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Gastrointestinal diseases

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635 papers 100 to 500 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185005/management-and-follow-up-of-gallbladder-polyps-joint-guidelines-between-the-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-and-abdominal-radiology-esgar-european-association-for-endoscopic-surgery-and-other-interventional-techniques-eaes-international-society-of-digestive
#1
Rebecca Wiles, Ruedi F Thoeni, Sorin Traian Barbu, Yogesh K Vashist, Søren Rafael Rafaelsen, Catherine Dewhurst, Marianna Arvanitakis, Max Lahaye, Marek Soltes, Julie Perinel, Stuart Ashley Roberts
OBJECTIVES: The management of incidentally detected gallbladder polyps on radiological examinations is contentious. The incidental radiological finding of a gallbladder polyp can therefore be problematic for the radiologist and the clinician who referred the patient for the radiological examination. To address this a joint guideline was created by the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR), European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and other Interventional Techniques (EAES), International Society of Digestive Surgery - European Federation (EFISDS) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE)...
September 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856437/diagnosis-and-empirical-treatment-of-fever-of-unknown-origin-fuo-in-adult-neutropenic-patients-guidelines-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-agiho-of-the-german-society-of-hematology-and-medical-oncology-dgho
#2
REVIEW
W J Heinz, D Buchheidt, M Christopeit, M von Lilienfeld-Toal, O A Cornely, H Einsele, M Karthaus, H Link, R Mahlberg, S Neumann, H Ostermann, O Penack, M Ruhnke, M Sandherr, X Schiel, J J Vehreschild, F Weissinger, G Maschmeyer
Fever may be the only clinical symptom at the onset of infection in neutropenic cancer patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy. A prompt and evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic approach is mandatory. A systematic search of current literature was conducted, including only full papers and excluding allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Recommendations for diagnosis and therapy were developed by an expert panel and approved after plenary discussion by the AGIHO. Randomized clinical trials were mainly available for therapeutic decisions, and new diagnostic procedures have been introduced into clinical practice in the past decade...
August 30, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794797/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-guidelines-of-the-world-society-of-emergency-surgery
#3
REVIEW
Miklosh Bala, Jeffry Kashuk, Ernest E Moore, Yoram Kluger, Walter Biffl, Carlos Augusto Gomes, Offir Ben-Ishay, Chen Rubinstein, Zsolt J Balogh, Ian Civil, Federico Coccolini, Ari Leppaniemi, Andrew Peitzman, Luca Ansaloni, Michael Sugrue, Massimo Sartelli, Salomone Di Saverio, Gustavo P Fraga, Fausto Catena
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is typically defined as a group of diseases characterized by an interruption of the blood supply to varying portions of the small intestine, leading to ischemia and secondary inflammatory changes. If untreated, this process will eventuate in life threatening intestinal necrosis. The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09-0.2% of all acute surgical admissions. Therefore, although the entity is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, diligence is always required because if untreated, mortality has consistently been reported in the range of 50%...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802875/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Tom H Karlsen, Trine Folseraas, Douglas Thorburn, Mette Vesterhus
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare disorder characterized by multi-focal bile duct strictures and progressive liver disease. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is usually present and there is a high risk of cholangiocarcinoma and colorectal cancer. With no effective medical therapy, most patients ultimately require liver transplantation, after which disease recurrence may occur. With limited therapeutic options and lack of proven surveillance strategies, patients experience significant unmet needs...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25311444/espen-endorsed-recommendations-definition-and-classification-of-intestinal-failure-in-adults
#5
Loris Pironi, Jann Arends, Janet Baxter, Federico Bozzetti, Rosa Burgos Peláez, Cristina Cuerda, Alastair Forbes, Simon Gabe, Lyn Gillanders, Mette Holst, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Francisca Joly, Darlene Kelly, Stanislaw Klek, Øivind Irtun, S W Olde Damink, Marina Panisic, Henrik Højgaard Rasmussen, Michael Staun, Kinga Szczepanek, André Van Gossum, Geert Wanten, Stéphane Michel Schneider, Jon Shaffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal failure (IF) is not included in the list of PubMed Mesh terms, as failure is the term describing a state of non functioning of other organs, and as such is not well recognized. No scientific society has yet devised a formal definition and classification of IF. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism guideline committee endorsed its "home artificial nutrition and chronic IF" and "acute IF" special interest groups to write recommendations on these issues...
