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15 papers 100 to 500 followers Adult ADHD
By Ellen Pappas Aspiring physician
Nikolas A A Berger, Astrid Müller, Elmar Brähler, Alexandra Philipsen, Martina de Zwaan
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies suggest that physical activity can alleviate symptoms of ADHD in children. In adults there are currently insufficient data available on this subject. Interestingly, ADHD and forms of excessive exercising have both been shown to occur more frequently in adult athletes. The aim of the present study was to empirically investigate the association of ADHD and excessive exercising in the adult general population. METHODS: For diagnosis of adult and childhood ADHD a large representative sample of the German general population (n = 1,615) completed a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD and a self-report assessment of adult ADHD...
2014: BMC Psychiatry
Jeffrey M Halperin, Olga G Berwid, Sarah O'Neill
Data from animal studies provide convincing evidence that physical exercise enhances brain development and neurobehavioral functioning in areas believed to be impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To a lesser but still compelling extent, results from studies in typically developing children and adults indicate beneficial effects of exercise on many of the neurocognitive functions that have been shown to be impaired in children with ADHD. Together, these data provide a strong rationale for why a program of structured physical exercise might serve as an effective intervention for children with ADHD...
October 2014: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Stephen V Faraone, Kevin M Antshel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Tamir Epstein, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Mark Weiser
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), diagnosed mainly in children, often persist into adulthood. Adults in this group have a high rate of other psychiatric problems and functional difficulties in a number of key areas such as academic achievement, interpersonal relationships, and employment. Although the usefulness of immediate-release methylphenidate in children has been extensively studied, studies in adults, which are few, demonstrate varying results...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wolfgang Retz, Petra Retz-Junginger
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder of childhood, which often persists in adulthood. Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most effective medications to treat ADHD, but also few adult patients show no sufficient response to this drug. In this paper, we give an overview regarding genetic, neuroimaging, clinical and other studies which have tried to reveal the reasons for non-response in adults with ADHD, based on a systematic literature search. Although MPH is a well-established treatment for adults with ADHD, research regarding the prediction of treatment outcome is still limited and has resulted in inconsistent findings...
November 2014: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Alexandra Sebastian, Patrick Jung, Annegret Krause-Utz, Klaus Lieb, Christian Schmahl, Oliver Tüscher
Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control, and behavioral inhibition...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Hui Mei Wong, Esther C L Goh
This article provides in-depth insights on the bidirectional dynamics between parents and their children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Five family units (8 parents, 5 children, N = 13) participated in this study. Parents and their child with ADHD were interviewed individually in their homes. Stressful moments of parent-child dynamics revolved around managing their child's behavior and doing homework. Findings highlight the child's agency and power of influence, and the possible recovery of negative dynamics...
2014: Social Work in Health Care
Benjamin N Schneider, Michael Enenbach
Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well-established and effective treatment modality. However, ADHD medications are not without side effects. Understanding the prevalence of adverse events and effective management of risks associated with stimulants and other medications used to treat ADHD is central to broad applicability and effective treatment. This review discusses the literature on the prevalence of adverse events and management strategies employed. We searched online MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane databases for articles using several keywords relating to adverse events associated with ADHD medication management...
October 2014: Current Psychiatry Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: National Bureau of Economic Research Bulletin on Aging and Health
Ping Zhong, Zhen Yan
Dopamine D4 receptor (D4R), which is strongly linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, is highly expressed in pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we examined the impact of D4R on the excitability of these 2 neuronal populations. We found that D4R activation decreased the frequency of spontaneous action potentials (sAPs) in PFC pyramidal neurons, whereas it induced a transient increase followed by a decrease of sAP frequency in PFC parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons...
January 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Lenard A Adler, David B Clemow, David W Williams, Todd M Durell
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine treatment on executive functions in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: In this Phase 4, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, young adults (18-30 years) with ADHD were randomized to receive atomoxetine (20-50 mg BID, N = 220) or placebo (N = 225) for 12 weeks. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A) consists of 75 self-report items within 9 nonoverlapping clinical scales measuring various aspects of executive functioning...
2014: PloS One
Anne-Claude V Bédard, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Suzanne M Clerkin, Beth Krone, Jin Fan, Jeffrey M Halperin, Kurt P Schulz
OBJECTIVE: Visuospatial working memory impairments have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most ADHD research has focused on the neural correlates of nonspatial mnemonic processes. This study examined brain activation and functional connectivity for visuospatial working memory in youth with and without ADHD. METHOD: Twenty-four youth with ADHD and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an N-back test of working memory for spatial position...
September 2014: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Marees Th Derksen, M J W Vreeling, Ilja Tchetverikov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Richard C Mulligan, Sean D Kristjansson, Angela M Reiersen, Andres S Parra, Andrey P Anokhin
BACKGROUND: The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been implicated in psychiatric disorders in which deficits of self-regulation are a prominent feature (e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders) and in dopamine D4 receptor insensitivity within prefrontal regions of the brain. Our hypothesis was that carriers of 7-repeats in the Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) of DRD4 (7R+) would recruit prefrontal brain regions involved in successful inhibitory control to a lesser degree than non-carriers (7R-) and demonstrate less inhibitory control as confirmed by observation of locally reduced blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) % signal change and lower accuracy while performing "No-Go" trials of a Go/No-Go task...
September 2014: Neuropsychologia
Pernille Warrer, Lise Aagaard, Ebba Holme Hansen
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and lactation labeling is presented in the officially recognized product information (PI) accompanying prescription drugs to ensure appropriate prescribing in pregnant and breastfeeding women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze pregnancy and lactation labeling in PI for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs marketed across countries and to compare this information with respect to consistency and discrepancy. METHODS: We manually surveyed PI for atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, the USA, Denmark, and the UK...
October 2014: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
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