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Gastrointestinal diseases

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620 papers 100 to 500 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261898/gastrointestinal-diseases-in-pregnancy-nausea-vomiting-hyperemesis-gravidarum-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-constipation-and-diarrhea
#1
REVIEW
Cameron Body, Jennifer A Christie
Many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are common in pregnancy. Elevated levels of progesterone may lead to alterations in gastrointestinal motility which could contribute to nausea, vomiting, and/or GERD. Pregnancy-induced diarrhea may be due to elevated levels prostaglandins. This article reviews the normal physiologic and structural changes associated with pregnancy that could contribute to many of the common gastrointestinal complaints in pregnant patients. Additionally, the appropriate clinical and laboratory evaluations, other pathologic conditions that should be included in the differential, as well as the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies for each of these conditions is discussed...
June 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712691/biliary-bile-acids-in-hepatobiliary-injury-what-is-the-link
#2
REVIEW
Peter Fickert, Martin Wagner
The main trigger for liver injury in acquired cholestatic liver disease remains unclear. However, the accumulation of bile acids (BAs) undoubtedly plays a role. Recent progress in deciphering the pathomechanisms of inborn cholestatic liver diseases, decoding mechanisms of BA-induced cell death, and generating modern BA-derived drugs has improved the understanding of the regulation of BA synthesis and transport. Now is the appropriate time to reassess current knowledge about the specific role of BAs in hepatobiliary injury...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733222/molecular-classification-of-hepatocellular-adenoma-in-clinical-practice
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Nault, Valérie Paradis, Daniel Cherqui, Valérie Vilgrain, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
Incidental liver lesion depicted on preoperative imaging for bariatric surgery (BMI = 42) in a 34 year-old woman with oral contraceptive use of 15 years, normal blood liver tests and high CRP (11 mg/L, Nl <6). MRI showed a 6 cm liver nodule in segment V close to the gallbladder. The nodule was moderately hyperintense on T1 (in-phase) and showed a marked and heterogeneous drop in signal intensity on opposedphase sequence suggesting the presence of fat. On T2, the nodule was heterogeneous, hyperintense at the periphery and hypointense in most of the central part...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734939/public-health-acetaminophen-apap-hepatotoxicity-isn-t-it-time-for-apap-to-go-away
#4
REVIEW
William M Lee
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of pain and fever around the world. At the same time, APAP is capable of causing dose-related hepatocellular necrosis, responsible for nearly 500 deaths annually in the U.S. alone, as well as 100,000 calls to US Poison Control Centers, 50,000 emergency room visits and 10,000 hospitalizations per year. As an over-the-counter and prescription product (with opioids), APAP toxicity dwarfs all other prescription drugs as a cause for acute liver failure in the United States and Europe, but is not regulated in any significant way...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508867/bloating-and-abdominal-distension-old-misconceptions-and-current-knowledge
#5
REVIEW
Juan R Malagelada, Anna Accarino, Fernando Azpiroz
Bloating, as a symptom and abdominal distension, as a sign, are both common functional-type complaints and challenging to manage effectively. Individual patients may weight differently the impact of bloating and distension on their well-being. Complaints may range from chronic highly distressing pain to simply annoying and unfashionable protrusion of the abdomen. To avoid mishaps, organic bloating, and distension should always be considered first and appropriated assessed. Functional bloating and distension often present in association with other manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome or functional dyspepsia and in that context patients tend to regard them as most troublesome...
August 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740594/opportunities-for-treatment-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patient-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Marco Ladino, Fernando Pedraza, David Roth
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection amongst patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease exceeds that of the general population. In addition to predisposing to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, infection with HCV has been associated with extra-hepatic complications including CKD, proteinuria, glomerulonephritis, cryoglobulinemia, increased cardiovascular risk, insulin resistance, and lymphoma. With these associated morbidities, infection with HCV is not unexpectedly accompanied by an increase in mortality in the general population as well as in patients with kidney disease...
July 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702738/impact-of-etiological-treatment-on-prognosis
#7
REVIEW
Chien-Wei Su, Ying-Ying Yang, Han-Chieh Lin
Portal hypertension (PHT) is a frequent and severe complication of cirrhosis. PHT may lead to the development of various complications with high mortality. Liver transplantation is the gold standard as a surgical curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Theoretically, etiological treatment focusing on the pathophysiology of the underlying disease should be the objective of the nonsurgical management of cirrhotic PHT. Chronic viral hepatitis is the major etiology of cirrhosis and PHT. In cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, antiviral therapies can suppress viral replication, ameliorate hepatic inflammation, regress fibrosis, and restore liver functional reserve...
