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Rob Mac Sweeney, Daniel F McAuley
Acute respiratory distress syndrome presents as hypoxia and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging in the absence of heart failure sufficient to account for this clinical state. Management is largely supportive, and is focused on protective mechanical ventilation and the avoidance of fluid overload. Patients with severe hypoxaemia can be managed with early short-term use of neuromuscular blockade, prone position ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The use of inhaled nitric oxide is rarely indicated and both β2 agonists and late corticosteroids should be avoided...
April 28, 2016: Lancet
A Craig Davidson, Stephen Banham, Mark Elliott, Daniel Kennedy, Colin Gelder, Alastair Glossop, Alistair Colin Church, Ben Creagh-Brown, James William Dodd, Tim Felton, Bernard Foëx, Leigh Mansfield, Lynn McDonnell, Robert Parker, Caroline Marie Patterson, Milind Sovani, Lynn Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Thorax
Stephan Braune, Hilmar Burchardi, Markus Engel, Axel Nierhaus, Henning Ebelt, Maria Metschke, Simone Rosseau, Stefan Kluge
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the economic implications of the pre-emptive use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in patients with hypercapnic ventilatory insufficiency failing non-invasive ventilation (NIV). METHODS: Retrospective ancillary cost analysis of data extracted from a recently published multicentre case-control-study (n = 42) on the use of arterio-venous ECCO2R to avoid IMV in patients with acute on chronic ventilatory failure...
2015: BMC Anesthesiology
Philip Toner, Danny Francis McAuley, Murali Shyamsundar
Sepsis is a common condition that is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and health-care cost. Pulmonary and non-pulmonary sepsis are common causes of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mortality from ARDS remains high despite protective lung ventilation, and currently there are no specific pharmacotherapies to treat sepsis or ARDS. Sepsis and ARDS are characterised by activation of the inflammatory cascade. Although there is much focus on the study of the dysregulated inflammation and its suppression, the associated activation of the haemostatic system has been largely ignored until recently...
October 23, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Tomer Avni, Adi Lador, Shaul Lev, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul, Alon Grossman
OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend dopamine or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor agents in septic shock. Phenylephrine, epinephrine, vasopressin and terlipressin are considered second-line agents. Our objective was to assess the evidence for the efficiency and safety of all vasopressors in septic shock. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched electronic database of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS and conference proceedings up to June 2014...
2015: PloS One
Amanda Piper
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is becoming an increasingly encountered condition both in respiratory outpatient clinics and in hospitalized patients. The health consequences and social disadvantages of obesity hypoventilation syndrome are significant. Unfortunately, the diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy is commonly delayed when the syndrome is not recognized or misdiagnosed. Positive airway pressure therapy remains the mainstay of treatment and is effective in controlling sleep-disordered breathing and improving awake blood gases in the majority of individuals...
March 2016: Chest
Ryoichi Ochiai
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been intensively and continuously studied in various settings, but its mortality is still as high as 30-40 %. For the last 20 years, lung protective strategy has become a standard care for ARDS, but we still do not know the best way to ventilate patients with ARDS. Tidal volume itself does not seem to have an important role to develop ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the driving pressure, which is inspiratory plateau pressure-PEEP, is the most important to predict and affect the outcome of ARDS, though there is no safe limit for the driving pressure...
2015: Journal of Intensive Care
Marta Kaminska, Franceen Browman, Daria A Trojan, Angela Genge, Andrea Benedetti, Basil J Petrof
BACKGROUND: Lung volume recruitment (LVR) is a cough assistance technique used in persons with neuromuscular disorders (NMDs), most typically in those requiring noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Whether it may be useful in persons with NMDs who have milder respiratory impairment is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, impact on quality of life (QOL), and preliminary physiological effects of daily LVR in different categories of persons with NMDs who have an early stage of respiratory impairment...
July 2015: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
David J Berlowitz, Mark E Howard, Julio F Fiore, Stephen Vander Hoorn, Fergal J O'Donoghue, Justine Westlake, Anna Smith, Fiona Beer, Susan Mathers, Paul Talman
BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure is associated with significant morbidity and is the predominant cause of death in motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS). This study aimed to determine the effect of non-invasive ventilatory (NIV) support on survival and pulmonary function decline across MND/ALS phenotypes. METHODS: Cohort recruited via a specialist, multidisciplinary clinic. Patients were categorised into four clinical phenotypes (ALS, flail arm, flail leg and primary lateral sclerosis) according to site of presenting symptom and the pattern of upper versus lower motor neurone involvement...
March 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Heidi Turunen, Stephan M Jakob, Esko Ruokonen, Kirsi-Maija Kaukonen, Toni Sarapohja, Marjo Apajasalo, Jukka Takala
INTRODUCTION: Dexmedetomidine was shown in two European randomized double-blind double-dummy trials (PRODEX and MIDEX) to be non-inferior to propofol and midazolam in maintaining target sedation levels in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Additionally, dexmedetomidine shortened the time to extubation versus both standard sedatives, suggesting that it may reduce ICU resource needs and thus lower ICU costs. Considering resource utilization data from these two trials, we performed a secondary, cost-minimization analysis assessing the economics of dexmedetomidine versus standard care sedation...