April 2015: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778687/hepatitis-b-cure-from-discovery-to-regulatory-approval
#6
REVIEW
Anna S Lok, Fabien Zoulim, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Marc G Ghany
The majority of persons currently treated for chronic hepatitis B require long-term or lifelong therapy. New inhibitors of hepatitis B virus entry, replication, assembly, or secretion and immune modulatory therapies are in development. The introduction of these novel compounds for chronic hepatitis B necessitates a standardised appraisal of the efficacy and safety of these treatments and definitions of new or additional endpoints to inform clinical trials. To move the field forward and to expedite the pathway from discovery to regulatory approval, a workshop with key stakeholders was held in September 2016 to develop a consensus on treatment endpoints to guide the design of clinical trials aimed at hepatitis B cure...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24842416/biological-agents-for-moderately-to-severely-active-ulcerative-colitis-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Silvio Danese, Gionata Fiorino, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Gianni Virgili, Lorenzo Moja, Stefanos Bonovas
BACKGROUND: Biological agents are emerging treatment options for the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). PURPOSE: To assess the comparative efficacy and harm of biological agents in adult patients with moderately to severely active UC who are naive to biological agents. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library from inception through December 2013, without language restrictions, and ClinicalTrials.gov, European Medicines Agency, and U...
May 20, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27022240/selective-biologics-for-ulcerative-colitis-and-crohn-s-disease-clinical-utility-of-vedolizumab
#8
REVIEW
Jill Mv Petkau, Bertus Eksteen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses a cluster of different disease phenotypes which are broadly classified into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Disease pathogenesis is driven by abnormal host immune responses to their resident gut microbiome in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical disease features and outcomes are heterogenous and not unexpected as over 163 genetic loci are associated with disease susceptibility, and there are great variability in environmental exposures. Despite this variability, there has been relatively few efficacious therapies for particularly moderate-to-severe IBD...
2016: Biologics: Targets & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25547087/current-and-emerging-biologics-for-ulcerative-colitis
#9
REVIEW
Sung Chul Park, Yoon Tae Jeen
Conventional medical treatment for ulcerative colitis can have limited efficacy or severe adverse reactions requiring additional treatment or colectomy. Hence, different biological agents that target specific immunological pathways are be-ing investigated for treating ulcerative colitis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents were the first biologics to be used for treating inflammatory bowel disease. For example, infliximab and adalimumab, which are anti-TNF agents, are be-ing used for treating ulcerative colitis...
January 2015: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786407/strategies-to-combat-physician-burnout-in-gastroenterology
#10
Joseph C Anderson, Sheryl Pfeil, Christina Surawicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21844919/the-london-position-statement-of-the-world-congress-of-gastroenterology-on-biological-therapy-for-ibd-with-the-european-crohn-s-and-colitis-organisation-safety
#11
REVIEW
Gert Van Assche, James D Lewis, Gary R Lichtenstein, Edward V Loftus, Qin Ouyang, Julian Panes, Corey A Siegel, William J Sandborn, Simon P L Travis, Jean-Frederic Colombel
This paper in the series from the World Congress of Gastroenterology addresses the safety and immunogenicity of biological therapy. The safety profile in randomized controlled studies of all biological agents in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis has been generally favorable, but a small percentage of patients experience severe side effects on biological therapy, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, lymphoma, demyelination, drug-induced lupus, or hepatotoxicity. Although there is unequivocal evidence of an increased risk of serious infection among patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy, the evidence is less clear in CD...
September 2011: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21157441/the-london-position-statement-of-the-world-congress-of-gastroenterology-on-biological-therapy-for-ibd-with-the-european-crohn-s-and-colitis-organisation-pregnancy-and-pediatrics
#12
REVIEW
Uma Mahadevan, Salvatore Cucchiara, Jeffrey S Hyams, Flavio Steinwurz, F Nuti, Simon P L Travis, William J Sandborn, Jean-Frederio Colombel
Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have similar rates of fertility to the general population, but have an increased rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with the general population, which may be worsened by disease activity. Infertility is increased in those undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in pregnancy is considered to be low risk and compatible with use during conception in men and women and during pregnancy in at least the first two trimesters. Infliximab (IFX) and certolizumab pegol are also compatible with breastfeeding, but safety data for adalimumab (ADA) are awaited...
