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Cardiovascular disease prevention

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By Faye Kehler Family Physician and GP Anesthetist since 1987 interested in all aspects of Medicine
Seyyed Majid Eslami, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Maryam Ghasemi, Mohammad Abdollahi
Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a member of regulatory serine proteases which is mostly expressed in liver. In the physiological condition, LDL-C binds to LDL receptors (LDLRs) and via endocytosis, LDLRs are degraded. PCSK9 binds to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGFA) domain of extracellular LDLRs, and then physiological recycling of LDLRs from surface of liver is cancelled, resulting in elevation of circulating LDL-C in plasma. To evaluate whether evolucomab, as PCSK9 inhibitor monoclonal antibody, ameliorates lipid profile in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, this meta-analysis has been conducted...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Benjamin L Ebert, Peter Libby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Joseph Yeboah, Rebekah Young, Robyn L McClelland, Joseph C Delaney, Tamar S Polonsky, Farah Z Dawood, Michael J Blaha, Michael D Miedema, Christopher T Sibley, J Jeffrey Carr, Gregory L Burke, David C Goff, Bruce M Psaty, Philip Greenland, David M Herrington
BACKGROUND: The improvement in discrimination gained by adding nontraditional cardiovascular risk markers cited in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk estimator (pooled cohort equation [PCE]) is untested. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the predictive accuracy and improvement in reclassification gained by the addition of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, the ankle-brachial index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, and family history (FH) of ASCVD to the PCE in participants of MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis)...
January 19, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Kevin Pottie, Alejandra Jaramillo, Gabriela Lewin, Jim Dickinson, Neil Bell, Paula Brauer, Lesley Dunfield, Michel Joffres, Harminder Singh, Marcello Tonelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2012: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: European Heart Journal
Dongfeng Zhang, Weijing Wang, Fang Li
BACKGROUND: Resting heart rate is linked to risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess these associations in general populations and in populations of patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and MEDLINE from inception to Mar. 5, 2016. We used a random-effects model to combine study-specific relative risks (RRs). We used restricted cubic splines to assess the dose-response relation...
October 18, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
B K Pedersen, B Saltin
This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis); metabolic diseases (obesity, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes); cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, cerebral apoplexy, and claudication intermittent); pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer...
December 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
N Peltz-Sinvani, R Klempfner, E Ramaty, B A Sela, I Goldenberg, G Segal
BACKGROUND: Low alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood levels are known to be associated with frailty and increased risk of long-term mortality in certain populations. However, the contribution of this marker to long-term outcome has not been assessed in patients with chronic coronary heart disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to assess the association between low ALT values and long-term, 22.8-year, all-cause mortality in this population. PARTICIPANTS: We examined the association of low ALT (<17 IU/l) with long-term all-cause mortality in the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) Registry population...
February 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Wendy E Hague, John Simes, Adrienne Kirby, Anthony C Keech, Harvey D White, David Hunt, Paul J Nestel, David M Colquhoun, Helen Pater, Ralph A Stewart, David R Sullivan, Peter L Thompson, Malcolm West, Paul P Glasziou, Andrew M Tonkin
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the long-term effects of treatment with statin therapy on all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and cancer incidence from extended follow-up of the Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease (LIPID) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: LIPID initially compared pravastatin and placebo over 6 years in 9014 patients with previous coronary heart disease. After the double-blind period, all patients were offered open-label statin therapy...
May 10, 2016: Circulation
Adriana Q Kolff, Michiel J Bom, Remco J J Knol, Friso M van de Zant, Petrus M van der Zee, Jan H Cornel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of the HEART score to predict the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) determined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its ability to predict the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients referred for CCTA after emergency department (ED) presentation. METHODS: From December 2011 to August 2014, 710 ED patients with chest pain who underwent CCTA within 30 days were included...
March 2016: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
Adrienne O'Neil, Aaron J Fisher, Katherine J Kibbey, Felice N Jacka, Mark A Kotowicz, Lana J Williams, Amanda L Stuart, Michael Berk, Paul A Lewandowski, John J Atherton, Craig B Taylor, Julie A Pasco
BACKGROUND: Depression is widely considered to be an independent and robust predictor of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), however is seldom considered in the context of formal risk assessment. We assessed whether the addition of depression to the Framingham Risk Equation (FRE) improved accuracy for predicting 10-year CHD in a sample of women. DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal design comprising an age-stratified, population-based sample of Australian women collected between 1993 and 2011 (n=862)...
