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Gastrointestinal diseases

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802 papers 500 to 1000 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
Clayton M Spiceland, Nilesh Lodhia
Endoscopy plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy have long been used in the care of patients with IBD. As endoscopic technologies have progressed, tools such as endoscopic ultrasound, capsule endoscopy, and balloon-assisted enteroscopy have expanded the role of endoscopy in IBD. Furthermore, chromoendoscopy has enhanced our ability to detect dysplasia in IBD. In this review article, we will focus on the roles, indications, and limitations of these tools in IBD...
September 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Emilia Hadziyannis, Andreas Laras
Viral biomarkers are important tools for monitoring chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg) negative infection, both in its natural course as well as during and after treatment. The biomarkers consist of antibodies against viral epitopes, viral proteins, and molecular surrogate markers of the quantity and transcriptional activity of the stable episomal HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) which is located in the nuclei of the infected hepatocytes. HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or else viral load measurement in plasma or serum is a marker of HBV replication of major clinical importance...
September 27, 2018: Genes
Francis Y Yao, Nicholas Fidelman
UNLABELLED: Down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplantation (LT) has generated a lot of interest in recent years and has been identified in two recent national conferences on hepatocellular carcinoma as one of the priorities for research. Down-staging is defined as reduction in the tumor burden using local regional therapy specifically to meet acceptable criteria for LT. The rationale behind down-staging of tumors initially exceeding conventional criteria for LT is to select a subgroup of tumors with favorable biology and prognosis for LT as assessed by their response to local regional therapy...
March 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Patrick R Wood, Liron Caplan
A variety of gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions are seen in nearly all conventional antirheumatic medications, ranging from nausea to life-threatening drug-induced liver injury. Rheumatologists should be particularly familiar with hepatotoxicity associated with long-term methotrexate use, and the range of unique hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic manifestations associated with azathioprine. Hepatitis B virus reactivation is the most serious gastrointestinal disease risk associated with many biological therapies, particularly rituximab...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Narendra S Choudhary, Sanjiv Saigal, Rinkesh K Bansal, Neeraj Saraf, Dheeraj Gautam, Arvinder S Soin
While antibody mediated hyper-acute vasculitic rejection is rare in liver transplant recipients, acute and chronic rejection have clinical significance. The liver allograft behaves differently to other solid organ transplants as acute rejection generally does not impair graft survival and chronic rejection (CR) is uncommon. The incidence of acute and chronic rejection has declined in current era due to improved immunosuppressive regimens. Acute rejection generally improves with steroid boluses and steroid resistant rejection is uncommon...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Dominique-Charles Valla
BACKGROUND: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare disease characterized by hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction (HVOTO). METHODS: Recent literature has been analyzed for this narrative review. RESULTS: Primary BCS/HVOTO is a result of thrombosis. The same patient often has multiple risk factors for venous thrombosis and most have at least one. Presentation and etiology may differ between Western and certain Eastern countries. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are present in 40% of patients and are usually associated with the V617F-JAK2 mutation in myeloid cells, in particular peripheral blood granulocytes...
February 2018: Hepatology International
Mhairi C Donnelly, Peter C Hayes, Kenneth J Simpson
The etiology and outcomes of acute liver failure (ALF) have changed since the definition of this disease entity in the 1970s. In particular, the role of emergency liver transplantation has evolved over time, with the development of prognostic scoring systems to facilitate listing of appropriate patients, and a better understanding of transplant benefit in patients with ALF. This review examines the changing etiology of ALF, transplant benefit, outcomes following transplantation, and future alternatives to emergency liver transplantation in this devastating condition...
April 2016: Liver Transplantation
Mark J W McPhail, Stephen Kriese, Michael A Heneghan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare but life-threatening systemic disorder. Survival rates with or without emergency liver transplantation (ELT) are increasing. The benefit of ELT in some cases has been questioned and the potential for survival with medical management alone is changing our approach to the management of this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Survival rates for all causes of ALF are increasing because of improvements in the care of the critically ill patient...
May 2015: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Marten A Lantinga, Tom J G Gevers, Joost P H Drenth
Hepatic cysts are increasingly found as a mere coincidence on abdominal imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These cysts often present a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we performed a review of the recent literature and developed an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm to guide clinicians in characterising these lesions. Simple cysts are the most common cystic liver disease, and diagnosis is based on typical USG characteristics. Serodiagnostic tests and microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are invaluable in differentiating complicated cysts, echinococcosis and cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma when USG, CT and MRI show ambiguous findings...
June 21, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Bassam Abu-Wasel, Caolan Walsh, Valerie Keough, Michele Molinari
Polycystic liver diseases (PLD) represent a group of genetic disorders in which cysts occur in the liver (autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease) or in combination with cysts in the kidneys (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). Regardless of the genetic mutations, the natural history of these disorders is alike. The natural history of PLD is characterized by a continuous increase in the volume and the number of cysts. Both genders are affected; however, women have a higher prevalence. Most patients with PLD are asymptomatic and can be managed conservatively...
