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Gastrointestinal diseases

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648 papers 100 to 500 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866876/understanding-the-chicago-classification-from-tracings-to-patients
#1
REVIEW
Francisco Schlottmann, Fernando A Herbella, Marco G Patti
Current parameters of the Chicago classification include assessment of the esophageal body (contraction vigour and peristalsis), lower esophageal sphincter relaxation pressure, and intra-bolus pressure pattern. Esophageal disorders include achalasia, esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, major disorders of peristalsis, and minor disorders of peristalsis. Sub-classification of achalasia in types I, II, and III seems to be useful to predict outcomes and choose the optimal treatment approach. The real clinical significance of other new parameters and disorders is still under investigation...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110162/recent-advances-in-the-pharmacological-management-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#2
REVIEW
Yu-Min Kung, Wen-Hung Hsu, Meng-Chieh Wu, Jiunn-Wei Wang, Chung-Jung Liu, Yu-Chung Su, Chao-Hung Kuo, Fu-Chen Kuo, Deng-Chyang Wu, Yao-Kuang Wang
The management of proton pump inhibitor-refractory GERD (rGERD) is a challenge in clinical practice. Since up to one-third of patients with typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) are not satisfied with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, new drug development targeting different pathophysiologies of GERD is imperative. At present, no other drugs serve as a more potent acid suppression agent than PPIs. As an add-on therapy, histamine type-2 receptor antagonists, alginates, prokinetics and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation inhibitors have some impact on the subgroups of rGERD, but greater effectiveness and fewer adverse effects for widespread use are required...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12853664/radiologic-diagnosis-of-benign-esophageal-strictures-a-pattern-approach
#3
REVIEW
Pia Luedtke, Marc S Levine, Stephen E Rubesin, Donald S Weinstein, Igor Laufer
Benign esophageal strictures are a leading cause of dysphagia. Therefore, radiologists have an important role in detecting esophageal strictures and determining their cause. The most common cause of strictures in the distal esophagus is gastroesophageal reflux disease. Reflux-induced ("peptic") strictures may be associated with sacculations, fixed transverse folds, or esophageal intramural pseudodiverticula. In addition, scleroderma, nasogastric intubation, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and alkaline reflux esophagitis may be associated with stricture formation in the distal esophagus...
July 2003: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521870/the-use-of-statins-alone-or-in-combination-with-pioglitazone-and-other-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-related-cardiovascular-risk-an-expert-panel-statement
#4
REVIEW
Vasilios G Athyros, Theodore K Alexandrides, Helen Bilianou, Evangelos Cholongitas, Michael Doumas, Emmanuel S Ganotakis, John Goudevenos, Moses S Elisaf, Georgios Germanidis, Olga Giouleme, Asterios Karagiannis, Charalambos Karvounis, Niki Katsiki, Vasilios Kotsis, Jannis Kountouras, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Christos Pitsavos, Stergios Polyzos, Loukianos S Rallidis, Dimitrios Richter, Apostolos G Tsapas, Alexandros D Tselepis, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Konstantinos Tziomalos, Themistoklis Tzotzas, Themistoklis G Vasiliadis, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Christos Mantzoros
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease, is characterized by accumulation of fat (>5% of the liver tissue), in the absence of alcohol abuse or other chronic liver diseases. It is closely related to the epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD can cause liver inflammation and progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Nevertheless, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in NAFLD/NASH patients...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26795574/evidence-based-diagnosis-staging-and-treatment-of-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Jordi Bruix, Maria Reig, Morris Sherman
Evidence-based management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is key to their optimal care. For individuals at risk for HCC, surveillance usually involves ultrasonography (there is controversy over use of biomarkers). A diagnosis of HCC is made based on findings from biopsy or imaging analyses. Molecular markers are not used in diagnosis or determination of prognosis and treatment for patients. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer algorithm is the most widely used staging system. Patients with single liver tumors or as many as 3 nodules ≤3 cm are classified as having very early or early-stage cancer and benefit from resection, transplantation, or ablation...