2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
M S Lopes, J R F Ferreira, K B da Silva, I de Oliveira Bacelar Simplício, C J de Lima, A B Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Medical equipment coming into contact with non-intact skin or mucous membranes is classified as semi-critical material. This equipment requires at least high-level disinfection, as the major risk in all invasive procedures is the introduction of pathogenic microbes causing hospital-associated infections. AIM: To evaluate the capacity of ozone gas and ultrasound to disinfect semi-critical, thermally sensitive material. METHODS: Used corrugated tubing from mechanically ventilated tracheostomized patients in the intensive care unit was obtained...
August 2015: Journal of Hospital Infection
Salvatore Giacomo Morano, Roberto Latagliata, Corrado Girmenia, Fulvio Massaro, Paola Berneschi, Alfonso Guerriero, Massimo Giampaoletti, Arianna Sammarco, Giorgia Annechini, Angelo Fama, Alice Di Rocco, Antonio Chistolini, Alessandra Micozzi, Matteo Molica, Walter Barberi, Clara Minotti, Gregorio Antonio Brunetti, Massimo Breccia, Claudio Cartoni, Saveria Capria, Giovanni Rosa, Giuliana Alimena, Robin Foà
PURPOSE: The use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) as an alternative to other central venous access devices (CVAD) is becoming very frequent in cancer patients. To evaluate the impact of complications associated to these devices in patients with hematologic malignancies, we revised the catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and the catheter-related thrombotic complications (CRTC) observed at our institute between January 2009 and December 2012. METHODS: A total of 612 PICCs were inserted into 483 patients at diagnosis or in subsequent phases of their hematologic disease...
November 2015: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Nicolino Ambrosino, Paolo Cigni
Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of non invasive ventilation (NIV) to increase exercise capacity. In individuals with COPD, NIV during exercise reduces dyspnoea and increases exercise tolerance. Different modalities of mechanical ventilation have been used non-invasively as a tool to increase exercise tolerance in COPD, heart failure and lung and thoracic restrictive diseases. Inspiratory support provides symptomatic benefit by unloading the ventilatory muscles, whereas Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) counterbalances the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure in COPD patients...
2015: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Richard R Riker, Yahya Shehabi, Paula M Bokesch, Daniel Ceraso, Wayne Wisemandle, Firas Koura, Patrick Whitten, Benjamin D Margolis, Daniel W Byrne, E Wesley Ely, Marcelo G Rocha
CONTEXT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonist medications are the most commonly used sedatives for intensive care unit (ICU) patients, yet preliminary evidence indicates that the alpha(2) agonist dexmedetomidine may have distinct advantages. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of prolonged sedation with dexmedetomidine vs midazolam for mechanically ventilated patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Prospective, double-blind, randomized trial conducted in 68 centers in 5 countries between March 2005 and August 2007 among 375 medical/surgical ICU patients with expected mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours...
February 4, 2009: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jose Luis Lopez-Campos, Luis Jara-Palomares, Xavier Muñoz, Víctor Bustamante, Esther Barreiro
Despite the overwhelming evidence justifying the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for providing ventilatory support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, recent studies demonstrated that its application in real-life settings remains suboptimal. European clinical audits have shown that 1) NIV is not invariably available, 2) its availability depends on countries and hospital sizes, and 3) numerous centers declare their inability to provide NIV to all of the eligible patients presenting throughout the year...
April 2015: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
Juan F Masa, Jaime Corral-Peñafiel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
H Thomas Robertson
An elevated physiological dead space, calculated from measurements of arterial CO2 and mixed expired CO2, has proven to be a useful clinical marker of prognosis both for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and for patients with severe heart failure. Although a frequently cited explanation for an elevated dead space measurement has been the development of alveolar regions receiving no perfusion, evidence for this mechanism is lacking in both of these disease settings. For the range of physiological abnormalities associated with an increased physiological dead space measurement, increased alveolar ventilation/perfusion ratio (V'A/Q') heterogeneity has been the most important pathophysiological mechanism...
June 2015: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Lara Pisani, Chiara Mega, Rosanna Vaschetto, Andrea Bellone, Raffaele Scala, Roberto Cosentini, Muriel Musti, Manuela Del Forno, Mario Grassi, Luca Fasano, Paolo Navalesi, Stefano Nava
The choice of the interface for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a key factor in NIV success. We hypothesised that a new helmet specifically design to improve performance in hypercapnic patients would be clinically equivalent to a standard oronasal mask. In a multicentre, short-term, physiological, randomised trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients facing an acute hypercapnic respiratory failure episode, we compared the changes in arterial blood gases (ABGs) and tolerance score obtained using the helmet or mask, and, as secondary end-points, dyspnoea, vital signs, early NIV discontinuation and rate of intubation...
March 2015: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Miquel Ferrer, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), with a critical review of the most recent literature in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS: The efficacy of NIV is variable depending on the cause of the episode of ARF. In community-acquired pneumonia, NIV is often associated with poor response, with better response in patients with preexisting cardiac or respiratory disease. In patients with pandemic influenza H1N1 and severe ARF, NIV has been associated with high failure rates but relatively favorable mortality...
February 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Frank van Haren, Kai Zacharowski
The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common but also one of the most fiercely debated interventions in intensive care medicine. During the past decade, a number of important studies have been published which provide clinicians with improved knowledge regarding the timing, the type and the amount of fluid they should give to their critically ill patients. However, despite the fact that many thousands of patients have been enrolled in these trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable...
September 2014: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
2014-11-18 14:57:36
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