September 21, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Timothy Papaluca, Paul Gow
Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin that has potent vasoactive properties and has been available for use in most countries for nearly two decades. It has both established roles and emerging indications in the management of complications of decompensated chronic liver disease. We explore historic and emerging literature regarding the use of terlipressin for a range of indications including hepatorenal syndrome, portal hypertensive bleeding, and disruptions in sodium homeostasis. Novel methods of infusion-based terlipressin administration including the beneficial effect in reduction of adverse events are explored, in addition to new indications for the use of terlipressin in decompensated cirrhosis in an outpatient setting...
March 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Cristina Solé, Elisa Pose, Elsa Solà, Pere Ginès
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of patients with advanced cirrhosis that it is associated with increased hospital admissions and decreased survival. The definition of AKI in cirrhosis has been recently modified and the new diagnostic criteria are based on small changes in serum creatinine with respect to previous values, occurring within a short period of time. The use of this new definition may lead to an earlier identification of renal impairment and better prognostic stratification. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a unique form of AKI developing in patients with end-stage liver disease...
May 30, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Hiroteru Kamimura, Toru Setsu, Naruhiro Kimura, Takeshi Yokoo, Akira Sakamaki, Kenya Kamimura, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Masaaki Takamura, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of proteins. Liver dysfunction affects many organs because it communicates with the spleen and all digestive organs through the portal vein. Additionally, the kidney is an organ that is closely related to the liver and is involved in liver diseases. Glomerulonephritis is an important extrahepatic manifestation of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy effectively suppresses HBV replication by inhibiting HBV polymerase, thus decreasing the levels of serum HBV-DNA and delaying the progression of cirrhosis...
June 19, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Krisztián Bányai, Mary K Estes, Vito Martella, Umesh D Parashar
Enteric viruses, particularly rotaviruses and noroviruses, are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotaviruses primarily affect young children, accounting for almost 40% of hospital admissions for diarrhoea and 200 000 deaths worldwide, with the majority of deaths occurring in developing countries. Two vaccines against rotavirus were licensed in 2006 and have been implemented in 95 countries as of April, 2018. Data from eight high-income and middle-income countries showed a 49-89% decline in rotavirus-associated hospital admissions and a 17-55% decline in all-cause gastroenteritis-associated hospital admissions among children younger than 5 years, within 2 years of vaccine introduction...
July 14, 2018: Lancet
Piero Amodio
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a peculiar kind of brain dysfunction caused by liver insufficiency and/or portal-systemic shunting. It is related to gut-derived substances. It is a relevant cause of morbidity and hospitalisation for patients with cirrhosis. The prognosis of HE is important in terms of survival and re-hospitalisation. It is related to impaired quality of life, falls and poor driving; presents a relevant burden for caregivers and health services; and may negatively impact on patient's job and income...
June 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Muhammad Ali Khan, Colin W Howden
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been in use since the early 1990s and play a crucial role in the management of a number of conditions affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett esophagus, eosinophilic esophagitis, and dyspepsia. PPIs also play an important role in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection and in the prevention of upper gastrointestinal tract ulcers and bleeding among patients taking antiplatelet therapy and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
March 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Alyssa Austria, George Y Wu
Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OCI), first described in 2004, is defined as the presence of HCV RNA in hepatocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells without detectable HCV RNA in the serum. Here, we aimed to review the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, clinical implications and potential management recommendations currently described in the literature, as well as the future directions for investigation of this entity. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched with combination of the following keywords: "occult", "hepatitis C virus", and "occult HCV infection"...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Katsuyuki Miyabe, Yoh Zen, Lynn D Cornell, Govindarajan Rajagopalan, Vaidehi R Chowdhary, Lewis R Roberts, Suresh T Chari
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic relapsing multi-organ fibro-inflammatory syndrome of presumed autoimmune etiology. It is characterized by increased serum levels of IgG4 and tissue infiltration by IgG4+ cells. Increased titers of autoantibodies against a spectrum of self-antigens and response to steroids have led to its characterization as an autoimmune disease. However, the pathognomonic antigens probably differ among manifestations, and different antigens or autoantibodies produce similar immune reactions in different organs...
October 2018: Gastroenterology
Benjamin A Goldenberg, Emma B Holliday, Ramzi M Helewa, Harminder Singh
The rectum has distinctive anatomic and physiologic features, which increase the risk of local spread and recurrence among rectal cancers as compared to colon cancers. Essential to the management of rectal cancers is accurate endoscopic localization as well as preoperative imaging assessment of local and distant disease. Successful oncologic care is multidisciplinary including input from Gastroenterologists, Surgeons, Medical and Radiation Oncologists, Radiologists, and Pathologists. Extensive planning of curative intent is mandatory as failures of upfront treatment present great long-term difficulty for patients and caregivers...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Hai Yun Shi, Siew Chien Ng
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, progressive, and destructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Although its incidence appears to be stable or decreasing in most countries in the North America and Europe, the incidence is rising rapidly in Asian countries. Immunomodulators and biologics are increasingly used to avoid long-term bowel damage and subsequent disability. Therapeutic drug monitoring facilitates optimizing thiopurines and anti-TNFs use. New biologic agents targeting various pathological pathways of CD are blooming in recent years, and the high cost of biologics and expiration of patents for several biologic agents have driven the utility of biosimilars for CD treatment...
September 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
2018-07-29 16:42:37
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