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Gastrointestinal diseases

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712 papers 500 to 1000 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
J Levitsky, J G O'Leary, S Asrani, P Sharma, J Fung, A Wiseman, C U Niemann
Both acute and chronic kidney disease are common after liver transplantation and result in significant morbidity and mortality. The introduction of the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score has directly correlated with an increased prevalence of perioperative renal dysfunction and the number of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantations performed. Kidney dysfunction in this population is typically multifactorial and related to preexisting conditions, pretransplantation renal injury, perioperative events, and posttransplantation nephrotoxic immunosuppressive therapies...
September 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Lucas Souto Nacif, Rafael Soares Pinheiro, Rafael Antônio de Arruda Pécora, Liliana Ducatti, Vinicius Rocha-Santos, Wellington Andraus, Luiz Carneiro D'Albuquerque
INTRODUCTION: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. AIM: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. METHOD: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done...
July 2015: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Michele Di Martino, Massimo Rossi, Gianluca Mennini, Fabio Melandro, Michele Anzidei, Silvia De Vizio, Kameliya Koryukova, Carlo Catalano
Liver transplantation (LT) represents the best treatment for end-stage chronic liver disease, acute liver failure and early stages of hepatocellular carcinoma. Radiologists should be aware of surgical techniques to distinguish a normal appearance from pathological findings. Imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, CT and MR, provide for rapid and reliable detection of vascular and biliary complications after LT. The role of imaging in the evaluation of rejection and primary graft dysfunction is less defined...
June 10, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Sarah Raevens, Anja Geerts, Christophe Van Steenkiste, Xavier Verhelst, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Isabelle Colle
Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension are cardiopulmonary complications, which are not infrequently seen in patients with liver disease and/or portal hypertension. These entities are both clinically and pathophysiologically different: the hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by abnormal pulmonary vasodilation and right-to-left shunting resulting in gas exchange abnormalities, whereas portopulmonary hypertension is caused by pulmonary artery vasoconstriction leading to hemodynamic failure...
June 2015: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Bruno Roche, Didier Samuel
Reactivation of hepatitis B is characterized by a sudden increase in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in a patient with prior evidence of resolved or inactive HBV infection. Although HBV reactivation can occur spontaneously, it usually occurs after chemotherapy, immunosuppression (organ transplantation) or an alteration in immune function (therapy for autoimmune disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection). The clinical presentation cases can vary, ranging from a subclinical, asymptomatic course to severe acute hepatitis and even death...
January 2011: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Roy J Hopkins, Robert B Wilson
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacillus that was originally isolated from the stool of a healthy neonate in 1935. In high-income countries, C. difficile is the most common cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. The incidence of C. difficile infection in the USA has increased markedly since 2000, with hospitalizations for C. difficile infections in non-pregnant adults doubling between 2000 and 2010. Between 20% and 35% of patients with C. difficile infection will fail initial antibiotic treatment and, of these, 40-60% will have a second recurrence...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
Grace H Elta, Brintha K Enestvedt, Bryan G Sauer, Anne Marie Lennon
Pancreatic cysts are very common with the majority incidentally identified. There are several types of pancreatic cysts; some types can contain cancer or have malignant potential, whereas others are benign. However, even the types of cysts with malignant potential rarely progress to cancer. At the present time, the only viable treatment for pancreatic cysts is surgical excision, which is associated with a high morbidity and occasional mortality. The small risk of malignant transformation, the high risks of surgical treatment, and the lack of high-quality prospective studies have led to contradictory recommendations for their immediate management and for their surveillance...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Sarmed S Sami, Hasan N Haboubi, Yeng Ang, Philip Boger, Pradeep Bhandari, John de Caestecker, Helen Griffiths, Rehan Haidry, Hans-Ulrich Laasch, Praful Patel, Stuart Paterson, Krish Ragunath, Peter Watson, Peter D Siersema, Stephen E Attwood
These are updated guidelines which supersede the original version published in 2004. This work has been endorsed by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the oesophageal section of the BSG. The original guidelines have undergone extensive revision by the 16 members of the Guideline Development Group with representation from individuals across all relevant disciplines, including the Heartburn Cancer UK charity, a nursing representative and a patient representative...
February 24, 2018: Gut
A P S Hungin, C R Mitchell, P Whorwell, C Mulligan, O Cole, L Agréus, P Fracasso, C Lionis, J Mendive, J-M Philippart de Foy, B Seifert, K-A Wensaas, C Winchester, N de Wit
BACKGROUND: In 2013, a systematic review and Delphi consensus reported that specific probiotics can benefit adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other gastrointestinal (GI) problems. AIM: To update the consensus with new evidence. METHODS: A systematic review identified randomised, placebo-controlled trials published between January 2012 and June 2017. Evidence was graded, previously developed statements were reassessed by an 8-expert panel, and agreement was reached via Delphi consensus...