June 2016: Preventive Medicine
Sandra J Taler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Anandita P Agarwala, Amrith Rodrigues, Marjorie Risman, Mary McCoy, Kevin Trindade, Liming Qu, Marina Cuchel, Jeffrey Billheimer, Daniel J Rader
OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are strongly inversely associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), and high HDL-C is generally associated with reduced risk of CAD. Extremely high HDL-C with CAD is an unusual phenotype, and we hypothesized that the HDL in such individuals may have an altered composition and reduced function when compared with controls with similarly high HDL-C and no CAD. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Fifty-five subjects with very high HDL-C (mean, 86 mg/dL) and onset of CAD at the age of ≈ 60 years with no known risk factors for CAD (cases) were identified through systematic recruitment...
June 2015: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yue Qi, Jie Fan, Jing Liu, Wei Wang, Miao Wang, Jiayi Sun, Jun Liu, Wuxiang Xie, Fan Zhao, Yan Li, Dong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol-overloaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles exert a negative impact on the antiatherogenic function of HDL in experimental studies. However, it remains unclear whether cholesterol-overloaded HDL particle is involved in the development of atherosclerosis in humans. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore whether cholesterol-overloaded HDL particles are associated with the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in a cardiovascular disease-free population...
February 3, 2015: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Chun Chao, Lanfang Xu, Smita Bhatia, Robert Cooper, Somjot Brar, F Lennie Wong, Saro H Armenian
PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer. METHODS: We identified a retrospective cohort of 2-year survivors of AYA cancer who were diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years (1998 to 2009) at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. A comparison group without cancer was selected and matched 10:1 to cancer survivors on the basis of age, sex, Kaiser Permanente Southern California membership, and calendar year...
May 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Xiaofang Wang, Xiaoyan Zhao, Ling Li, Haimu Yao, Yan Jiang, Jinying Zhang
BACKGROUND: In approximately 80% of cardiovascular disease-related deaths, patients suffer from coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Ezetimibe is the first intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor. Its combination with statins for treating coronary atherosclerotic heart disease has attracted attention worldwide. METHODS: The study group comprised 106 patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease and hyperlipidaemia. Each was randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) Ezetimibe (10mg, once a night) plus rosuvastatin (10mg, once a night) (n=55) or (2) Rosuvastatin alone (10mg, once a night) (n=51)...
May 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Dariush Mozaffarian
Suboptimal nutrition is a leading cause of poor health. Nutrition and policy science have advanced rapidly, creating confusion yet also providing powerful opportunities to reduce the adverse health and economic impacts of poor diets. This review considers the history, new evidence, controversies, and corresponding lessons for modern dietary and policy priorities for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Major identified themes include the importance of evaluating the full diversity of diet-related risk pathways, not only blood lipids or obesity; focusing on foods and overall diet patterns, rather than single isolated nutrients; recognizing the complex influences of different foods on long-term weight regulation, rather than simply counting calories; and characterizing and implementing evidence-based strategies, including policy approaches, for lifestyle change...
January 12, 2016: Circulation
Anthony S Wierzbicki, Dilinika Perera, Mfon Ewang-Emukowhate
Hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Statins are the mainstay of therapy and new guidelines focus on the use of these agents without specific targets for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol or non high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. However, patients remain at risk of cardiovascular disease despite statin therapy so new drugs are required. This article reviews therapies in development to further lower LDL-cholesterol (Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 (PCSK-9) inhibitors), raise HDL-holesterol (cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors (CETPIs)) and reduce triglycerides (novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-agonists and omega-3 fatty acid preparations)...
December 2014: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Karam M Kostner, Winfried März, Gerhard M Kostner
Recently published epidemiological and genetic studies strongly suggest a causal relationship of elevated concentrations of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] with cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), reduced high density lipoproteins (HDL), and other traditional CVD risk factors. The atherogenicity of Lp(a) at a molecular and cellular level is caused by interference with the fibrinolytic system, the affinity to secretory phospholipase A2, the interaction with extracellular matrix glycoproteins, and the binding to scavenger receptors on macrophages...
November 2013: European Heart Journal
G P S Shantha, J G Robinson
Statins are established therapies for cardiovascular disease prevention and ezetimibe has recently been shown to modestly reduce cardiovascular events when added to background statin therapy. Yet here remains a clear unmet need for additional therapies aimed at lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to further reduce cardiovascular risk. Multiple strategies targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition have emerged as effective modalities for LDL-C lowering. PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies are the farthest along in clinical development and alirocumab and evolocumab were approved for clinical use by regulatory agencies in 2015...
January 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
2016-01-18 15:24:20
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