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Antibiotic resistance

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By Faye Kehler Family Physician and GP Anesthetist since 1987 interested in all aspects of Medicine
Tat Ming Ng, Wendy X Khong, Patrick N A Harris, Partha P De, Angela Chow, Paul A Tambyah, David C Lye
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a common cause of bacteraemia in endemic countries and may be associated with high mortality; carbapenems are considered the drug of choice. Limited data suggest piperacillin-tazobactam could be equally effective. We aimed to compare 30-day mortality of patients treated empirically with piperacillin-tazobactam versus a carbapenem in a multi-centre retrospective cohort study in Singapore. Only patients with active empiric monotherapy with piperacillin-tazobactam or a carbapenem were included...
2016: PloS One
Charles M Cotten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antibiotics have not only saved lives and improved outcomes, but they also influence the evolving microbiome. This review summarizes reports on neonatal infections and variation in antibiotic utilization, discusses the emergence of resistant organisms, and presents data from human neonates and animal models demonstrating the impact of antibiotics on the microbiome, and how microbiome alterations impact health. The importance of antibiotic stewardship is also discussed...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Gilselena Kerbauy, Ana C P Vivan, Glenda C Simões, Ane S Simionato, Marsileni Pelisson, Eliana C Vespero, Silvia F Costa, Celia G T de J Andrade, Daiane M Barbieri, João C P Mello, Alexandre T Morey, Lucy M Yamauchi, Sueli F Yamada-Ogatta, Admilton G de Oliveira, Galdino Andrade
Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are a great problem in hospitals, where thousands of people are infected daily, with the occurrence of high mortality rates, especially in infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-producing Kpn). The challenge is to find new compounds that can control KPC producing-Kpn infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic activity of the F3d fraction produced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain against clinical isolates of KPC-producing Kpn...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Song Lin Chua, Joey Kuok Hoong Yam, Piliang Hao, Sunil S Adav, May Margarette Salido, Yang Liu, Michael Givskov, Siu Kwan Sze, Tim Tolker-Nielsen, Liang Yang
Drug resistance and tolerance greatly diminish the therapeutic potential of antibiotics against pathogens. Antibiotic tolerance by bacterial biofilms often leads to persistent infections, but its mechanisms are unclear. Here we use a proteomics approach, pulsed stable isotope labelling with amino acids (pulsed-SILAC), to quantify newly expressed proteins in colistin-tolerant subpopulations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms (colistin is a 'last-resort' antibiotic against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens)...
February 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Adriana Osińska, Monika Harnisz, Ewa Korzeniewska
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are fully synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agents that are becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of clinical and veterinary infections. Being excreted during treatment, mostly as active compounds, their biological action is not limited to the therapeutic site, but it is moved further as resistance selection pressure into the environment. Water environment is an ideal medium for the aggregation and dissemination of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can pose a serious threat to human health...
June 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sunil Vijay, Gaurav Dalela
AIM: To find out the prevalence of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) such as bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial infections etc. in patients with productive cough of duration less than 15 days and to rule out the patients having previous history of tuberculosis or having treatment of tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Outdoor and Indoor patients of Department of Medicine and Chest & TB, SRG hospital and Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar were included. After sample collection the specimens were sent to the Microbiology department, for processing of Gram staining, Acid fast staining, KOH mount and bacteriological culture and sensitivity...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Tae Yoon Kim, Song-Hyun Cha, Seonho Cho, Youmie Park
The search for novel antibacterial agents is necessary to combat microbial resistance to current antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to be effective antibacterial agents. Tannic acid is a polyphenol compound from plants with antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In this report, AgNPs were prepared from silver ions by tannic acid-mediated green synthesis (TA-AgNPs). The reaction process was facile and involved mixing both silver ions and tannic acid. The absorbance at 423 nm in the UV-Visible spectra demonstrated that tannic acid underwent a reduction reaction to produce TA-AgNPs from silver ions...
April 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Kate Gould
Antimicrobials have been in use for many thousands of years in a variety of formats. In this article, I trace how we have moved from ingenious use of agents available in the environment to chemically engineered agents.
March 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Aaron M Harris, Lauri A Hicks, Amir Qaseem
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) is the most common reason for antibiotic prescription in adults. Antibiotics are often inappropriately prescribed for patients with ARTI. This article presents best practices for antibiotic use in healthy adults (those without chronic lung disease or immunocompromising conditions) presenting with ARTI. METHODS: A narrative literature review of evidence about appropriate antibiotic use for ARTI in adults was conducted...
March 15, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Huseyin Alkim, Ali Riza Koksal, Salih Boga, Ilker Sen, Canan Alkim
Bismuth salts exert their activity within the upper gastrointestinal tract through action of luminal bismuth. Bismuth exerts direct bactericidal effect on Helicobacter pylori by different ways: forms complexes in the bacterial wall and periplasmic space, inhibits different enzymes, ATP synthesis, and adherence of the bacteria to the gastric mucosa. Bismuth also helps ulcer healing by acting as a barrier to the aggressive factors and increasing mucosal protective factors such as prostaglandin, epidermal growth factor, and bicarbonate secretion...
January 21, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Liliana Losada, Chitrita DebRoy, Diana Radune, Maria Kim, Ravi Sanka, Lauren Brinkac, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Daniel Shelton, Pina M Fratamico, Vivek Kapur, Peter C H Feng
The genomes of a diverse set of Escherichia coli, including many Shiga toxin-producing strains of various serotypes were determined. A total of 39 plasmids were identified among these strains, and many carried virulence or putative virulence genes of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains, virulence genes for other pathogenic E. coli groups, and some had combinations of these genes. Among the novel plasmids identified were eight that carried resistance genes to aminoglycosides, carbapenems, penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, sulfonamides, tetracyclines and resistance to heavy metals...
