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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753433/how-to-interpret-a-negative-study
#1
Grigorios I Leontiadis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604932/how-to-raise-a-genius-lessons-from-a-45-year-study-of-super-smart-children
#2
Tom Clynes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590096/assessing-acid-base-status-physiologic-versus-physicochemical-approach
#3
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24526205/base-excess-strong-ion-difference-and-expected-compensations-as-simple-as-it-is
#4
REVIEW
Fernando Schiraldi, Giovanna Guiotto
The main purpose of this article is to provide some practical insights into acid-base disorders interpretation, comparing the three most widespread diagnostic approaches. After a brief summary of the history of blood gas analysis and the shift from a purely chemical approach to more clinically useful applications, the pros and cons of the different methodologies are compared and discussed. Reviewing the most important publications in the field, the authors attempt to show that each diagnostic strategy is acceptable, although the one based on base-excess calculation perhaps seems too 'rough' to understand the mixed disorders, whereas the Stewart approach is attractive from a chemical point of view, but unsuitable for the emergency physician because of the cumbersome calculations needed...
December 2014: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229641/sepsis-resuscitation-fluid-choice-and-dose
#5
REVIEW
Matthew W Semler, Todd W Rice
Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding which fluid and in what amount remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, and large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research...
June 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22517736/management-of-hyperglycemia-in-type-2-diabetes-a-patient-centered-approach-position-statement-of-the-american-diabetes-association-ada-and-the-european-association-for-the-study-of-diabetes-easd
#6
REVIEW
Silvio E Inzucchi, Richard M Bergenstal, John B Buse, Michaela Diamant, Ele Ferrannini, Michael Nauck, Anne L Peters, Apostolos Tsapas, Richard Wender, David R Matthews
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2012: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217054/sepsis-pathophysiology-and-clinical-management
#7
REVIEW
Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay
Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock represent increasingly severe systemic inflammatory responses to infection. Sepsis is common in the aging population, and it disproportionately affects patients with cancer and underlying immunosuppression. In its most severe form, sepsis causes multiple organ dysfunction that can produce a state of chronic critical illness characterized by severe immune dysfunction and catabolism. Much has been learnt about the pathogenesis of sepsis at the molecular, cell, and intact organ level...
May 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159031/the-role-of-randomized-and-nonrandomized-studies-in-evaluating-diagnostic-strategies
#8
M G Myriam Hunink, Kirsten E Fleischmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037128/the-ed-as-the-primary-source-of-hospital-admission-for-older-but-not-younger-adults
#9
Peter W Greenwald, Rosa M Estevez, Sunday Clark, Michael E Stern, Tony Rosen, Neal Flomenbaum
INTRODUCTION: The elderly population in the United States is growing. This age shift has important implications for emergency departments (EDs), which currently account for more than 50% of inpatient hospitalizations. Our objective was to compare the percentage of inpatient admissions starting in the ED between elderly and younger patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis using the National Hospital Discharge Survey. Source of admission to the hospital was evaluated for years 2003 to 2009...
June 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139256/initial-mechanical-ventilator-settings-and-lung-protective-ventilation-in-the-ed
#10
Susan R Wilcox, Jeremy B Richards, Daniel F Fisher, Jeffrey Sankoff, Todd A Seigel
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes has been shown to improve outcomes for patients both with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study aims to characterize mechanically ventilated patients in the emergency department (ED), describe the initial ED ventilator settings, and assess for associations between lung protective ventilation strategies in the ED and outcomes. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study of mechanical ventilation at 3 academic EDs...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992096/twenty-four-hour-urine-%C3%AE-1-microglobulin-as-a-marker-of-hypertension-induced-renal-impairment-and-its-response-on-different-blood-pressure-lowering-drugs
#11
Charalampos I Liakos, Gregory P Vyssoulis, Maria I Markou, Nikolaos V Kafkas, Konstantinos P Toutouzas, Dimitrios Tousoulis
The purpose of this study was to assess the role of urine α1 -microglobulin as a marker of hypertension-induced renal damage compared with estimated glomerular filtration rate, (eGFR), urine albumin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). Its response on different blood pressure (BP)-lowering drugs was also studied. Sixty never-treated hypertensive patients (65.0% men, 46.9 years, BP 141.4/94.0 mm Hg) were randomized to an irbesartan (an angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]) or a diltiazem (a nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker [CCB])-based regimen...
March 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27119237/oral-ixazomib-lenalidomide-and-dexamethasone-for-multiple-myeloma
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Philippe Moreau, Tamás Masszi, Norbert Grzasko, Nizar J Bahlis, Markus Hansson, Ludek Pour, Irwindeep Sandhu, Peter Ganly, Bartrum W Baker, Sharon R Jackson, Anne-Marie Stoppa, David R Simpson, Peter Gimsing, Antonio Palumbo, Laurent Garderet, Michele Cavo, Shaji Kumar, Cyrille Touzeau, Francis K Buadi, Jacob P Laubach, Deborah T Berg, Jianchang Lin, Alessandra Di Bacco, Ai-Min Hui, Helgi van de Velde, Paul G Richardson
BACKGROUND: Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor that is currently being studied for the treatment of multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 722 patients who had relapsed, refractory, or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma to receive ixazomib plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone (ixazomib group) or placebo plus lenalidomide-dexamethasone (placebo group). The primary end point was progression-free survival...