April 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780939/chinese-expert-consensus-on-multidisciplinary-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-portal-vein-tumor-thrombus-2016-edition
#6
REVIEW
Shuqun Cheng, Minshan Chen, Jianqiang Cai
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in China. Portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) is common and it worsens prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There is no internationally accepted consensus or guideline for diagnosis and treatment of HCC with PVTT. Based on existing evidences and common current practices, Chinese Experts on Multidisciplinary Diagnosis and Treatment of HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus met to develop a national consensus on diagnosis and treatment of HCC with PVTT...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20049084/hepatology-guidelines-on-parenteral-nutrition-chapter-16
#7
REVIEW
M Plauth, T Schuetz
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated in alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and in cirrhotic patients with moderate or severe malnutrition. PN should be started immediately when sufficientl oral or enteral feeding is not possible. ASH and cirrhosis patients who can be sufficiently fed either orally or enterally, but who have to abstain from food over a period of more than 12 hours (including nocturnal fasting) should receive basal glucose infusion (2-3 g/kg/d). Total PN is required if such fasting periods last longer than 72 h...
November 18, 2009: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027577/a-practical-approach-to-nutritional-screening-and-assessment-in-cirrhosis
#8
REVIEW
Puneeta Tandon, Maitreyi Raman, Marina Mourtzakis, Manuela Merli
Malnutrition is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis, associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. As a potentially modifiable condition, it is of particular importance to identify malnourished patients so that nutritional therapy can be instituted. Nutrition screening and assessment are infrequently performed in patients with cirrhosis. The reasons for this are multifactorial, including the absence of a validated "rapid" screening tool, multiple definitions of what constitutes malnutrition, and challenges with interpreting body composition and laboratory results in the setting of volume overload and liver dysfunction...
March 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053792/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-infectious-diarrhea
#9
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
October 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043071/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-peptic-ulcer-bleeding
#10
REVIEW
Ian Beales
Acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to peptic ulcer bleeding remains an important cause of emergency presentation and hospital admission. Despite advances in many aspects of management, peptic ulcer bleeding is still associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Comprehensive international guidelines have been published, but advances as well as controversies continue to evolve. Important recent advances include the evidence supporting a more restrictive transfusion strategy aiming for a target haemoglobin of 70-90 g/l...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26378648/pharmacotherapy-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Samer Gawrieh, Naga Chalasani
Lifestyle modifications and optimization of the management of cardiometabolic comorbidities are currently the mainstay of treatment for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Pharmacotherapy to halt or reverse hepatic histological injury and prevent the development of end-stage liver disease is specifically offered to patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and those with advanced fibrosis. In this review, the authors discuss the state of the art of various pharmacological agents for NASH...
August 2015: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959299/drug-induced-liver-injury
#12
Leslie A Hamilton, Angela Collins-Yoder, Rachel E Collins
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can result from both idiosyncratic and intrinsic mechanisms. This article discusses the clinical impact of DILI from a broad range of medications as well as herbal and dietary supplements. Risk factors for idiosyncratic DILI (IDILI) are the result of multiple host, environmental, and compound factors. Some triggers of IDILI often seen in critical care include antibiotics, antiepileptic medications, statins, novel anticoagulants, proton pump inhibitors, inhaled anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and azathioprine...
October 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21115579/current-approaches-to-the-treatment-of-early-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Sheng-Long Ye, Tadatoshi Takayama, Jeff Geschwind, Jorge A Marrero, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki
For patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), potentially curative treatment options exist, including liver transplantation, surgical resection, and ablation therapy. These treatments are associated with survival benefits, and outcomes are optimized by identification of appropriate patients. However, further studies are needed to definitively confirm optimal treatment approaches for all patients. Treatment patterns vary in different parts of the world as a result of geographic differences in the incidence and presentation of the disease...
2010: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185005/management-and-follow-up-of-gallbladder-polyps-joint-guidelines-between-the-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-and-abdominal-radiology-esgar-european-association-for-endoscopic-surgery-and-other-interventional-techniques-eaes-international-society-of-digestive
#14
Rebecca Wiles, Ruedi F Thoeni, Sorin Traian Barbu, Yogesh K Vashist, Søren Rafael Rafaelsen, Catherine Dewhurst, Marianna Arvanitakis, Max Lahaye, Marek Soltes, Julie Perinel, Stuart Ashley Roberts
OBJECTIVES: The management of incidentally detected gallbladder polyps on radiological examinations is contentious. The incidental radiological finding of a gallbladder polyp can therefore be problematic for the radiologist and the clinician who referred the patient for the radiological examination. To address this a joint guideline was created by the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR), European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and other Interventional Techniques (EAES), International Society of Digestive Surgery - European Federation (EFISDS) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE)...
