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Anali Conesa-Botella, Marguerite Massinga Loembé, Yukari C Manabe, William Worodria, Doreen Mazakpwe, Kenneth Luzinda, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Mitra Miri, Olive Mbabazi, Olivier Koole, Luc Kestens, Robert Colebunders
BACKGROUND: Upon initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), 15.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.7% to 24.5%] of tuberculosis (TB)-HIV-coinfected individuals experience paradoxical worsening of their clinical status with exuberant inflammation consistent with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We investigated whether a positive urinary TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test before ART initiation was associated with development of paradoxical TB-IRIS...
December 15, 2011: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kevin G Haworth, Lauren E Schefter, Zachary K Norgaard, Christina Ironside, Jennifer E Adair, Hans-Peter Kiem
The genomic integration of HIV into cells results in long-term persistence of virally infected cell populations. This integration event acts as a heritable mark that can be tracked to monitor infected cells that persist over time. Previous reports have documented clonal expansion in people and have linked them to proto-oncogenes; however, their significance or contribution to the latent reservoir has remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a directed pattern of clonal expansion occurs in vivo, specifically in gene pathways important for viral replication and persistence...
July 12, 2018: JCI Insight
Yun-Ju Lai, Yu-Yen Chen, Hsin-Hui Huang, Ming-Chung Ko, Chu-Chieh Chen, Yung-Feng Yen
The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHA) in Taiwan. PLWHA were identified from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System between 2000 and 2014. To examine the effect of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CVD incidence, incidence densities and standardised incidence rates (SIRs) of CVD were calculated after stratifying PLWHA by HAART...
August 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
J O Lam, G M Barnell, M Merchant, C G Ellis, M J Silverberg
OBJECTIVES: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of anal cancer. Screening for anal cancer precursors using high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) may be clinically beneficial. In this study, we examined patient tolerability of this procedure. METHODS: The acceptability of HRA was evaluated among HIV-infected patients who completed a first-time HRA between July 2008 and December 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We reviewed electronic medical records to identify lack of HRA acceptability, which was defined as receipt of HRA with sedation, dispensation of opioid analgaesia, and/or an urgent care visit following HRA, and to evaluate factors associated with patients not returning for a recommended repeat HRA (proxy for HRA acceptability)...
August 6, 2018: HIV Medicine
Golnaz Namazi, Jesse M Fajnzylber, Evgenia Aga, Ron Bosch, Edward P Acosta, Radwa Sharaf, Wendy Hartogensis, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Elizabeth Connick, Paul Volberding, Daniel Skiest, David Margolis, Michael C Sneller, Susan J Little, Sara Gianella, Davey Smith, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Roy M Gulick, John W Mellors, Vikram Mehraj, Rajesh T Gandhi, Ronald Mitsuyasu, Robert T Schooley, Keith Henry, Pablo Tebas, Steve Deeks, Tae-Wook Chun, Ann C Collier, Jean-Pierre Routy, Frederick M Hecht, Bruce D Walker, Jonathan Z Li
Background: HIV post-treatment controllers are rare individuals who start antiretroviral therapy (ART), but maintain HIV suppression after treatment interruption. The frequency of post-treatment control and post-treatment interruption viral dynamics have not been well-characterized. Methods: Post-treatment controllers were identified from 14 studies and defined as individuals who underwent treatment interruption with viral loads ≤400 copies/mL at ≥2/3 of time points for ≥24 weeks...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
M C Acosta, M Kundro, G Viloria, A Peressín Paz, F Morello, F Latorre, E Seoane, J Toibaro, M Losso
OBJECTIVES: Up to 20% of HIV-related focal brain lesion (FBL) diagnoses cannot be determined without invasive procedures. In such cases, brain biopsy is an important step in the evaluation algorithm. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical outcomes of patients with FBL, the proportion of diagnoses confirmed by brain biopsies and their aetiologies, and to analyse the proportion of patients in whom the biopsy motivated a change in therapeutic management. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed...