February 2011: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24352337/biologic-therapies-and-pregnancy-the-story-so-far
#13
Kimme L Hyrich, Suzanne M M Verstappen
Biologic therapies have revolutionized treatment outcomes for patients with inflammatory arthritis. However, there remains a concern regarding their safety during conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Data on the safety of these treatments are largely limited to uncontrolled case reports. Collective evidence from many hundreds of pregnancies in inflammatory arthritis and IBD have suggested that exposure to anti-TNF therapies at the time of conception or during the first trimester does not result in an increased risk of adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes...
August 2014: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21427713/assessing-response-and-loss-of-response-to-biological-therapies-in-ibd
#14
REVIEW
Henit Yanai, Stephen B Hanauer
OBJECTIVES: The advent of biological therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) began in 1998 with the approval of infliximab for the treatment of refractory (to conventional agents) Crohn's disease (CD). Since then, the indications for anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) therapy have increased to include induction and maintenance of clinical responses and remissions for luminal and fistulizing CD, the treatment of children with CD, and the treatment of adults with ulcerative colitis...
April 2011: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189635/medical-endoscopic-and-surgical-management-of-ileal-pouch%C3%A2-strictures-with-video
#15
REVIEW
Shishira Bharadwaj, Bo Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27261898/gastrointestinal-diseases-in-pregnancy-nausea-vomiting-hyperemesis-gravidarum-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-constipation-and-diarrhea
#16
REVIEW
Cameron Body, Jennifer A Christie
Many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are common in pregnancy. Elevated levels of progesterone may lead to alterations in gastrointestinal motility which could contribute to nausea, vomiting, and/or GERD. Pregnancy-induced diarrhea may be due to elevated levels prostaglandins. This article reviews the normal physiologic and structural changes associated with pregnancy that could contribute to many of the common gastrointestinal complaints in pregnant patients. Additionally, the appropriate clinical and laboratory evaluations, other pathologic conditions that should be included in the differential, as well as the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies for each of these conditions is discussed...
June 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712691/biliary-bile-acids-in-hepatobiliary-injury-what-is-the-link
#17
REVIEW
Peter Fickert, Martin Wagner
The main trigger for liver injury in acquired cholestatic liver disease remains unclear. However, the accumulation of bile acids (BAs) undoubtedly plays a role. Recent progress in deciphering the pathomechanisms of inborn cholestatic liver diseases, decoding mechanisms of BA-induced cell death, and generating modern BA-derived drugs has improved the understanding of the regulation of BA synthesis and transport. Now is the appropriate time to reassess current knowledge about the specific role of BAs in hepatobiliary injury...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733222/molecular-classification-of-hepatocellular-adenoma-in-clinical-practice
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Charles Nault, Valérie Paradis, Daniel Cherqui, Valérie Vilgrain, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are rare benign liver tumors occurring in young women taking contraception. They are associated with rare complications such as bleeding or malignant transformation into hepatocellular carcinoma. A molecular classification has divided HCA in several subgroups linked with risk factors, clinical behaviour, histological features and imaging: HNF1A inactivated HCA, Inflammatory HCA, CTNNB1 mutated HCA in exon 3, CTNNB1 mutated in exon 7 and 8 HCA, sonic hedgehog HCA and unclassified HCA...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734939/acetaminophen-apap-hepatotoxicity-isn-t-it-time-for-apap-to-go-away
#19
REVIEW
William M Lee
Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of pain and fever around the world. At the same time, APAP can cause dose-related hepatocellular necrosis, responsible for nearly 500 deaths annually in the United States (US) alone, as well as 100,000 calls to US Poison Control Centers, 50,000 emergency room visits and 10,000 hospitalisations per year. As an over-the-counter and prescription product (with opioids), APAP toxicity dwarfs all other prescription drugs as a cause of acute liver failure in the US and Europe, but it is not regulated in any significant way...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508867/bloating-and-abdominal-distension-old-misconceptions-and-current-knowledge
#20
REVIEW
Juan R Malagelada, Anna Accarino, Fernando Azpiroz
Bloating, as a symptom and abdominal distension, as a sign, are both common functional-type complaints and challenging to manage effectively. Individual patients may weight differently the impact of bloating and distension on their well-being. Complaints may range from chronic highly distressing pain to simply annoying and unfashionable protrusion of the abdomen. To avoid mishaps, organic bloating, and distension should always be considered first and appropriated assessed. Functional bloating and distension often present in association with other manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome or functional dyspepsia and in that context patients tend to regard them as most troublesome...
August 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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