCA before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy are critical for optimal outcome with LT. This article reviews the existing data for the various treatment strategies used for patients with HCC and pCCA awaiting LT...
May 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
Renumathy Dhanasekaran
Liver transplantation outcomes have significantly improved over the past few decades owing largely to the introduction of effective immunosuppression medications. Further comprehension of the unique immune microenvironment of the liver has led to the development of newer molecular targeted therapeutics. Understanding the mechanism of action and adverse effect profiles of these medications is crucial for appropriate management of posttransplant patients. In this review, the author describes the immunologic response elicited by liver transplantation, chronicles the various immunosuppressant drug classes, discusses the evidence behind their use, and evaluates the management of special subpopulations of posttransplantation patients...
May 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
Claudia Seifarth, Martin E Kreis, Jörn Gröne
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) as one of the major entities of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases can affect all segments of the gastrointestinal tract but occurs most often in the small bowel, the terminal ileum, the colon, and the rectum. Typical symptoms include tiredness, lower abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea, which are initially treated by conservative measures. Most patients will eventually develop complications such as fistulas, abscesses, or strictures. Surgery is often unavoidable in these cases...
August 2015: Viszeralmedizin
Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cassio Alves de Carvalho
Terminal ileitis (TI) is an inflammatory condition of the terminal portion of the ileum that may occur acutely with right lower quadrant pain followed or not by diarrhea, or exhibit chronic obstructive symptoms and bleeding and normally it is associated to Crohn's disease (CD) although it may be associated to other different conditions. This review intended to contribute to a better understanding of TI in order to help in the diagnosis, medical approach and patient care. This work was performed on a survey of articles collected in different databases and a retrospective search was carried out to identify relevant studies in the field...
February 2016: Gastroenterology Research
Gerd A Kullak-Ublick, Raul J Andrade, Michael Merz, Peter End, Andreas Benesic, Alexander L Gerbes, Guruprasad P Aithal
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is a rare but potentially severe adverse drug reaction that should be considered in patients who develop laboratory criteria for liver injury secondary to the administration of a potentially hepatotoxic drug. Although currently used liver parameters are sensitive in detecting DILI, they are neither specific nor able to predict the patient's subsequent clinical course. Genetic risk assessment is useful mainly due to its high negative predictive value, with several human leucocyte antigen alleles being associated with DILI...
March 23, 2017: Gut
Annalisa Mantarro, Paola Scalise, Elisa Guidi, Emanuele Neri
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with unpredictable clinical course by phases of relapses alternating with other of quiescence. The etiology is multifactorial and is still not completely known; globally the westernization of lifestyle is causing an increasing incidence of CD, with peak age of 20-30 years. The diagnostic workup begins with the evaluation of the clinical history, physical examination and laboratory tests. However, the clinical assessment is subjected interobserver variability and, occasionally, the symptoms of acute and chronic inflammation may be indistinguishable...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series, and while many studies and reviews have been published on the use of FMT for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its potential use for other disease conditions has not been thoroughly reviewed...
May 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
A Aksan, H Işık, H H Radeke, A Dignass, J Stein
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associated with reduced quality of life and increased hospitalisation rates. While the best way of treating IDA in IBD patients is not clearly established, current European guidelines recommend intravenous iron therapy in IBD patients with severe anaemia or intolerance to oral iron compounds. AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of different intravenous iron formulations used to treat IDA in IBD patients in a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA), PROSPERO registration number: 42016046565...
March 21, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
2017-03-25 14:53:23
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