July 13, 2018: HIV Medicine
C I Hatleberg, L Ryom, A d'Arminio Monforte, E Fontas, P Reiss, O Kirk, W El-Sadr, A Phillips, S de Wit, F Dabis, R Weber, M Law, J D Lundgren, C Sabin
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that hypertension in HIV-positive individuals is associated primarily with traditional risk factors such as older age, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. However, controversy remains as to whether exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs poses additional risk, and we investigated this question in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cohort. METHODS: The incidence of hypertension [systolic blood pressure (BP) > 140 and/or diastolic BP > 90 mmHg and/or initiation of antihypertensive treatment] was determined overall and in strata defined by demographic, metabolic and HIV-related factors, including cumulative exposure to each individual ARV drug...
July 18, 2018: HIV Medicine
Raul Recio, Ana Perez-Ayala
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 3, Page 281-281, July 2018.
July 19, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Swe Swe Thit, Ne Myo Aung, Zaw Win Htet, Mark A Boyd, Htin Aung Saw, Nicholas M Anstey, Tint Tint Kyi, David A Cooper, Mar Mar Kyi, Josh Hanson
BACKGROUND: The use of the point-of-care lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) test may expedite tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. However, the test's clinical utility is poorly defined outside sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The study enrolled consecutive HIV-positive adults at a tertiary referral hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. On enrolment, patients had a LF-LAM test performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Clinicians managing the patients were unaware of the LF-LAM result, which was correlated with the patient's clinical course over the ensuing 6 months...
August 4, 2017: BMC Medicine
Hongshuo Song, Elena E Giorgi, Vitaly V Ganusov, Fangping Cai, Gayathri Athreya, Hyejin Yoon, Oana Carja, Bhavna Hora, Peter Hraber, Ethan Romero-Severson, Chunlai Jiang, Xiaojun Li, Shuyi Wang, Hui Li, Jesus F Salazar-Gonzalez, Maria G Salazar, Nilu Goonetilleke, Brandon F Keele, David C Montefiori, Myron S Cohen, George M Shaw, Beatrice H Hahn, Andrew J McMichael, Barton F Haynes, Bette Korber, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Feng Gao
Recombination in HIV-1 is well documented, but its importance in the low-diversity setting of within-host diversification is less understood. Here we develop a novel computational tool (RAPR (Recombination Analysis PRogram)) to enable a detailed view of in vivo viral recombination during early infection, and we apply it to near-full-length HIV-1 genome sequences from longitudinal samples. Recombinant genomes rapidly replace transmitted/founder (T/F) lineages, with a median half-time of 27 days, increasing the genetic complexity of the viral population...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Anjali Sharma, Yifei Ma, Phyllis C Tien, Rebecca Scherzer, Kathryn Anastos, Mardge H Cohen, Didier Hans, Michael T Yin
OBJECTIVES: We compared skeletal microarchitecture using trabecular bone score (TBS) and evaluated relationships between change in TBS and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) in women with and without HIV. METHODS: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed on 319 women with HIV and 118 without HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study at baseline and 2 and 5 years, to measure regional BMD and lean and fat mass. TBS was extracted from LS dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images and examined continuously and categorically [normal (≥1...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Joanne Simone, Mary Jo Hoyt, Deborah S Storm, Sarah Finocchario-Kessler
Preconception care can improve maternal and infant outcomes by identifying and modifying health risks before pregnancy and reducing unplanned pregnancies. However, information about how preconception care is provided to persons living with HIV (PLWH) is lacking. This study uses qualitative interviews with HIV care providers to describe current models of preconception care and explore factors influencing services. Single, anonymous, telephone interviews were conducted with 92 purposively selected HIV healthcare providers in Atlanta, Baltimore, Houston, Kansas City, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco in 2013-2014...
July 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Karen Champenois, Rémonie Seng, Anne Persoz, Asma Essat, Catherine Gaud, Didier Laureillard, Olivier Robineau, Claudine Duvivier, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: With the advent of treatment as prevention of HIV infection (TasP), we assessed trends in sexual behaviours between 2000 and 2017 among HIV-infected MSM enrolled in the French ANRS PRIMO cohort. METHODS: At each cohort visit, a clinical questionnaire including laboratory values was completed and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviours, that is, the number, type (steady/casual) and HIV status (positive or negative/unknown) of partners, and condom use...
