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27 papers 100 to 500 followers MH Residency - Endurance
Boris Gojanovic, Rebecca Shultz, Francois Feihl, Gordon Matheson
PURPOSE: Optimal high-intensity interval training (HIIT) regimens for running performance are unknown, although most protocols result in some benefit to key performance factors (running economy (RE), anaerobic threshold (AT), or maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)). Lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills offer the unique possibility to partially unload runners and reach supramaximal speeds. We studied the use of LBPP to test an overspeed HIIT protocol in trained runners. METHODS: Eleven trained runners (35 ± 8 yr, VO2max, 55...
December 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Y Hasegawa, T Ijichi, Y Kurosawa, T Hamaoka, K Goto
We investigated the effect of a training program consisting of planned overreaching and subsequent short-term detraining on sprint performance. 24 physically active men participated in an 18-day sprint-training program. They were divided into 2 groups: the overreaching-detraining (OR-DT) and the control (CON) groups. Subjects in the OR-DT group performed 12 consecutive days of maximal cycle sprint training followed by 6 days of detraining, whereas a rest day was provided after every 2 successive training days for the CON group...
July 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Alister McCormick, Carla Meijen, Samuele Marcora
BACKGROUND: No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. OBJECTIVE: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance...
July 2015: Sports Medicine
David Montero, Candela Diaz-Cañestro, Carsten Lundby
PURPOSE: Although endurance training (ET) commonly augments maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max), it remains unclear whether such increase is associated with that of maximal cardiac output (Qmax) alone or along with arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-V˙O2diff). Herein, we sought to systematically review and determine the effects of ET on V˙O2max, Qmax, and a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise, and on their associations, in healthy young subjects. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science (from their inception until September 2014) for articles assessing the effects of ET lasting ≥3 wk on V˙O2max and Qmax and/or a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise in healthy young adults (mean age <40 yr)...
October 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matthew Benjamin Fortes, Umberto Di Felice, Alberto Dolci, Naushad A Junglee, Michael J Crockford, Liam West, Ryan Hillier-Smith, Jamie Hugo Macdonald, Neil Peter Walsh
PURPOSE: It remains unclear whether exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) increases heat strain during subsequent exercise heat stress, which in turn may increase the risk of exertional heat illness. We examined heat strain during exercise heat stress 30 min after EIMD to coincide with increases in circulating pyrogens (e.g., interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and 24 h after EIMD to coincide with the delayed muscle inflammatory response when a higher rate of metabolic energy expenditure (M˙) and thus decreased economy might also increase heat strain...
October 2013: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Karen Schwabe, Martin P Schwellnus, Wayne Derman, Sonja Swanevelder, Esme Jordaan
BACKGROUND: The half-marathon (21 km) race is a very popular mass community-based distance running event. It is important to determine risk factors for medical complications during these events, so that prevention programmes can be developed. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors associated with medical complications during 21 km road running events. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Two Oceans half-marathon (21 km) races...
June 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Karen Schwabe, Martin P Schwellnus, Wayne Derman, Sonja Swanevelder, Esme Jordaan
BACKGROUND: It is important to identify risk factors associated with medical complications during ultra-marathons so that prevention programmes can be developed. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for medical complications during ultra-marathons. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Two Oceans ultra-marathon (56 km) races. PARTICIPANTS: 26 354 race starters. METHODS: Medical complications (defined as any runner requiring assessment by a doctor at the race medical facility or a local hospital on race day) were recorded over 4 years...
June 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Andrew R Chapman, Paul W Hodges, Andrew M Briggs, Paul J Stapley, Bill Vicenzino
UNLABELLED: Previous studies have shown that cycling can directly influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running in some highly trained triathletes. A relationship between this altered neuromuscular control of running and musculoskeletal pain and injury has been proposed; however, this link has not been investigated. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of cycling on neuromuscular control during subsequent running in highly trained triathletes with and without exercise-related leg pain (ERLP)...
February 2010: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Miriah Dahlquist, Marie-Christine Leisz, Marsha Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to (1) examine riding habits of injured cyclists, (2) identify factors related to seeking medical treatment, (3) investigate performance of recreational road cyclists compared with established norms regarding strength and flexibility measures, and (4) propose cycling-specific injury risk factors. DESIGN: Observational and prospective study. SETTING: Cycling store and bicycle distribution company. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three experienced road cyclists...
March 2015: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Anna V Lorimer, Patria A Hume
BACKGROUND: Research into the nature of overuse Achilles tendon injuries is extensive, yet uncertainty remains around how to identify athletes susceptible to Achilles tendon injury. OBJECTIVE: To identify the strength of evidence for biomechanical risk factors associated with Achilles tendon injuries. RESEARCH METHODS: SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Web of Science and PubMed were searched for Achilles tendon injury risk factors and biomechanical measures which are altered in runners with Achilles tendon injuries, excluding ruptures...
October 2014: Sports Medicine
L F Azevedo, P S Perlingeiro, D T Hachul, I L Gomes-Santos, P C Brum, T G Allison, C E Negrão, L D N J De Matos
We investigated the influence of sport modalities in resting bradycardia and its mechanisms of control in highly trained athletes. In addition, the relationships between bradycardia mechanisms and cardiac structural adaptations were tested. Professional male athletes (13 runners, 11 cyclists) were evaluated. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at rest on beat-to-beat basis (ECG). Selective pharmacological blockade was performed with atropine and esmolol. Vagal effect, intrinsic heart rate (IHR), parasympathetic (n) and sympathetic (m) modulations, autonomic influence (AI) and autonomic balance (Abal) were calculated...