April 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26205599/the-early-repolarization-pattern-a-consensus-paper
#13
REVIEW
Peter W Macfarlane, Charles Antzelevitch, Michel Haissaguerre, Heikki V Huikuri, Mark Potse, Raphael Rosso, Frederic Sacher, Jani T Tikkanen, Hein Wellens, Gan-Xin Yan
The term early repolarization has been in use for more than 50 years. This electrocardiographic pattern was considered benign until 2008, when it was linked to sudden cardiac arrest due to idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Much confusion over the definition of early repolarization followed. Thus, the objective of this paper was to prepare an agreed definition to facilitate future research in this area. The different definitions of the early repolarization pattern were reviewed to delineate the electrocardiographic measures to be used when defining this pattern...
July 28, 2015: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26597304/acid-base-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
L Lee Hamm, Nazih Nakhoul, Kathleen S Hering-Smith
Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids...
December 7, 2015: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21051743/updates-on-the-treatment-of-lupus-nephritis
#15
REVIEW
Andrew S Bomback, Gerald B Appel
The treatment of lupus nephritis has changed significantly over the past decade in large part because of data from well-conducted randomized clinical trials. The concept of two phases of therapy-induction and maintenance-is widely accepted. The histopathologic classification of lupus nephritis continues to guide therapy, and treatment for all major classes of lupus nephritis has seen some shift in management during this time. New regimens using lower doses and shorter treatment durations of intravenous cyclophosphamide have been advanced to reduce toxicity without sacrificing efficacy of therapy...
December 2010: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20824834/non-steroid-agents-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
REVIEW
Paolo Spagnolo, Cinzia Del Giovane, Fabrizio Luppi, Stefania Cerri, Sara Balduzzi, E Haydn Walters, Roberto D'Amico, Luca Richeldi
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive lung disease with poor outcome and no effective treatment to date. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2003. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-steroid agents in adults with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Register (30 March 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2010), Ovid MEDLINE to March week 5, 2010, EMBASE to week 13, 2010 and PubMed to April 2010, with additional handsearching, including abstracts of international conferences...
September 8, 2010: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22211147/bronchiectasis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Jessica Rademacher, Tobias Welte
BACKGROUND: Radiologically evident bronchiectasis is seen in 30% to 50% of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As COPD is now becoming more common around the world, bronchiectasis is as well. METHODS: We review pertinent articles published before May 2011 that were retrieved by a selective PubMed search. RESULTS: The principles of treatment of bronchiectasis in patients who do not have cystic fibrosis ("non-CF bronchiectasis") are derived from the treatment of other diseases: secretolytic and anti-infectious treatment are given as in cystic fibrosis, while anti-obstructive treatment is given as in COPD...
December 2011: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22275848/pharmacotherapy-of-anxiety-disorders-a-critical-review
#18
REVIEW
Nastassja Koen, Dan J Stein
Given the enormous contribution of anxiety disorders to the burden of disease, it is key to optimize their prevention and treatment. In this critical review we assess advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, as well as remaining challenges, in recent decades, the field has seen rigorous clinical trial methods to quantify the efficacy and safety of serendipitously discovered agents, more focused development of medications with selective mechanisms of action, and the gradual translation of insights from laboratory research into proof-of-principle clinical trials...
2011: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25047428/fluid-resuscitation-in-sepsis-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Bram Rochwerg, Waleed Alhazzani, Anees Sindi, Diane Heels-Ansdell, Lehana Thabane, Alison Fox-Robichaud, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Wojciech Szczeklik, Fayez Alshamsi, Sultan Altayyar, Wang-Chun Ip, Guowei Li, Michael Wang, Anna Wludarczyk, Qi Zhou, Gordon H Guyatt, Deborah J Cook, Roman Jaeschke, Djillali Annane
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is the cornerstone of sepsis treatment. However, whether balanced or unbalanced crystalloids or natural or synthetic colloids confer a survival advantage is unclear. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of different resuscitative fluids on mortality in patients with sepsis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ACP Journal Club, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through March 2014...
September 2, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21632909/how-to-manage-type-2-diabetes-in-medical-and-surgical-patients-in-the-hospital
#20
REVIEW
Guilermo E Umpierez
Many patients admitted to the hospital have diabetes mellitus-diagnosed or undiagnosed-and others develop hyperglycemia from the stress of hospitalization. This paper discusses the prevalence, outcomes, and evidence for best management of hyperglycemia and diabetes in hospitalized patients outside the critical care setting.
June 2011: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
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