August 24, 2018: AIDS
Purva Sharma, Mohamad Kabach, Samineh Sehatbakhsh, Rashida Tharpe, Shaun Isaac, Robert Chait, Kleper De Almeida
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients with perinatally acquired HIV may be at increased risk due to the viral infection itself and exposure to HAART in utero or as part of treatment. A 20-year-old female with transplacentally acquired HIV infection presented with symptoms of transient aphasia, headache, palpitations, and blurry vision. She was admitted for hypertensive emergency with blood pressure 203/100 mmHg...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Minh P Lê, Marie-Laure Chaix, Sylvie Chevret, Julie Bertrand, François Raffi, Sébastien Gallien, El Mountacer Billah El Abbassi, Christine Katlama, Pierre Delobel, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Juliette Saillard, Jean-Michel Molina, Gilles Peytavin
Background: In the ANRS 165 DARULIGHT study (NCT02384967) carried out in HIV-infected patients, the use of a darunavir/ritonavir-containing regimen with a switch to a reduced dose of darunavir maintained virological efficacy (≤50 copies/mL) for 48 weeks with a good safety profile. Objectives: To assess the total and unbound blood plasma pharmacokinetics of darunavir and associated antiretrovirals, and their penetration into semen before and after dose reduction...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Rachael A Hughes, Margaret T May, Kate Tilling, Ninon Taylor, Linda Wittkop, Peter Reiss, John Gill, Philipp Schommers, Dominique Costagliola, Jodie L Guest, Viviane D Lima, Antonella d'arminio Monforte, Colette Smith, Matthias Cavassini, Michael Saag, Tim R Sterling, Jonathan A C Sterne
OBJECTIVE: Model trajectories of CD4 and CD8 cell counts after starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and use the model to predict trends in these counts and the CD4:CD8 ratio. DESIGN: Cohort study of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive adults who started ART after 1997 (ART Cohort Collaboration) with >6 months of follow-up data. METHODS: We jointly estimated CD4 and CD8 count trends and their correlation using a bivariate random effects model, with linear splines describing their population trends, and predicted the CD4:CD8 ratio trend from this model...
May 3, 2018: AIDS
Guneet K Jasuja, Shalender Bhasin, Adam J Rose, Joel I Reisman, Avy Skolnik, Dan R Berlowitz, Allen L Gifford
Testosterone supplementation has been widely used in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for hypogonadism, and wasting. But with effective antiretroviral therapy and increasing recognition of atherosclerotic disease and adults infected with HIV, the risks of inappropriate testosterone use in HIV-infected patients are far better recognized than previously. Testosterone use has expanded among U.S. males, but few studies have examined prescribing in those infected with HIV. In a national cohort of males with at least one outpatient prescription in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we examined 9475 HIV-infected males, including 2484 who had received testosterone and a randomly selected 6991 who had not...
October 2018: AIDS Care
Michelle L DʼAntoni, Robert H Paul, Brooks I Mitchell, Lindsay Kohorn, Laurent Fischer, Eric Lefebvre, Star Seyedkazemi, Beau K Nakamoto, Maegen Walker, Kalpana J Kallianpur, Debra Ogata-Arakaki, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Cecilia Shikuma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in neuropsychological (NP) performance and in plasma and cell surface markers of peripheral monocyte activation/migration after treatment with cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) and type 5 (CCR5) antagonist, in treatment-experienced, HIV-infected individuals. SETTING: Single-arm, 24-week, open-label clinical trial. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy ≥1 year with plasma HIV RNA ≤50 copies per milliliter and below-normal cognitive performance [defined as age-, sex-, and education-adjusted NP performance (NPZ) <-0...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
F Guo, X Cheng, E Hsieh, X Du, Q Fu, W Peng, Y Li, X Song, J-P Routy, T Li
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have explored the optimal dosing for efavirenz in individuals from China. We investigated plasma efavirenz concentrations and their association with efficacy and tolerance of efavirenz 600 mg daily in Chinese HIV-infected adults. METHODS: An analysis was performed using plasma samples from 455 patients enrolled in a prospective multicentre trial in China. A total of 1198 plasma samples collected at weeks 4, 24 and 48 following antiretroviral therapy initiation were analysed...
May 15, 2018: HIV Medicine
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May 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
2018-05-14 21:07:49
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