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Cardiology

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By Richard Gough Paramedic tutor, Post Qualification Manager
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450802/valsalva-using-a-syringe-pressure-and-variation
#1
Hilary Sarah Thornton, Mohammed H Elwan, Joseph A Reynolds, Timothy J Coats
BACKGROUND: The Valsalva manoeuvre is commonly used in EDs to terminate supraventricular tachycardia by the patient blowing into a syringe. AIM: To identify whether a specific syringe size can be recommended for use in the ED. RESULTS: 20% of syringes 'stuck' and required high pressures to move. In the remaining 80% of syringes, a 20 mL syringe was the most appropriate size to achieve the recommended 40 mm Hg. Once 'released' plunger position did not make a difference...
October 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26322186/early-repolarization-syndrome-a-cause-of-sudden-cardiac-death
#2
REVIEW
Abdi Ali, Nida Butt, Azeem S Sheikh
Early repolarization syndrome (ERS), demonstrated as J-point elevation on an electrocardiograph, was formerly thought to be a benign entity, but the recent studies have demonstrated that it can be linked to a considerable risk of life - threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Early repolarization characteristics associated with SCD include high - amplitude J-point elevation, horizontal and/or downslopping ST segments, and inferior and/or lateral leads location. The prevalence of ERS varies between 3% and 24%, depending on age, sex and J-point elevation (0...
August 26, 2015: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25692498/effectiveness-of-the-valsalva-manoeuvre-for-reversion-of-supraventricular-tachycardia
#3
Gavin D Smith, Meagan M Fry, David Taylor, Amee Morgans, Kate Cantwell
BACKGROUND: People with the cardiac arrhythmia supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) frequently present to clinicians in the prehospital and emergency medicine settings. Restoring sinus rhythm by terminating the SVT involves increasing the refractoriness of atrioventricular nodal tissue within the myocardium by means of vagal manoeuvres, pharmacological agents, or electrical cardioversion. A commonly used first-line technique to restore the normal sinus rhythm (reversion) is the Valsalva Manoeuvre (VM)...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25648205/development-of-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-and-atrial-fibrillation-after-an-electrical-injury
#4
Erdal Gursul, Serdar Bayata, Ercan Aksit, Basak Ugurlu
Electrical energy is a type of energy that is commonly used in daily life. Ventricular premature beats, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, bundle branch blocks, and AV block are arrhythmic complications that are encountered in case of electric shocks. Myocardial infarction is one of the rarely seen complications of electric shocks yet it has fatal outcomes. Coronary arteries were detected to be normal in most of the patients who had myocardial infarction following an electric shock...
2015: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25594135/measuring-the-effectiveness-of-a-revised-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-pre-hospital-management-of-supraventricular-tachycardia
#5
Gavin Smith, David McD Taylor, Amee Morgans, Peter Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of changes to the pre-hospital management of patients with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) following intervention with a revised Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG). The major CPG revisions were removal of verapamil, addition of adenosine and an emphasis on Valsalva manoeuvre. METHOD: We undertook a retrospective case study using data collected by paramedics. All adult patients attended by paramedics from the periods 14 February 2012 to 14 September 2012 (old CPG) and 14 February 2013 to 14 September 2013 (revised CPG) were included...
February 2015: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25564921/images-in-clinical-medicine-kussmaul-s-sign
#6
André M Mansoor, Sudhakar P Karlapudi
A 55-year-old woman with a remote history of Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with mantle-field radiation was admitted with subacute, progressive dyspnea on exertion, which had developed over a period of 2 to 3 weeks. On examination, the blood pressure was 97/59 mm Hg and the respiratory rate 20 breaths..
January 8, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25424573/experimental-sleep-restriction-causes-endothelial-dysfunction-in-healthy-humans
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Andrew D Calvin, Naima Covassin, Walter K Kremers, Taro Adachi, Paula Macedo, Felipe N Albuquerque, Jan Bukartyk, Diane E Davison, James A Levine, Prachi Singh, Shihan Wang, Virend K Somers
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between short sleep duration and cardiovascular risk, although the nature of any relationship and mechanisms remain unclear. Short sleep duration has also been linked to an increase in cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction has itself been implicated as a mediator of heightened cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of partial sleep restriction on endothelial function in healthy humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a randomized study of usual sleep versus sleep restriction of two-thirds normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit...
November 25, 2014: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25241109/passive-leg-raising-during-pregnancy
#8
Nicole Ribeiro Marques, Caroline Martinello, George C Kramer, Maged M Costantine, Rakesh B Vadhera, George R Saade, Gary D Hankins, Luis D Pacheco
OBJECTIVE: To determine if passive leg raising (PLR) significantly increases cardiac output in a cohort of healthy pregnant women during the third trimester. STUDY DESIGN: Using a noninvasive monitor, baseline hemodynamic measurements for arterial blood pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistances were obtained with patients in the semirecumbent position. Measurements were repeated after a 3-minute PLR maneuver in supine, right lateral decubitus, and left lateral decubitus positions...
March 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25176941/vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-heart-failure
#9
EDITORIAL
A John Camm, Irina Savelieva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2015: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25184825/a-straightforward-guide-to-the-basic-science-behind-arrhythmogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Berengere M Dumotier
The underlying mechanisms behind cardiac arrhythmias are described in this manuscript. In clinical practice, significant arrhythmias are unpredictable, and under some conditions, potentially life-threatening. How can basic science help improve our understanding of molecular entities and factors behind the arrhythmia to advance, develop, adapt or deliver available medications? Structural heart disease and remodelling (eg, heart failure, cardiomyopathy), the presence of modulating factors (ie, diabetes mellitus, autonomic nervous system), genetic predispositions (ie, channelopathies) are considerable preconditions, and influence the development of an arrhythmia...
December 2014: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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