July 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660478/drugs-in-development-for-hepatitis-b
#8
REVIEW
Altaf Dawood, Syed Abdul Basit, Mahendran Jayaraj, Robert G Gish
With high morbidity and mortality worldwide, there is great interest in effective therapies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus. There are currently several dozen investigational agents being developed for treatment of CHB. They can be broadly divided into two categories: (1) direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that interfere with a specific step in viral replication; and (2) host-targeting agents that inhibit viral replication by modifying host cell function, with the latter group further divided into the subcategories of immune modulators and agents that target other host functions...
August 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687901/virological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a
#9
REVIEW
Kiyoaki Ito, Masashi Yoneda, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Masashi Mizokami
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most prevalent chronic viral infections in humans. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is reported to be 3.6%; however, it varies depending upon the geographic area. HBV is classified into ten genotypes (A through J) on the basis of an intergroup genomic divergence of > 8%. Specifically, HBV genotype A exhibits several unique virological and clinical characteristics and can be further classified into seven subtypes. Among them, subtype A2 or Ae (A2/[e]) is occasionally responsible for nosocomial infection and among homosexual males...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721213/diagnostic-approaches-and-treatment-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-a-review-article
#10
REVIEW
Hossein Akhondi
Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a condition that involves eosinophilic influx into the esophageal epithelium. It affects both children and adults; Adults present with dysphagia whereas children with vague abdominal complaints. The clinical symptoms as well as pathologic features of EoE and gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) are similar. Since eosinophilia in the esophagus is a non-specific finding, the clinical presentation in conjunction with endoscopic findings and pathology, is crucial in determining a differential diagnosis...
August 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26142032/role-of-medical-therapy-for-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#11
REVIEW
Kyle J Fortinsky, Marc Bardou, Alan N Barkun
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mortality from UGIB has remained 5-10% over the past decade. This article presents current evidence-based recommendations for the medical management of UGIB. Preendoscopic management includes initial resuscitation, risk stratification, appropriate use of blood products, and consideration of nasogastric tube insertion, erythromycin, and proton pump inhibitor therapy. The use of postendoscopic intravenous proton pump inhibitors is strongly recommended for certain patient populations...
July 2015: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23492985/endovascular-management-of-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage
#12
REVIEW
Ahmed K Abdel-Aal, Asim K Bag, Souheil Saddekni, Maysoon F Hamed, Fatma Y Ahmed
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) remains a frequent presentation in the emergency department. There are several causes of UGIB, which can be generally classified into variceal and nonvariceal bleeding. Although most cases of nonvariceal UGIB spontaneously resolve or respond to medical management and/or endoscopic treatment, transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) remains an important available tool in the emergency evaluation and management of nonvariceal UGIB. In this article, we will discuss the current strategies for rendering a specific diagnosis of nonvariceal UGIB, and we will focus on the various TAE techniques for its management...
July 2013: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417980/diagnosis-and-management-of-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-hemorrhage-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-guideline
#13
Ian M Gralnek, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Ernst J Kuipers, Angel Lanas, David S Sanders, Matthew Kurien, Gianluca Rotondano, Tomas Hucl, Mario Dinis-Ribeiro, Riccardo Marmo, Istvan Racz, Alberto Arezzo, Ralf-Thorsten Hoffmann, Gilles Lesur, Roberto de Franchis, Lars Aabakken, Andrew Veitch, Franco Radaelli, Paulo Salgueiro, Ricardo Cardoso, Luís Maia, Angelo Zullo, Livio Cipolletta, Cesare Hassan
This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (NVUGIH). Main Recommendations MR1. ESGE recommends immediate assessment of hemodynamic status in patients who present with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH), with prompt intravascular volume replacement initially using crystalloid fluids if hemodynamic instability exists (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence)...
October 2015: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26054245/transcatheter-arterial-embolization-for-acute-nonvariceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-indications-techniques-and-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
R Loffroy, S Favelier, P Pottecher, L Estivalet, P Y Genson, S Gehin, J P Cercueil, D Krausé
Over the past three decades, transcatheter arterial embolization has become the first-line therapy for the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that is refractory to endoscopic hemostasis. Advances in catheter-based techniques and newer embolic agents, as well as recognition of the effectiveness of minimally invasive treatment options, have expanded the role of interventional radiology in the treatment of bleeding for a variety of indications. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a fast, safe, and effective minimally invasive alternative to surgery, when endoscopic treatment fails to control acute bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract...
