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N-acetylcysteine as a psychopharmacologic agent

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103 papers 25 to 100 followers This collection includes papers detailing the mechanisms and usage of the above drug and similar agents in treating oxidative stress implicated in neurologic and psychiatric disease.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27309537/n-acetyl-cysteine-may-support-dopamine-neurons-in-parkinson-s-disease-preliminary-clinical-and-cell-line-data
#1
Daniel A Monti, George Zabrecky, Daniel Kremens, Tsao-Wei Liang, Nancy A Wintering, Jingli Cai, Xiatao Wei, Anthony J Bazzan, Li Zhong, Brendan Bowen, Charles M Intenzo, Lorraine Iacovitti, Andrew B Newberg
BACKGOUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the biological and clinical effects of n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The overarching goal of this pilot study was to generate additional data about potentially protective properties of NAC in PD, using an in vitro and in vivo approach. In preparation for the clinical study we performed a cell tissue culture study with human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons that were treated with rotenone as a model for PD...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25957927/clinical-trials-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-psychiatry-and-neurology-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Deepmala, John Slattery, Nihit Kumar, Leanna Delhey, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, Charles Spielholz, Richard Frye
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
August 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25221111/sy36-2nutritional-and-alternative-interventions-in-addiction-medicine
#3
G Bunt
The burgeoning area of the application of nutritional and alternative medicine technologies in integrated medicine and psychiatry has taken root in the treatment of addictive disorders. Nutritional supplements spanning a wide range may be therapeutic in treating both deficiencies or insufficiencies as well as an adjunct to pharmacological interventions. Nutritional supplements that are commonly utilized in the treatment of addiction disorders and corresponding co-morbid psychiatric disorders or symptoms include l-methylfolate, vitamin D, inositol, l-tryptophan, omega 3 fatty acids, s-adenosyl methionine (SAM-E), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), melatonin, rhodiola rosea, valerian, chromium, creatine, and hypericum...
September 2014: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25131448/folate-deficiency-induced-oxidative-stress-contributes-to-neuropathy-in-young-and-aged-zebrafish-implication-in-neural-tube-defects-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#4
Tseng-Ting Kao, Chia-Yi Chu, Gang-Hui Lee, Tsun-Hsien Hsiao, Nai-Wei Cheng, Nan-Shan Chang, Bing-Hung Chen, Tzu-Fun Fu
Folate is a nutrient essential for the development, function and regeneration of nervous systems. Folate deficiency has been linked to many neurological disorders including neural tube defects in fetus and Alzheimer's diseases in the elderly. However, the etiology underlying these folate deficiency-associated diseases is not completely understood. In this study, zebrafish transgenic lines with timing and duration-controllable folate deficiency were developed by ectopically overexpressing a recombinant EGFP-γ-glutamyl hydrolase (γGH)...
November 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25062287/an-open-label-pilot-trial-of-n-acetylcysteine-and-varenicline-in-adult-cigarette-smokers
#5
Erin A McClure, Nathaniel L Baker, Cassandra D Gipson, Matthew J Carpenter, Amanda P Roper, Brett E Froeliger, Peter W Kalivas, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND: Varenicline (VAR) has demonstrated superior efficacy over other smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, though 50-60% of those treated do maintain abstinence. Some preclinical findings suggest that new nicotine dependence pharmacotherapies should target the glutamatergic system, given its demonstrated role in addiction. Attention has been given to N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which appears to restore normal glutamate signaling in animal models. It is possible that NAC and VAR may work in concert to promote abstinence at higher rates than with either medication alone...
