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Throwing baseball

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14 papers 100 to 500 followers MH Residency - Baseball
Elizabeth E Hibberd, J Rodney Brown, Joseph T Hoffer
The ulnar collateral ligament stabilizes the elbow joint from valgus stress associated with the throwing motion. During baseball pitching, this ligament is subjected to tremendous stress and injury if the force on the ulnar collateral ligament during pitching exceeds the physiological limits of the ligament. Injuries to the throwing elbow in baseball pitchers result in significant time loss and typically surgical intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of current information to sports medicine clinicians on injury epidemiology, injury mechanics, injury risk factors, injury prevention, surgical interventions, nonsurgical interventions, rehabilitation, and return to play outcomes in baseball pitchers of all levels...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Teruhisa Mihata, Michelle H McGarry, Masashi Neo, Mutsumi Ohue, Thay Q Lee
BACKGROUND: Excessive anterior capsular laxity (elongation of the anterior capsular ligaments) causes shoulder subluxation during acceleration of the throwing motion, leading to a disabled throwing shoulder. Few biomechanical studies have investigated the relationship between anterior capsular laxity and internal impingement, another cause of the disabled throwing shoulder. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of anterior capsular laxity on forceful internal impingement during the late cocking phase...
July 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Matthew J Solomito, Erin J Garibay, Jessica R Woods, Sylvia Õunpuu, Carl W Nissen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of upper extremity injuries in baseball pitchers is increasing. Over the past decade there has been a great deal of research attempting to elucidate the cause of these injuries, focusing mainly on the mechanics of the pitching arm with no examination of other key segments, such as the trunk. This is surprising, as coaches will often comment on trunk position in an effort to improve pitching outcomes. PURPOSE: To determine the association between contralateral trunk lean and ball velocity and the moments about the elbow and glenohumeral joint...
May 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Peter N Chalmers, Robert Trombley, Johannes Cip, Brett Monson, Brian Forsythe, Gregory P Nicholson, Charles A Bush-Joseph, Brian J Cole, Markus A Wimmer, Anthony A Romeo, Nikhil N Verma
BACKGROUND: Superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears are a common cause of shoulder pain and dysfunction in overhand throwers. Treatment outcomes remain unpredictable, with a large percentage of athletes unable to return to sport. There is considerable debate about the optimal treatment between debridement, repair, and tenodesis. HYPOTHESIS: Labral repair more closely restores neuromuscular control and motion during the overhand pitch than tenodesis of the long head of the biceps...
December 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jonathan N Watson, Peter McQueen, Mark R Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction of the elbow has become increasingly more frequent among elite overhead athletes. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review comparing the clinical outcomes and biomechanical results of the Jobe, modified Jobe, docking, modified docking, Endobutton, and interference screw techniques for UCL reconstruction. HYPOTHESIS: The docking technique will have significantly fewer complications and improved return-to-play rate...
October 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Caroline Martin, Benoit Bideau, Nicolas Bideau, Guillaume Nicolas, Paul Delamarche, Richard Kulpa
BACKGROUND: Energy flow has been hypothesized to be one of the most critical biomechanical concepts related to tennis performance and overuse injuries. However, the relationships among energy flow during the tennis serve, ball velocity, and overuse injuries have not been assessed. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships among the quality and magnitude of energy flow, the ball velocity, and the peaks of upper limb joint kinetics and to compare the energy flow during the serve between injured and noninjured tennis players...
November 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Ajit M W Chaudhari, Christopher S McKenzie, Xueliang Pan, James A Oñate
BACKGROUND: Recently, lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics, and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injuries in baseball pitchers. HYPOTHESIS: Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss ≥30 days because of an injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2...
November 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Courtney D Warren, David J Szymanski, Merrill R Landers
Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game...
November 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Cyril Genevois, Philippe Berthier, Vincent Guidou, Franck Muller, Boris Thiebault, Isabelle Rogowski
CONTEXT: In women's handball, the large numbers of throws and passes make the shoulder region vulnerable to overuse injuries. Repetitive throwing motions generate imbalance between shoulder internal- and external-rotator muscles. It has not yet been established whether sling-based training can improve shoulder external-rotator muscle strength. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-wk strengthening program in improving shoulder functional profile in elite female high school handball players...
November 2014: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Allan Mishra, Joseph M Pirolo, Taco Gosens
Medial epicondylar tendinopathy, also known as golfer's elbow, is less common than lateral elbow tendinopathy. Overhead throwing athletes and those participating in sports that require repeated forearm pronation and wrist flexion are most commonly affected by this disorder. This problem predominates in amateur as opposed to professional athletes and is also seen more commonly in patients over 40 years of age. This review will begin by outlining the incidence, history, and physical examination of medial epicondylar tendinopathy, including a new clinical test...
September 2014: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
Jeffrey Dugas, Justin Chronister, E Lyle Cain, James R Andrews
Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are most commonly reported in baseball players (particularly in pitchers) but have also been observed in other overhead athletes including javelin, softball, tennis, volleyball, water polo, and gymnastics. Partial injuries have been successfully treated with appropriate nonoperative measures but complete tears and chronic injuries have shown less benefit from conservative measures. In these cases, surgical reconstruction has become the treatment modality for overhead athlete who wishes to continue to play...
September 2014: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
Joshua D Harris, David M Lintner
The athlete's elbow is a remarkable example of motion, strength, and durability. The stress placed on the elbow during sport, including the throwing motion, may lead to soft-tissue ligamentous and nerve injury. The thrower's elbow illustrates one example of possible nerve injury about the elbow in sport, related to chronic repetitive tensile and compressive stresses to the ulnar nerve associated with elbow flexion and valgus position. Besides the throwing athlete, nerve injury from high-energy direct-impact forces may also damage nerves around the elbow in contact sports...
September 2014: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
Teruhisa Mihata, Atsushi Takeda, Takeshi Kawakami, Yasuo Itami, Chisato Watanabe, Munekazu Doi, Masashi Neo
PURPOSE: Glenohumeral range of motion is correlated with shoulder capsular condition and is thus considered to be predictive of shoulder pathology. However, in throwing athletes, a side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion makes it difficult to evaluate capsular condition on the basis of glenohumeral range of motion measured by using the conventional technique. The purpose of this study was to measure isolated glenohumeral rotation, excluding side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion, in asymptomatic high-school baseball players...
June 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Michael Beckett, Michael Hannon, Christopher Ropiak, Christopher Gerona, Karen Mohr, Orr Limpisvasti
BACKGROUND: Proper scapulothoracic and hip mechanics are essential aspects of the throwing kinetic chain. Little is known regarding these entities in preadolescent and adolescent baseball players. HYPOTHESIS: Scapular malposition and dyskinesis as well as hip dysfunction are highly prevalent in preadolescent and adolescent baseball players and may be identified by simple clinical testing. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 112 baseball players aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from local Little Leagues, traveling teams, and high schools...
October 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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