February 20, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Salvatore Piano, Alessandra Brocca, Sara Mareso, Paolo Angeli
Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of bacterial infections. Bacterial infections induce systemic inflammation that may lead to organ failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) resulting in a high risk of short term mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections is essential to improve the patient's prognosis. However, in recent years, the spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has reduced the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Parambir S Dulai, Vipul Jairath
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of the colorectum which results from a complex interplay between environmental, genetic and microbial factors. One-fifth of patients with UC will experience an acute flare requiring hospitalization. This is a medical emergency and requires prompt recognition and multidisciplinary management. In patients who fail first-line therapy after approximately 3-5 days of intravenous steroids, medical rescue therapy is indicated with either infliximab (IFX) or cyclosporine (CsA)...
February 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
M Conangla-Planes, X Serres, O Persiva, S Augustín
Portal hypertension is a clinical entity defined by a hydrostatic pressure greater than 5mm Hg in the portal territory, being clinically significant when it is greater than or equal to 10mm Hg. Starting from this threshold, complications can develop, such as the bleeding of esophageal varices, the appearance of ascites, or hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging techniques play an important role as a noninvasive method for determining whether portal hypertension is present. This article analyzes various imaging findings that can suggest the presence of portal hypertension and can help to define its etiology, severity, and possible complications...
February 19, 2018: Radiología
Paolo Angeli, Pere Gines, Florence Wong, Mauro Bernardi, Thomas D Boyer, Alexander Gerbes, Richard Moreau, Rajiv Jalan, Shiv K Sarin, Salvatore Piano, Kevin Moore, Samuel S Lee, Francois Durand, Francesco Salerno, Paolo Caraceni, W Ray Kim, Vicente Arroyo, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2015: Gut
Manmeet S Padda, Mayra Sanchez, Abbasi J Akhtar, James L Boyer
Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of bile formation and cholestasis have led to new insights into the pathogenesis of drug-induced cholestasis. This review summarizes their variable clinical presentations, examines the role of transport proteins in hepatic drug clearance and toxicity, and addresses the increasing importance of genetic determinants, as well as practical aspects of diagnosis and management.
April 2011: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ralf Kubitz, Carola Dröge, Stefanie Kluge, Claudia Stross, Nathalie Walter, Verena Keitel, Dieter Häussinger, Jan Stindt
Severe cholestasis may result in end-stage liver disease with the need of liver transplantation (LTX). In children, about 10 % of LTX are necessary because of cholestatic liver diseases. Apart from bile duct atresia, three types of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) are common causes of severe cholestasis in children. The three subtypes of PFIC are defined by the involved genes: PFIC-1, PFIC-2, and PFIC-3 are due to mutations of P-type ATPase ATP8B1 (familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1, FIC1), the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB11 (bile salt export pump, BSEP), or ABCB4 (multidrug resistance protein 3, MDR3), respectively...
June 2015: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Miguel Bruguera
The causes of sustained elevation of serum transaminases in asymptomatic adults, both hepatic and extrahepatic, are varied. In order to reach an aetiological diagnosis, a standardized protocol should be applied, aimed firstly at ruling out the most common causes, such as chronic hepatitis (viral or autoimmune), metabolic diseases, and toxic liver diseases. Several biochemical patterns, which take into account transaminase, cholestatic enzyme, muscle enzyme, ferritin and ceruloplasmin levels, as well protein electrophoresis and autoantibody measurement, will identify most causes...
February 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
R Clark Gillett, Angelica Norrell
Statins play an important role in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease and have a good safety record in clinical practice. The risk of hepatic injury caused by statins is estimated to be about 1 percent, similar to that of patients taking a placebo. Patients with transaminase levels no more than three times the upper limit of normal can continue taking statins; often the elevations will resolve spontaneously. Coexisting elevations of transaminase levels from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and stable hepatitis B and C viral infections are not contra- indications to statin use...
March 15, 2011: American Family Physician
Medha Soowamber, Adam V Weizman, Christian Pagnoux
Systemic vasculitides are caused by inflammation of blood vessels and can affect any organ and any part of the gastrointestinal tract, hepatic and biliary system, as well as the pancreas. These disorders can cause a wide array of gastrointestinal manifestations, from asymptomatic elevated transaminase levels and mild abdominal pain to potentially life-threatening bowel perforations and peritonitis. A diagnosis based solely on gastrointestinal symptoms is challenging as these manifestations are not specific...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Marina Núñez
One of the toxicities linked to the use of antiretrovirals is the elevation of transaminases. Liver toxicity is a cause of morbidity, mortality, and treatment discontinuation in HIV-infected patients. While several antiretrovirals have been reported to cause fatal acute hepatitis, they most often cause asymptomatic elevations of transaminases. Liver toxicity is more frequent among subjects with chronic hepatitis C and/or B. The incidence of drug-induced liver toxicity is not well known for most antiretrovirals...
2006: Journal of Hepatology
Thomas E Sepe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2011: Medicine and Health, Rhode Island
2018-02-23 11:37:16
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