January 2015: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25013755/targeting-the-glutamatergic-system-to-treat-pathological-gambling-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giovanni Martinotti, Marco Di Nicola, Filippo Ruggeri, Gianluigi Conte, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Luigi Janiri
Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A total of 19 studies have been included, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2014: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25000913/redox-dysregulation-neuroinflammation-and-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-a-central-hub-in-schizophrenia-pathophysiology
#7
REVIEW
P Steullet, J H Cabungcal, A Monin, D Dwir, P O'Donnell, M Cuenod, K Q Do
Accumulating evidence points to altered GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and impaired myelin/axonal integrity in schizophrenia. Both findings could be due to abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories, affecting local neuronal networks and long-range synchrony and leading to cognitive deficits. In this review, we present data from animal models demonstrating that redox dysregulation, neuroinflammation and/or NMDAR hypofunction (as observed in patients) impairs the normal development of both parvalbumin interneurons and oligodendrocytes...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24987341/activation-of-mglur2-3-underlies-the-effects-of-n-acetylcystein-on-amygdala-associated-autism-like-phenotypes-in-a-valproate-induced-rat-model-of-autism
#8
Yu-Wen Chen, Hui-Ching Lin, Ming-Chong Ng, Ya-Hsin Hsiao, Chao-Chuan Wang, Po-Wu Gean, Po See Chen
Autism-like phenotypes in male valproate (VPA)-exposed offspring have been linked to high glutamatergic neurotransmission in the thalamic-amygdala pathway. Glial cystine/glutamate exchange (system Xc(-)), which exchanges extracellular cystine for intracellular glutamate, plays a significant role in the maintenance of extracellular glutamate. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a cystine prodrug that restores extracellular glutamate by stimulating system Xc(-). In this study, we examined the effects of NAC on autism-like phenotypes and neurotransmission in the thalamic-amygdala synapses, as well as the involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 (mGluR2/3)...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24965576/targeting-of-nmda-receptors-in-new-treatments-for-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
Kenji Hashimoto
INTRODUCTION: Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, although the precise mechanisms are unknown. AREAS COVERED: The author examines the role of the NMDA receptor in schizophrenia, focusing on results from preclinical and clinical studies that support the NMDA receptor hypothesis of schizophrenia. The author first reviewed papers detailing alterations in the levels of endogenous substances such as glutamine, glutamate, d-serine, l-serine, kynurenic acid and glutathione (GSH), all of which can affect NMDA receptor function...
September 2014: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24815193/n-acetylcysteine-as-treatment-for-self-injurious-behavior-in-a-child-with-autism
#10
LETTER
Sarah Marler, Kevin B Sanders, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2014: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24773206/n-acetylcysteine-in-trichotillomania-a-panacea-for-compulsive-skin-disorders
#11
LETTER
M Taylor, K Bhagwandas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24725851/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-increased-amphetamine-sensitivity-in-social-isolation-reared-mice
#12
Ana P Herrmann, Radharani Benvenutti, Luísa K Pilz, Elaine Elisabetsky
Treating individuals at risk to develop schizophrenia may be strategic to delay or prevent transition to psychosis. We verified the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. C57 mice were reared in isolation or social groups and treated with NAC from postnatal day 42-70; the locomotor response to amphetamine was assessed at postnatal day 81. NAC treatment in isolated mice prevented the hypersensitivity to amphetamine, suggesting neuroprotection relevant to striatal dopamine...
May 2014: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24690598/oxidative-stress-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-a-subset-of-autistic-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines
#13
S Rose, R E Frye, J Slattery, R Wynne, M Tippett, S Melnyk, S J James
There is an increasing recognition that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with autism spectrum disorders. However, little attention has been given to the etiology of mitochondrial dysfunction and how mitochondrial abnormalities might interact with other physiological disturbances such as oxidative stress. Reserve capacity is a measure of the ability of the mitochondria to respond to physiological stress. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from children with autistic disorder (AD) have an abnormal mitochondrial reserve capacity before and after exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2014: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24683506/n-acetylcysteine-nac-in-neurological-disorders-mechanisms-of-action-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#14
REVIEW
Reza Bavarsad Shahripour, Mark R Harrigan, Andrei V Alexandrov
BACKGROUND: There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of medicines with multiple mechanisms of action across neurological disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), widely known as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose, is now emerging as treatment of vascular and nonvascular neurological disorders. NAC as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways. AIM AND DISCUSSION: Most NAC studies up to date have been carried out in animal models of various neurological disorders with only a few studies completed in humans...