September 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856437/diagnosis-and-empirical-treatment-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-fuo-in-adult-neutropenic-patients-guidelines-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-agiho-of-the-german-society-of-hematology-and-medical-oncology-dgho
#15
REVIEW
W J Heinz, D Buchheidt, M Christopeit, M von Lilienfeld-Toal, O A Cornely, H Einsele, M Karthaus, H Link, R Mahlberg, S Neumann, H Ostermann, O Penack, M Ruhnke, M Sandherr, X Schiel, J J Vehreschild, F Weissinger, G Maschmeyer
Fever may be the only clinical symptom at the onset of infection in neutropenic cancer patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy. A prompt and evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approach is mandatory. A systematic search of current literature was conducted, including only full papers and excluding allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy were developed by an expert panel and approved after plenary discussion by the AGIHO. Randomized clinical trials were mainly available for therapeutic decisions, and new diagnostic procedures have been introduced into clinical practice in the past decade...
November 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794797/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-guidelines-of-the-world-society-of-emergency-surgery
#16
REVIEW
Miklosh Bala, Jeffry Kashuk, Ernest E Moore, Yoram Kluger, Walter Biffl, Carlos Augusto Gomes, Offir Ben-Ishay, Chen Rubinstein, Zsolt J Balogh, Ian Civil, Federico Coccolini, Ari Leppaniemi, Andrew Peitzman, Luca Ansaloni, Michael Sugrue, Massimo Sartelli, Salomone Di Saverio, Gustavo P Fraga, Fausto Catena
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is typically defined as a group of diseases characterized by an interruption of the blood supply to varying portions of the small intestine, leading to ischemia and secondary inflammatory changes. If untreated, this process will eventuate in life threatening intestinal necrosis. The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09-0.2% of all acute surgical admissions. Therefore, although the entity is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, diligence is always required because if untreated, mortality has consistently been reported in the range of 50%...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802875/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
Tom H Karlsen, Trine Folseraas, Douglas Thorburn, Mette Vesterhus
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare disorder characterised by multi-focal bile duct strictures and progressive liver disease. Inflammatory bowel disease is usually present and there is a high risk of cholangiocarcinoma and colorectal cancer. Most patients ultimately require liver transplantation, after which disease recurrence may occur. With limited therapeutic options and a lack of proven surveillance strategies, patients currently have significant unmet needs. In the present seminar, we provide a comprehensive review of the status of the field...
December 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25311444/espen-endorsed-recommendations-definition-and-classification-of-intestinal-failure-in-adults
#18
Loris Pironi, Jann Arends, Janet Baxter, Federico Bozzetti, Rosa Burgos Peláez, Cristina Cuerda, Alastair Forbes, Simon Gabe, Lyn Gillanders, Mette Holst, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Francisca Joly, Darlene Kelly, Stanislaw Klek, Øivind Irtun, S W Olde Damink, Marina Panisic, Henrik Højgaard Rasmussen, Michael Staun, Kinga Szczepanek, André Van Gossum, Geert Wanten, Stéphane Michel Schneider, Jon Shaffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal failure (IF) is not included in the list of PubMed Mesh terms, as failure is the term describing a state of non functioning of other organs, and as such is not well recognized. No scientific society has yet devised a formal definition and classification of IF. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism guideline committee endorsed its "home artificial nutrition and chronic IF" and "acute IF" special interest groups to write recommendations on these issues...
April 2015: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778687/hepatitis-b-cure-from-discovery-to-regulatory-approval
#19
REVIEW
Anna S Lok, Fabien Zoulim, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Marc G Ghany
The majority of persons currently treated for chronic hepatitis B require long-term or lifelong therapy. New inhibitors of hepatitis B virus entry, replication, assembly, or secretion and immune modulatory therapies are in development. The introduction of these novel compounds for chronic hepatitis B necessitates a standardised appraisal of the efficacy and safety of these treatments and definitions of new or additional endpoints to inform clinical trials. To move the field forward and to expedite the pathway from discovery to regulatory approval, a workshop with key stakeholders was held in September 2016 to develop a consensus on treatment endpoints to guide the design of clinical trials aimed at hepatitis B cure...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24842416/biological-agents-for-moderately-to-severely-active-ulcerative-colitis-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Silvio Danese, Gionata Fiorino, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Gianni Virgili, Lorenzo Moja, Stefanos Bonovas
BACKGROUND: Biological agents are emerging treatment options for the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). PURPOSE: To assess the comparative efficacy and harm of biological agents in adult patients with moderately to severely active UC who are naive to biological agents. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from inception through December 2013, without language restrictions, and ClinicalTrials.gov, European Medicines Agency, and U...
May 20, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
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