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S Koletzko, B Niggemann, A Arato, J A Dias, R Heuschkel, S Husby, M L Mearin, A Papadopoulou, F M Ruemmele, A Staiano, M G Schäppi, Y Vandenplas
OBJECTIVES: This guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of suspected cow's-milk protein allergy (CMPA) in Europe. It presents a practical approach with a diagnostic algorithm and is based on recently published evidence-based guidelines on CMPA. DIAGNOSIS: If CMPA is suspected by history and examination, then strict allergen avoidance is initiated. In certain circumstances (eg, a clear history of immediate symptoms, a life-threatening reaction with a positive test for CMP-specific IgE), the diagnosis can be made without a milk challenge...
August 2012: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Yvan Vandenplas
Regurgitation, infantile colic and, or, constipationare frequent during the first 12 months of life, and although they aremost of the time functional disorders, these conditions can also be related to cow's milk. Practical algorithms for their management are presented. Management consists of exclusion of warning signs for organic disease, parental reassurance and nutritional strategies. The proposed algorithms will assist healthcare providers to manage frequent gastrointestinal and cows' milkrelated symptoms in infants...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Michael Auerbach, John W Adamson
It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is anemic, the majority being due to iron deficiency (ID). In adults, ID is associated with fatigue in the absence of anemia, restless legs syndrome, pica and, in neonates, delayed growth and development. In adolescents, ID is associated with decrements in learning and behavioral abnormalities. In the absence of a clear cause, search for a source of bleeding is indicated. No single test is diagnostic of ID unless the serum ferritin is low or the percent transferrin saturation is low with an elevated total iron binding capacity...
January 2016: American Journal of Hematology
Leah Abitbol, Stephen Zborovski, Mark R Palmert
Delayed puberty (DP) is defined as the lack of pubertal development by an age that is 2-2.5 SDs beyond the population mean. Although it generally represents a normal variant in pubertal timing, concern that DP could be the initial presentation of a serious underlying disorder has led to a diagnostic approach that is variable and may include tests that are unnecessary and costly. In this review, we examine available literature regarding the recommended diagnostic tests and aetiologies identified during the evaluation of youth with DP...
August 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Lena E Gottesman, Michael T Del Vecchio, Stephen C Aronoff
BACKGROUND: The etiologies of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infancy are diverse. OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence rates of the specific etiologies of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infancy. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE and Pubmed were searched electronically and the bibliographies of selected studies were search manually. The search was conducted independently by two authors. STUDY SELECTION: (1) prospective or retrospective case series or cohort study with 10 or more subjects; (2) consecutive infants who presented with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia; (3) subjects underwent appropriate diagnostic work-up for conjugated hyperbilirubinemia; (4) no specific diagnoses were excluded in the studied cohort...
2015: BMC Pediatrics
Fernando Maria de Benedictis, Marina Attanasi
Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events...
March 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Andrea L Zaenglein, Arun L Pathy, Bethanee J Schlosser, Ali Alikhan, Hilary E Baldwin, Diane S Berson, Whitney P Bowe, Emmy M Graber, Julie C Harper, Sewon Kang, Jonette E Keri, James J Leyden, Rachel V Reynolds, Nanette B Silverberg, Linda F Stein Gold, Megha M Tollefson, Jonathan S Weiss, Nancy C Dolan, Andrew A Sagan, Mackenzie Stern, Kevin M Boyer, Reva Bhushan
Acne is one of the most common disorders treated by dermatologists and other health care providers. While it most often affects adolescents, it is not uncommon in adults and can also be seen in children. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. Issues from grading of acne to the topical and systemic management of the disease are reviewed. Suggestions on use are provided based on available evidence.
May 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
James B Carr, Scott Yang, Leigh Ann Lather
Flatfoot (pes planus) is common in infants and children and often resolves by adolescence. Thus, flatfoot is described as physiologic because it is usually flexible, painless, and of no functional consequence. In rare instances, flatfoot can become painful or rigid, which may be a sign of underlying foot pathology, including arthritis or tarsal coalition. Despite its prevalence, there is no standard definition for pediatric flatfoot. Furthermore, there are no large, prospective studies that compare the natural history of idiopathic, flexible flat feet throughout development in response to various treatments...
March 2016: Pediatrics
Patricia M Guglietta, Christopher J Moran, Daniel P Ryan, Pallavi Sagar, Amelia E Huck
Presentation of Case. Dr. Patricia M. Guglietta: A 9.5-year-old girl with chronic constipation was seen in the gastroenterology clinic of this hospital because of recurrent episodes of abdominal pain with associated nonbilious vomiting. The patient had been generally well until she was 4 years of..
