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Gastrointestinal diseases

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813 papers 500 to 1000 followers This is a recopilation of basic knowledge about GI diseases. I hope you enjoy it
By Andres Gomez Aldana Gastroenterology fellowship National University of Colombia
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Naga P Chalasani, Quentin M Anstee, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Zachary D Goodman, Keith Lindor
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are rapidly becoming among the top causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and indications for liver transplantation. Other than lifestyle modification through diet and exercise, there are currently no other approved treatments for NASH/NAFLD. Although weight loss can be effective, it is difficult to achieve and sustain. In contrast, bariatric surgery can improve metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD, and has been shown to improve liver histology...
July 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Massimo Primignani, Giulia Tosetti, Vincenzo La Mura
Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a frequent complication in cirrhosis, particularly in advanced stages of the disease. As for general venous thromboembolism, risk factors for PVT are slow blood flow, vessel wall damage and hypercoagulability, all features of advanced cirrhosis. Actually, the old dogma of a hemorrhagic tendency in cirrhosis has been challenged by new laboratory tools and the clinical evidence that venous thrombosis also occurs in cirrhosis. The impaired hepatic synthesis of both pro- and anticoagulants leads to a rebalanced hemostasis, more liable to be tipped towards thrombosis or even bleeding...
December 18, 2015: World Journal of Hepatology
Mauro Cives, Jonathan R Strosberg
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are heterogeneous malignancies arising from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They frequently originate in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tract and the bronchopulmonary tree, and their incidence has steadily increased in the last 3 decades. Fundamental biologic and genomic differences underlie the clinical heterogeneity of NETs, and distinct molecular features characterize NETs of different grades and different primary sites. Although surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment for localized tumors, systemic treatment options for patients with metastatic NETs have expanded considerably...
October 8, 2018: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Zobair M Younossi, David Bernstein, Mitchell L Shiffman, Paul Kwo, W Ray Kim, Kris V Kowdley, Ira M Jacobson
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, cholestatic, autoimmune disease with a variable progressive course. PBC can cause debilitating symptoms including fatigue and pruritus and, if left untreated, is associated with a high risk of cirrhosis and related complications, liver failure, and death. Recent changes to the PBC landscape include a name change, updated guidelines for diagnosis and treatment as well as new treatment options that have recently become available. Practicing clinicians face many unanswered questions when managing PBC...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Anurag Maheshwari, Paul J Thuluvath
Liver disease and endocrine disorders, both common in the general population, have a bidirectional and complex relationship. Certain liver diseases are more commonly associated with endocrine disorders, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. There may be an association between hepatitis C and type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as thyroid disorders, and sex hormonal preparations may cause specific hepatic lesions. The presence of relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with end-stage liver disease may have therapeutic implications in patients admitted with acute-on-chronic liver failure...
February 2011: Clinics in Liver Disease
Shaz Iqbal, Kerri Akaya Smith, Vandana Khungar
Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) represent serious pulmonary complications of advanced liver diseases. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is capable of completely resolving the underlying abnormalities associated with HPS. On the other hand, post-OLT response in patients with PoPH is less predictable, although heavily influenced by pre-OLT mean pulmonary arterial pressure. It remains the case that the opportunity to reverse 2 potentially fatal organ dysfunctions in the liver and the lung make HPS and PoPH more than worthy for further clinical investigations...
December 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Batool AbuHalimeh, Michael J Krowka, Adriano R Tonelli
Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is a form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that can develop as complication of portal hypertension. Treatment of PoPH includes PAH-specific therapies and in certain cases, such therapies are necessary to facilitate a successful liver transplantation. A significant number of barriers may limit the adequate treatment of patients with PoPH and explain the poorer survival of these patients when compared to other types of PAH. Until recently, only one randomized controlled trial has included PoPH patients and the majority of treatment data is derived from relatively small observational studies...
July 31, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Seth D Crockett, Katarina B Greer, Joel J Heidelbaugh, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Brian J Hanson, Shahnaz Sultan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
Pearlie P Chong, Robin K Avery
BACKGROUND: Vaccine-preventable diseases, especially influenza, varicella, herpes zoster, and invasive pneumococcal infections, continue to lead to significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. METHODS: We highlight guideline recommendations for the use of key vaccines in SOT and HSCT recipients and to review the latest evidence and developments in the field. RESULTS: Physicians should vaccinate individuals with end-stage organ disease, as vaccine seroresponse rates are higher pretransplantation...
August 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
William G Greendyke, Marcus R Pereira
Infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity after both kidney and liver transplantation, and internists increasingly play a major role in diagnosing and treating these infections. Because of immunosuppression, solid organ transplant recipients do not often demonstrate classic signs and symptoms of infection and have a broader variety of common and opportunistic infections, many of which are generally more difficult to diagnose and treat. Although these patients have many risk factors for infection, a major determinant is the time after transplant as it relates to levels of immunosuppression, healing, and hospital or environmental exposures...
