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173 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716848/follicular-regulatory-cd8-t-cells-impair-the-germinal-center-response-in-siv-and-ex-vivo-hiv-infection
#1
Brodie Miles, Shannon M Miller, Joy M Folkvord, David N Levy, Eva G Rakasz, Pamela J Skinner, Elizabeth Connick
During chronic HIV infection, viral replication is concentrated in secondary lymphoid follicles. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells control HIV replication in extrafollicular regions, but not in the follicle. Here, we show CXCR5hiCD44hiCD8 T cells are a regulatory subset differing from conventional CD8 T cells, and constitute the majority of CD8 T cells in the follicle. This subset, CD8 follicular regulatory T cells (CD8 TFR), expand in chronic SIV infection, exhibit enhanced expression of Tim-3 and IL-10, and express less perforin compared to conventional CD8 T cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013267/shedding-of-hepatitis-c-virus-into-the-rectum-of-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#2
Andrew L Foster, Michael M Gaisa, Rosanne M Hijdra, Samuel S Turner, Tristan J Morey, Karen B Jacobson, Daniel S Fierer
BACKGROUND: For over a decade we have known of an epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), but there still remains significant controversy over which bodily fluid(s) are responsible for HCV transmission in these men. METHODS: We enrolled HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV from rectal fluid obtained by blind swab. We compared the rectal HCV viral load (VL) with paired blood HCV VL...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941393/use-of-rosuvastatin-in-hiv-associated-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-pilot-study
#3
Alison Morris, Meghan Fitzpatrick, Marnie Bertolet, Shulin Qin, Lawrence Kingsley, Nicolas Leo, Cathy Kessinger, Heather Michael, Deborah Mcmahon, Rene Weinman, Stephen Stone, Joseph K Leader, Eric Kleerup, Laurence Huang, Stephen R Wisniewski
OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is more prevalent in HIV-infected individuals and is associated with persistent inflammation. Therapies unique to HIV are lacking. We performed a pilot study of the HMG Co-A reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin to determine effects on lung function. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blinded trial METHODS:: HIV-infected individuals with abnormal lung function were recruited from an ongoing lung function study...
December 8, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882706/high-frequency-of-potential-interactions-between-direct-acting-antivirals-and-concomitant-therapy-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-coinfected-patients-in-clinical-practice
#4
J Macías, P Monge, M Mancebo, N Merchante, K Neukam, L M Real, J A Pineda
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyse the frequency and degree of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and concomitant medication used by HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients, including antiretroviral therapy (ART) and other drugs. METHODS: All patients with HIV infection and viraemic HCV genotype 1, 3 or 4 coinfection attending a tertiary care centre in Spain (November 2014 to November 2015) were included in the study...
November 24, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074946/baseline-cd4-cd8-t-cell-ratio-predicts-prompt-immune-restoration-upon-cart-initiation
#5
Francesco Bellissimo, Marilia Rita Pinzone, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Bruno Cacopardo, Giuseppe Nunnari
INTRODUCTION: The reversal of CD4/CD8 ratio is considered an independent predictor of death in the general population, where the ratio physiologically decreases with aging. Despite effective cART, CD4/CD8 normalization does not always occur in HIV-positive subjects. In the setting of HIV, low CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio correlates with immune activation and non-AIDS events. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate and predictors of CD4/CD8 ratio normalization in a cohort of HIV-positive subjects starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)...
2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806243/benefits-and-risks-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-perinatal-hiv-prevention
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mary G Fowler, Min Qin, Susan A Fiscus, Judith S Currier, Patricia M Flynn, Tsungai Chipato, James McIntyre, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, George K Siberry, Anne S Coletti, Taha E Taha, Karin L Klingman, Francis E Martinson, Maxensia Owor, Avy Violari, Dhayendre Moodley, Gerhard B Theron, Ramesh Bhosale, Raziya Bobat, Benjamin H Chi, Renate Strehlau, Pendo Mlay, Amy J Loftis, Renee Browning, Terence Fenton, Lynette Purdue, Michael Basar, David E Shapiro, Lynne M Mofenson
Background Randomized-trial data on the risks and benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV-infected pregnant women with high CD4 counts are lacking. Methods We randomly assigned HIV-infected women at 14 or more weeks of gestation with CD4 counts of at least 350 cells per cubic millimeter to zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine plus a 1-to-2-week postpartum "tail" of tenofovir and emtricitabine (zidovudine alone); zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (zidovudine-based ART); or tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (tenofovir-based ART)...