January 28, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Rebecca J Scharf, Graham J Scharf, Annemarie Stroustrup
• On the basis of observational studies (level C), preterm birth is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities in children, and the degree of neurodevelopmental disability is inversely correlated with gestational age at birth. When comparing performance of preterm children to developmental norms, “corrected age” or age from due date rather than birth date should be used for the first 24 to 36 months. • On the basis of observational studies (level C), clinicians should pay specific attention to sensory function in children born preterm because the incidence of visual and hearing impairments is higher in preterm than term children...
January 2016: Pediatrics in Review
Kelly M Brown, Beth A Malow
Insomnia in children is complex and frequently multifactorial. This review discusses the major categories of insomnia as well as common causes. The consequences of insomnia, including issues with mood, behavior, and cognition, are discussed. Sleep disorders are much more prevalent in certain pediatric populations, such as children with autism spectrum disorders. The evaluation of insomnia in children includes a focused history and examination and occasionally actigraphy or polysomnography. Behavioral and pharmacological therapies are discussed, as are future directions for research and clinical practice...
May 2016: Chest
L K Brown, R M Beattie, M P Tighe
Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is common in childhood, but is not often caused by disease. It is often the impact of the pain rather than the pain itself that results in referral to the clinician. In this review, we will summarise the currently available evidence and discuss the functional dimensions of the presentation, within the framework of commonly expressed parental questions. Using the Rome III criteria, we discuss how to classify the functional symptoms, investigate appropriately, provide reassurance regarding parental worries of chronic disease...
July 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Pediatrics
Nina Miazek, Irmina Michalek, Malgorzata Pawlowska-Kisiel, Malgorzata Olszewska, Lidia Rudnicka
Pityriasis alba (PA) is a skin disorder that affects children and adolescents. Although it is common worldwide, its incidence is markedly higher in darker skin phototypes. Its characteristic features include an extended, multistage course and spontaneous remissions and recurrences. Preceded by erythematous changes, patches of hypopigmented skin of up to a few centimeters in diameter appear on the upper body. Pruritus may accompany it. Even though its etiology is unknown, possible reported triggering factors include sunlight, beauty treatments, and microorganisms, among others...
November 2015: Pediatric Dermatology
Laure Léger, Boris Gojanovic, Nicole Sekarski, Erik J Meijboom, Yvan Mivelaz
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) affects 2/100,000 young, active athletes per year of which 40% are less than 18 years old. In 2004, the International Olympic Committee accepted the Lausanne Recommendations, including a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), as a pre-participation screening tool for adult Olympic athletes. The debate on extending those recommendations to the pediatric population has recently begun. The aims of our study were to highlight the characteristics of the young athlete ECG, phenotypical manifestations of SCD-related disease in children, and challenges of implanting ECG screening in athletic children...
January 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
Ulises Garza, Christopher Gayer
A 10-month-old male infant weighing 7.34 kg (2nd percentile for age and sex) presented with a 4-day history of nonbilious, nonbloody emesis. He had a history of frequent nonbilious emesis and poor weight gain since birth. He had difficulty consuming solid foods and was given a diagnosis of reflux...
May 29, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Pamela Sylvia Douglas
This paper explores two areas in which the translation of research into practice may be improved in the management of cry-fuss behaviours in the first few months of life. Firstly, babies who cry excessively are often prescribed proton pump inhibitors, despite evidence that gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is very rarely a cause. The inaccuracy of commonly used explanatory mechanisms, the side-effects of acid-suppressive medications, and the failure to identify treatable problems, including feeding difficulty when the diagnosis of 'reflux' is applied, are discussed...
April 2013: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
M C E Lomer, G C Parkes, J D Sanderson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 70% of the world population has hypolactasia, which often remains undiagnosed and has the potential to cause some morbidity. However, not everyone has lactose intolerance, as several nutritional and genetic factors influence tolerance. AIMS: To review current clinical practice and identify published literature on the management of lactose intolerance. METHODS: PubMed was searched using the terms lactose, lactase and diet to find original research and reviews...
January 15, 2008: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Melvin B Heyman
The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition presents an updated review of lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Differences between primary, secondary, congenital, and developmental lactase deficiency that may result in lactose intolerance are discussed. Children with suspected lactose intolerance can be assessed clinically by dietary lactose elimination or by tests including noninvasive hydrogen breath testing or invasive intestinal biopsy determination of lactase (and other disaccharidase) concentrations...
September 2006: Pediatrics
Miguel Saps
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
2015-07-27 00:42:15
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