May 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Mamatha Bhat, Said Al-Busafi, Marc DeschĂȘnes, Peter Ghali
OBJECTIVE: To provide an approach to the care of liver transplant (LT) patients, a growing patient population with unique needs. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed for guidelines and review articles using the keywords "liver transplantation", "long term complications" and "medical management" was conducted, resulting in 77 articles. RESULTS: As a result of being on immunosuppression, LT recipients are at increased risk of infections and must be screened regularly for metabolic complications and malignancies...
April 2014: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jasmine Riviere Marcelin, Elena Beam, Raymund R Razonable
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication after liver transplantation, and it is associated with multiple direct and indirect effects. Management of CMV infection and disease has evolved over the years, and clinical guidelines have been recently updated. Universal antiviral prophylaxis and a pre-emptive treatment strategy are options for prevention. A currently-recruiting randomized clinical trial is comparing the efficacy and safety of the two prevention strategies in the highest risk D+R- liver recipients...
August 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Clayton M Spiceland, Nilesh Lodhia
Endoscopy plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy have long been used in the care of patients with IBD. As endoscopic technologies have progressed, tools such as endoscopic ultrasound, capsule endoscopy, and balloon-assisted enteroscopy have expanded the role of endoscopy in IBD. Furthermore, chromoendoscopy has enhanced our ability to detect dysplasia in IBD. In this review article, we will focus on the roles, indications, and limitations of these tools in IBD...
September 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Emilia Hadziyannis, Andreas Laras
Viral biomarkers are important tools for monitoring chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg) negative infection, both in its natural course as well as during and after treatment. The biomarkers consist of antibodies against viral epitopes, viral proteins, and molecular surrogate markers of the quantity and transcriptional activity of the stable episomal HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) which is located in the nuclei of the infected hepatocytes. HBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or else viral load measurement in plasma or serum is a marker of HBV replication of major clinical importance...
September 27, 2018: Genes
Francis Y Yao, Nicholas Fidelman
UNLABELLED: Down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplantation (LT) has generated a lot of interest in recent years and has been identified in two recent national conferences on hepatocellular carcinoma as one of the priorities for research. Down-staging is defined as reduction in the tumor burden using local regional therapy specifically to meet acceptable criteria for LT. The rationale behind down-staging of tumors initially exceeding conventional criteria for LT is to select a subgroup of tumors with favorable biology and prognosis for LT as assessed by their response to local regional therapy...
March 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Patrick R Wood, Liron Caplan
A variety of gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions are seen in nearly all conventional antirheumatic medications, ranging from nausea to life-threatening drug-induced liver injury. Rheumatologists should be particularly familiar with hepatotoxicity associated with long-term methotrexate use, and the range of unique hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic manifestations associated with azathioprine. Hepatitis B virus reactivation is the most serious gastrointestinal disease risk associated with many biological therapies, particularly rituximab...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Narendra S Choudhary, Sanjiv Saigal, Rinkesh K Bansal, Neeraj Saraf, Dheeraj Gautam, Arvinder S Soin
While antibody mediated hyper-acute vasculitic rejection is rare in liver transplant recipients, acute and chronic rejection have clinical significance. The liver allograft behaves differently to other solid organ transplants as acute rejection generally does not impair graft survival and chronic rejection (CR) is uncommon. The incidence of acute and chronic rejection has declined in current era due to improved immunosuppressive regimens. Acute rejection generally improves with steroid boluses and steroid resistant rejection is uncommon...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Dominique-Charles Valla
BACKGROUND: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare disease characterized by hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction (HVOTO). METHODS: Recent literature has been analyzed for this narrative review. RESULTS: Primary BCS/HVOTO is a result of thrombosis. The same patient often has multiple risk factors for venous thrombosis and most have at least one. Presentation and etiology may differ between Western and certain Eastern countries. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are present in 40% of patients and are usually associated with the V617F-JAK2 mutation in myeloid cells, in particular peripheral blood granulocytes...
February 2018: Hepatology International
Mhairi C Donnelly, Peter C Hayes, Kenneth J Simpson
The etiology and outcomes of acute liver failure (ALF) have changed since the definition of this disease entity in the 1970s. In particular, the role of emergency liver transplantation has evolved over time, with the development of prognostic scoring systems to facilitate listing of appropriate patients, and a better understanding of transplant benefit in patients with ALF. This review examines the changing etiology of ALF, transplant benefit, outcomes following transplantation, and future alternatives to emergency liver transplantation in this devastating condition...
April 2016: Liver Transplantation
Mark J W McPhail, Stephen Kriese, Michael A Heneghan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare but life-threatening systemic disorder. Survival rates with or without emergency liver transplantation (ELT) are increasing. The benefit of ELT in some cases has been questioned and the potential for survival with medical management alone is changing our approach to the management of this disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Survival rates for all causes of ALF are increasing because of improvements in the care of the critically ill patient...
May 2015: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
2018-08-31 10:50:01
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