November 3, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886201/cryptococcal-meningitis-epidemiology-immunology-diagnosis-and-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Peter R Williamson, Joseph N Jarvis, Anil A Panackal, Matthew C Fisher, Síle F Molloy, Angela Loyse, Thomas S Harrison
HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is by far the most common cause of adult meningitis in many areas of the world that have high HIV seroprevalence. In most areas in Sub-Saharan Africa, the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis is not decreasing despite availability of antiretroviral therapy, because of issues of adherence and retention in HIV care. In addition, cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals is a substantial problem: the risk of cryptococcal infection is increased in transplant recipients and other individuals with defects in cell-mediated immunity, and cryptococcosis is also reported in the apparently immunocompetent...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662501/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-associated-cancers-and-related-diseases
#8
Priscila H Goncalves, Joseph Ziegelbauer, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the pathogenesis and recent advances in the management of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: KSHV, a gammaherpesvirus, causes several tumors and related diseases, including Kaposi sarcoma, a form of multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma. These most often develop in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly described syndrome with high mortality that has inflammatory symptoms-like MCD but not the pathologic lymph node findings...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905841/cell-delivered-entry-inhibitors-for-hiv-1-ccr5-downregulation-and-blocking-virus-membrane-fusion-in-defending-the-host-cell-population
#9
Geoff Symonds, Jeffrey S Bartlett, Hans-Peter Kiem, Marlene Tsie, Louis Breton
HIV-1 infection requires the presence of the CD4 receptor on the target cell surface and a coreceptor, predominantly CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). It has been shown that individuals who are homozygous for a defective CCR5 gene are protected from HIV-1 infection. A novel self-inactivating lentiviral vector LVsh5/C46 (Cal-1) has been engineered to block HIV-1 infection with two viral entry inhibitors, conferring resistance to HIV-1 infection from both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic strains. Cal-1 encodes a short hairpin RNA (sh5) to downregulate CCR5 and C46, an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462361/antiretroviral-treatment-regardless-of-cd4-count-the-universal-answer-to-a-contextual-question
#10
REVIEW
Serge P Eholié, Anani Badje, Gérard M Kouame, Jean-Baptiste N'takpe, Raoul Moh, Christine Danel, Xavier Anglaret
After a period where it was recommended to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early, the CD4 threshold for treating asymptomatic adults dropped to 200/mm(3) at the beginning of the 2000s. This was mostly due to a great prudence with regards to drug toxicity. The ART-start CD4 threshold in most international guidelines was then raised to 350/mm(3) in 2006-2009 and to 500/mm(3) in 2009-2013. Between 2012 and 2015, international guidelines went the last step further and recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677169/intolerance-of-dolutegravir-containing-cart-regimens-in-real-life-clinical-practice
#11
Mark de Boer, Guido van den Berk, Natasja van Holten, Josephine Oryszczyn, Willemien Dorama, Daoud Ait Moha, Kees Brinkman
OBJECTIVE: Dolutegravir (DGV) is one of the preferred antiretroviral agents in first line cART. Though considered a well-tolerated drug, we aimed to determine the actual rate, timing, and detailed motivation of stopping DGV in a real life clinical setting. DESIGN: a cohort study including all patients that started DGV in two HIV treatment centers in the Netherlands. METHODS: All cART-naïve and cART-experienced patients who had started DGV were identified from the institutional HIV-databases...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27286296/the-potential-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women-in-violent-relationships
#12
Amy Braksmajer, Theresa E Senn, James McMahon
HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant intersecting threats to women's health. Women in violent relationships have few feasible HIV risk reduction options as traditional prevention methods are largely dependent on a partner's cooperation. The purpose of this review is to explore potential benefits and drawbacks of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among women in the United States experiencing IPV. Advantages of PrEP use in this population include the potential for covert or autonomous use, coital independence, dual protection against sexual and injection risk, and facilitated connections to social services...
June 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27308806/early-syphilis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us-pacific-northwest-2008-2013-clinical-management-and-implications-for-prevention
#13
Emiko Petrosky, Robyn Neblett Fanfair, Kim Toevs, Malini DeSilva, Sean Schafer, Katrina Hedberg, Jim Braxton, Jaime Walters, Lauri Markowitz, Susan Hariri
Substantial increases in syphilis during 2008-2013 were reported in the US Pacific Northwest state of Oregon, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). The authors aimed to characterize the ongoing epidemic and identify possible gaps in clinical management of early syphilis (primary, secondary, and latent syphilis ≤1 year) among MSM in Multnomah County, Oregon to inform public health efforts. Administrative databases were used to examine trends in case characteristics during 2008-2013. Medical records were abstracted for cases occurring in 2013 to assess diagnosis, treatment, and screening practices...