July 2015: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624102/hepatitis-e-virus-a-potential-threat-for-patients-with-liver-disease-and-liver-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Annemiek A van der Eijk, Suzan D Pas, Robert A de Man
Immunocompromised patients are at risk of acquiring acute hepatitis E virus infection (HEV), leading to chronicity. Chronic HEV infection is associated with persistent viraemia, raised transaminase activity, histological features associated with chronic hepatitis and evidence of rapid development of cirrhosis. Extrahepatic manifestations have been associated with HEV. Most frequently reported are neurological disorders with predominantly involvement of the peripheral nervous system. In patients using immunosuppressive drugs antibody production is often delayed and HEV RNA detection is superior to serology to detect infection...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22645090/importance-of-liver-biopsy-findings-in-immunosuppression-management-biopsy-monitoring-and-working-criteria-for-patients-with-operational-tolerance
#16
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
Obstacles to morbidity-free long-term survival after liver transplantation (LT) include complications of immunosuppression (IS), recurrence of the original disease and malignancies, and unexplained chronic hepatitis and graft fibrosis. Many programs attempt to minimize chronic exposure to IS by reducing dosages and stopping steroids. A few programs have successfully weaned a highly select group of recipients from all IS without apparent adverse consequences, but long-term follow-up is limited. Patients subjected to adjustments in IS are usually followed by serial liver chemistry tests, which are relatively insensitive methods for detecting allograft damage...
October 2012: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236421/diagnosis-and-management-of-gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors-an-evidence-based-canadian-consensus
#17
REVIEW
Simron Singh, Sylvia L Asa, Chris Dey, Hagen Kennecke, David Laidley, Calvin Law, Timothy Asmis, David Chan, Shereen Ezzat, Rachel Goodwin, Ozgur Mete, Janice Pasieka, Juan Rivera, Ralph Wong, Eva Segelov, Daniel Rayson
The majority of neuroendocrine tumors originate in the digestive system and incidence is increasing within Canada and globally. Due to rapidly evolving evidence related to diagnosis and clinical management, updated guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are of clinical importance. Well-differentiated GI-NETs may exhibit indolent clinical behavior and are often metastatic at diagnosis. Some NET patients will develop secretory disease requiring symptom control to optimize quality of life and clinical outcomes...
June 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22052063/guidelines-for-the-management-of-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-including-carcinoid-tumours-nets
#18
John K Ramage, A Ahmed, J Ardill, N Bax, D J Breen, M E Caplin, P Corrie, J Davar, A H Davies, V Lewington, T Meyer, J Newell-Price, G Poston, N Reed, A Rockall, W Steward, R V Thakker, C Toubanakis, J Valle, C Verbeke, A B Grossman
These guidelines update previous guidance published in 2005. They have been revised by a group who are members of the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society with endorsement from the clinical committees of the British Society of Gastroenterology, the Society for Endocrinology, the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland (and its Surgical Specialty Associations), the British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology and others. The authorship represents leaders of the various groups in the UK and Ireland Neuroendocrine Tumour Society, but a large amount of work has been carried out by other specialists, many of whom attended a guidelines conference in May 2009...
January 2012: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917667/prophylactic-antibiotics-in-acute-pancreatitis-endless-debate
#19
M M Mourad, Rpt Evans, V Kalidindi, R Navaratnam, L Dvorkin, S R Bramhall
INTRODUCTION The development of pancreatic infection is associated with the development of a deteriorating disease with subsequent high morbidity and mortality. There is agreement that in mild pancreatitis there is no need to use antibiotics; in severe pancreatitis it would appear to be a logical choice to use antibiotics to prevent secondary pancreatic infection and decrease associated mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A non-systematic review of current evidence, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials was conducted to assess the role of prophylactic antibiotics in acute pancreatitis and whether it might improve morbidity and mortality in pancreatitis...
February 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262458/early-management-of-acute-pancreatitis-a-review-of-the-best-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Serena Stigliano, Hanna Sternby, Enrique de Madaria, Gabriele Capurso, Maxim S Petrov
In the 20th century early management of acute pancreatitis often included surgical intervention, despite overwhelming mortality. The emergence of high-quality evidence (randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses) over the past two decades has notably shifted the treatment paradigm towards predominantly non-surgical management early in the course of acute pancreatitis. The present evidence-based review focuses on contemporary aspects of early management (which include analgesia, fluid resuscitation, antibiotics, nutrition, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) with a view to providing clear and succinct guidelines on early management of patients with acute pancreatitis in 2017 and beyond...
June 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
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