January 2016: Plasmid
David Skurnik, Damien Roux, Stephanie Pons, Thomas Guillard, Xi Lu, Colette Cywes-Bentley, Gerald B Pier
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are responsible for worldwide outbreaks and antibiotic treatments are problematic. The polysaccharide poly-(β-1,6)-N-acetyl glucosamine (PNAG) is a vaccine target detected on the surface of numerous pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Genes encoding PNAG biosynthetic proteins have been identified in two other main pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We hypothesized that antibodies to PNAG might be a new therapeutic option for the different pan-resistant pathogenic species of CRE...
April 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Carl T Gustafson, Felix Boakye-Agyeman, Cassandra L Brinkman, Joel M Reid, Robin Patel, Zeljko Bajzer, Mahrokh Dadsetan, Michael J Yaszemski
Surgical site infection (SSI) remains a significant risk for any clean orthopedic surgical procedure. Complications resulting from an SSI often require a second surgery and lengthen patient recovery time. The efficacy of antimicrobial agents delivered to combat SSI is diminished by systemic toxicity, bacterial resistance, and patient compliance to dosing schedules. We submit that development of localized, controlled release formulations for antimicrobial compounds would improve the effectiveness of prophylactic surgical wound antibiotic treatment while decreasing systemic side effects...
2016: PloS One
Shengtao Lu, Fang Liu, Bengang Xing, Edwin K L Yeow
A monolayer of swarming B. subtilis on semisolid agar is shown to display enhanced resistance against antibacterial drugs due to their collective behavior and motility. The dynamics of swarming motion, visualized in real time using time-lapse microscopy, prevents the bacteria from prolonged exposure to lethal drug concentrations. The elevated drug resistance is significantly reduced when the collective motion of bacteria is judiciously disrupted using nontoxic polystyrene colloidal particles immobilized on the agar surface...
December 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Raymond S W Tsang, Y Anita Li, Angie Mullen, Maureen Baikie, Kathleen Whyte, Michelle Shuel, Gregory Tyrrell, Jenny A L Rotondo, Shalini Desai, John Spika
BACKGROUND: With invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease controlled by vaccination with conjugate Hib vaccines, there is concern that invasive disease due to non-serotype b strains may emerge. OBJECTIVE: This study characterized invasive H. influenzae (Hi) isolates from Nunavut, Canada, in the post-Hib vaccine era. METHODS: Invasive H. influenzae isolates were identified by conventional methods at local hospitals; and further characterized at the provincial and federal public health laboratories, including detection of serotype antigens and genes, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Lorenzo Proia, Daniel von Schiller, Alexandre Sànchez-Melsió, Sergi Sabater, Carles M Borrego, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, José Luis Balcázar
The extensive use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine and their subsequent release into the environment may have direct consequences for autochthonous bacterial communities, especially in freshwater ecosystems. In small streams and rivers, local inputs of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may become important sources of organic matter, nutrients and emerging pollutants, such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we evaluated the effect of WWTP effluents as a source of ARGs in river biofilms...
March 2016: Environmental Pollution
Seung Bok Hong, Man Hee Rhee, Bong-Sik Yun, Young Hoon Lim, Hyung Geun Song, Kyeong Seob Shin
BACKGROUND: The development of new drugs or alternative therapies effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of great importance, and various natural anti-MRSA products are good candidates for combination therapies. We evaluated the antibacterial activities of a Phellinus baumii ethyl acetate extract (PBEAE) and its synergistic effects with β-lactams against MRSA. METHODS: The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the PBEAE...
March 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Gyun Cheol Park, Ji Ae Choi, Sook Jin Jang, Seok Hoon Jeong, Choon-Mee Kim, In Sun Choi, Seong Ho Kang, Geon Park, Dae Soo Moon
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii infections are difficult to treat owing to the emergence of various antibiotic resistant isolates. Because treatment options are limited for multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii infection, the discovery of new therapies, including combination therapy, is required. We evaluated the synergistic activity of colistin, doripenem, and tigecycline combinations against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) A. baumannii and MDR A. baumannii. METHODS: Time-kill assays were performed for 41 XDR and 28 MDR clinical isolates of A...
March 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Hyukmin Lee, Kyung Ho Roh, Seong Geun Hong, Hee Bong Shin, Seok Hoon Jeong, Wonkeun Song, Young Uh, Dongeun Yong, Kyungwon Lee
BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are a threat to hospitalized patients. We evaluated the effects of antimicrobial combinations on XDR P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates. METHODS: P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates, which were resistant to all antibiotics except colistin (CL), were collected from eight hospitals in Korea. Genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and OXA carbapenemases were detected by PCR in eight P...
March 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Maxwell L Van Tassell, M Angela Daum, Jun-Seob Kim, Michael J Miller
Cell wall lytic enzymes have been of increasing interest as antimicrobials for targeting Gram-positive spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, largely due to the development of strains resistant to antibiotics and bacteriophage therapy. Such lysins show considerable promise against Listeria monocytogenes, a primary concern in food-processing environments, but there is room for improvement via protein engineering. Advances in antilisterial applications could benefit from recent developments in lysin biotechnology that have largely targeted other organisms...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
2016-01-10 23:06:51
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