March 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749111/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-among-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-adults-in-a-large-integrated-healthcare-system
#14
Julia L Marcus, Roger Baxter, Wendy A Leyden, Dharushana Muthulingam, Arnold Yee, Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein, William J Towner, Chun R Chao, Charles P Quesenberry, Michael J Silverberg
It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714978/switching-regimens-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients-evidence-base-and-rationale-for-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-insti-containing-regimens
#15
REVIEW
F Raffi, S Esser, G Nunnari, I Pérez-Valero, L Waters
In an era when most individuals with treated HIV infection can expect to live into old age, clinicians should proactively review their patients' current and future treatment needs and challenges. Clinical guidelines acknowledge that, in the setting of virological suppression, treatment switch may yield benefits in terms of tolerability, regimen simplification, adherence, convenience and long-term health considerations, particularly in the context of ageing. In this paper, we review evidence from six key clinical studies on switching virologically suppressed patients to regimens based on integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), the antiretroviral class increasingly preferred as initial therapy in clinical guidelines...
October 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649852/human-papillomavirus-16-hpv16-and-hpv52-e6-specific-immunity-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
C Y Leng, H C Low, L L Chua, M L Chong, H Sulaiman, I Azwa, J M Roberts, A Kamarulzaman, R Rajasuriar, Y L Woo
OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers disproportionately affect those infected with HIV despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The primary aim of this study was to quantify HPV16 and HPV52 E6-specific interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) T-cell responses, a correlate of protective immunity, in the first year following cART initiation and subsequently in those patients with suboptimal (sIR) and optimal (oIR) immune reconstitution...
September 20, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679418/effect-of-alcohol-consumption-on-all-cause-and-liver-related-mortality-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#17
C E Canan, B Lau, M E McCaul, J Keruly, R D Moore, G Chander
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the association between levels of past and current alcohol consumption and all-cause and liver-related mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 1855 PLWH in Baltimore, MD was carried out from 2000 to 2013. We ascertained alcohol use by (1) self-report (SR) through a computer-assisted self interview, and (2) medical record abstraction of provider-documented (PD) alcohol use...
September 28, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683060/quantification-of-the-latent-hiv-1-reservoir-using-ultra-deep-sequencing-and-primer-id-in-a-viral-outgrowth-assay
#18
Sook-Kyung Lee, Shuntai Zhou, Pedro L Baldoni, Ean Spielvogel, Nancie M Archin, Michael G Hudgens, David M Margolis, Ronald Swanstrom
BACKGROUND: In this study, we measured the latent HIV-1 reservoir harboring replication-competent HIV-1 in resting CD4 T cells in participants on highly active antiretroviral therapy, quantitating the frequency of latent infection through the use of a Primer ID-based Ultra Deep Sequencing Assay (UDSA), in comparison to the readout of the quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA). METHODS: Viral RNA derived from culture wells of QVOA that scored as HIV-1 p24 capsid antigen positive were tagged with a specific barcode during cDNA synthesis, and the sequences within the V1-V3 region of the HIV-1 env gene were analyzed for diversity using the Primer ID-based paired-end MiSeq platform...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677167/hydroxytyrosol-a-new-class-of-microbicide-displaying-broad-anti-hiv-1-activity
#19
Luis M Bedoya, Manuela Beltrán, Patricia Obregón-Calderón, Javier García-Pérez, Humberto E de la Torre, Nuria González, Mayte Pérez-Olmeda, David Auñón, Laura Capa, Eduardo Gómez-Acebo, José Alcamí
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the toxicity and activity against HIV of 5-hydroxytyrosol as a potential microbicide. DESIGN: The anti-HIV-1 activity of 5-hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound, was tested against wild-type HIV-1 and viral clones resistant to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors and integrase inhibitors. In addition to its activity against founder viruses, different viral subtypes and potential synergy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and emtricitabine was also tested...
November 28, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465879/tenofovir-alafenamide-a-review-of-its-use-in-the-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection
#20
REVIEW
Amanda K Gibson, Bhavik M Shah, Puja H Nambiar, Jason J Schafer
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and place in therapy for tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). DATA SOURCES: A search using PubMed was conducted (2004 to May 2016) using the following keywords: tenofovir alafenamide, TAF, and GS-7340 Articles were evaluated for content, and bibliographies were reviewed. Data available exclusively as abstracts from major infectious diseases and HIV conferences were also evaluated for inclusion. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Studies included were in vitro investigations; phase I, II, and III clinical trials; and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations...
July 26, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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