March 2014: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24676047/systematic-review-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-the-treatment-of-addictions
#15
REVIEW
Elson Asevedo, Ana C Mendes, Michael Berk, Elisa Brietzke
OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first systematic literature review of clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of substance abuse disorders and addictive behaviors. METHODS: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria for the review were clinical trials that used NAC in the treatment of a disorder related to substance use and/or addictive behaviors, limited to texts in English, Spanish, or French. The selected studies were evaluated with respect to type of trial, sample size, diagnostic input, intervention, length of follow-up, outcome variables, and results...
April 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24612076/glutamate-transporter-glt-1-mediates-n-acetylcysteine-inhibition-of-cocaine-reinstatement
#16
Kathryn J Reissner, Cassandra D Gipson, Phuong K Tran, Lori A Knackstedt, Michael D Scofield, Peter W Kalivas
Both pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be useful in treating relapse to addictive drug use. Cocaine self-administration in rats reduces both cystine-glutamate exchange and glutamate transport via GLT-1 in the nucleus accumbens, and NAC treatment normalizes these two glial processes critical for maintaining glutamate homeostasis. However, it is not known if one or both of these actions by NAC is needed to inhibit relapse to cocaine seeking. To determine whether the restoration of GLT-1 and/or cystine-glutamate exchange is required for NAC to inhibit cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, we utilized the rat self-administration/extinction/reinstatement model of cocaine relapse...
March 2015: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24534112/n-acetylcysteine-modulates-hallucinogenic-5-ht-2a-receptor-agonist-mediated-responses-behavioral-molecular-and-electrophysiological-studies
#17
Mei-Yi Lee, Chun-Cheng Chiang, Hong-Yi Chiu, Ming-Huan Chan, Hwei-Hsien Chen
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been reported to reverse the psychotomimetic effects in the rodent phencyclidine model of psychosis and shown beneficial effects in treating patients with schizophrenia. The effect of NAC has been associated with facilitating the activity of cystine-glutamate antiporters on glial cells concomitant with the release of non-vesicular glutamate, which mainly stimulates the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 receptors (mGluR2). Recent evidence demonstrated that functional interactions between serotonin 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) and mGluR2 are responsible to unique cellular responses when targeted by hallucinogenic drugs...
June 2014: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24442756/potential-role-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-the-management-of-substance-use-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Erin A McClure, Cassandra D Gipson, Robert J Malcolm, Peter W Kalivas, Kevin M Gray
There is a clear and pressing need to expand pharmacotherapy options for substance use disorders (SUDs) in order to improve sustained abstinence outcomes. Preclinical literature has demonstrated the role of glutamate in addiction, suggesting that new targets for pharmacotherapy should focus on the restoration of glutamatergic function. Glutamatergic agents for SUDs may span multiple addictive behaviors and help demonstrate potentially overlapping mechanisms in addiction. The current review will focus specifically on N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a safe and well-tolerated glutamatergic agent, as a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SUDs across several substances of abuse...
February 2014: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24390716/n-acetylcysteine-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-implications-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Adam Daniel Zavodnick, Rizwan Ali
The objective of this study is to review the available data regarding metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pathology of Schizophrenia. Further, to investigate the potential utility of N-acetylcysteine as it relates to metabotropic glutamate receptors. A PubMed based literature review was conducted using keywords related to glutamate receptors, Schizophrenia and N-acetylcysteine from June 2012 through August of 2012. Relevant cited references of selected articles were also reviewed. The knowledge base regarding glutamate receptors, both ionotropic and metabotropic is rapidly expanding...
June 2014: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24353094/review-of-nutritional-supplements-for-the-treatment-of-bipolar-depression
#20
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Rakofsky, Boadie W Dunlop
Many patients view psychotropics with skepticism and fear and view nutritional supplements as more consistent with their values and beliefs. The purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the evidence base for nutritional supplements in the treatment of bipolar depression (BD). A literature search for all randomized, controlled clinical trials using nutritional supplements in the treatment of BD was conducted via PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE computerized database. The studies were organized into essential nutrients/minerals, nonessential nutrients, and combinations of nutritional products...
May 2014: Depression and Anxiety
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