October 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Daniel Taylor, Mark F Smith
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of speed deception on performance, physiological and perceptual responses, and pacing during sprint-distance triathlon running. METHODS: Eight competitive triathletes completed three simulated sprint-distance triathlons (0.75 km swim, 20 km bike, 5 km run) in a randomised order, with swimming and cycling sections replicating baseline triathlon performance. During the first 1.66 km of the run participants maintained an imposed speed, completing the remaining 3...
June 22, 2014: Physiology & Behavior
Juan Del Coso, Cristina González, Javier Abian-Vicen, Juan José Salinero Martín, Lidon Soriano, Francisco Areces, Diana Ruiz, Cesar Gallo, Beatriz Lara, Julio Calleja-González
Triathlon is a popular outdoor endurance sport performed under a variety of environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to assess physiological variables before and after a half-ironman triathlon in the heat and to analyse their relationship with performance. Thirty-four well-trained triathletes completed a half-ironman triathlon in a mean dry temperature of 29 ± 3ºC. Before and within 1 min after the end of the race, body mass, core temperature, maximal jump height and venous blood samples were obtained...
2014: Journal of Sports Sciences
Martin D Hoffman, Andy Pasternak, Ian R Rogers, Morteza Khodaee, John C Hill, David A Townes, Bernd Volker Scheer, Brian J Krabak, Patrick Basset, Grant S Lipman
An increasing participation in ultra-endurance foot races is cause for greater need to ensure the presence of appropriate medical care at these events. Unique medical challenges result from the extreme physical demands these events place on participants, the often remote settings spanning broad geographical areas, and the potential for extremes in weather conditions and various environmental hazards. Medical issues in these events can adversely affect race performance, and there is the potential for the presentation of life-threatening issues such as exercise-associated hyponatremia, severe altitude illnesses, and major trauma from falls or animal attacks...
August 2014: Sports Medicine
Kris Beattie, Ian C Kenny, Mark Lyons, Brian P Carson
BACKGROUND: Economy, velocity/power at maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and endurance-specific muscle power tests (i.e. maximal anaerobic running velocity; vMART), are now thought to be the best performance predictors in elite endurance athletes. In addition to cardiovascular function, these key performance indicators are believed to be partly dictated by the neuromuscular system. One technique to improve neuromuscular efficiency in athletes is through strength training. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to search the body of scientific literature for original research investigating the effect of strength training on performance indicators in well-trained endurance athletes-specifically economy, [Formula: see text] and muscle power (vMART)...
June 2014: Sports Medicine
L Ristolainen, J A Kettunen, B Waller, A Heinonen, U M Kujala
AIM: The purpose of this study was to clarify training-related risk factors for overuse injuries. METHODS: This was twelve-month retrospective study which was done by self-reported postal questionnaire. The study group consisted of 446 men and women top-level Finnish athletes representing three different endurance sports (cross-country skiing, swimming, long-distance running) between the ages of 15-35. Self-reported anthropometric and training-related variables (such as starting age of training, years of active training, hours trained yearly, competition hours and weekly resting days) and occurrence of overuse injuries...
February 2014: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Juan Del Coso, Francisco Areces, Juan José Salinero, Cristina González-Millán, Javier Abián-Vicén, Lidon Soriano, Diana Ruiz, César Gallo, Beatriz Lara, Julio Calleja-Gonzalez
PURPOSE: This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of compression stockings to prevent muscular damage and preserve muscular performance during a half-ironman triathlon. METHODS: Thirty-six experienced triathletes volunteered for this study. Participants were matched for age, anthropometric data and training status and placed into the experimental group (N = 19; using ankle-to-knee graduated compression stockings) or control group (N = 17; using regular socks)...
March 2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Christian A Andersen, Ben Clarsen, Tone V Johansen, Lars Engebretsen
BACKGROUND: Triathlon is an increasingly popular sport at both the elite and the recreational level. However, there have been few high-quality studies of injuries and illnesses among triathletes. OBJECTIVE: To register overuse problems and acute injuries among iron-distance triathletes throughout a training season leading up to a major event. METHODS: A 26-week prospective cohort study was conducted including 174 participants of the 2011 Norseman Xtreme Triathlon...
September 2013: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Nicole Gilinsky, Keely R Hawkins, Theresa N Tokar, Jamie A Cooper
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between training, anthropometric characteristics, tapering, and time performance for a half-Ironman distance race. DESIGN: Cross sectional study in triathletes. METHODS: Data were obtained for 209 participants (155 males; 54 females) competing in a half-Ironman triathlon. Participants provided information regarding triathlon experience, training, race preparation, and tapering. Participants were divided into three groups based on finish time for analysis...
May 2014: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Christopher John Stevens, Ben Dascombe, Andriy Boyko, Dean Sculley, Robin Callister
This study investigated the effect of ice slurry ingestion during a triathlon on intragastric temperature and 10 km running performance in the heat. Nine well-trained male triathletes performed two randomised trials of a simulated Olympic distance triathlon in hot conditions (32-34°C). Exercise intensity during the swim (1500 m) and cycle (1 hr) legs was standardised, and the 10 km run leg was a self-paced time trial. During the cycle leg, either 10 g · kgBM(-1) of ice slurry (< 1°C) or room temperature fluid (32-34°C) was ingested...
2013: Journal of Sports Sciences
2014-07-20 19:23:11
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