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M E Faughnan, Y W Lui, J A Wirth, R A Pugash, D A Redelmeier, R H Hyland, R I White
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of all patients (n = 16) with diffuse pulmonary AVMs seen at Yale New Haven Hospital, Johns Hopkins Hospital, and St. Michael's Hospital. Up-to-date follow-up information was obtained in all living patients. RESULTS: All patients were severely hypoxic. Neurologic complications (stroke or brain abscess) had occurred in 70% of patients by the time of diagnosis...
January 2000: Chest
Peter J Hutchinson, Angelos G Kolias, Ivan S Timofeev, Elizabeth A Corteen, Marek Czosnyka, Jake Timothy, Ian Anderson, Diederik O Bulters, Antonio Belli, C Andrew Eynon, John Wadley, A David Mendelow, Patrick M Mitchell, Mark H Wilson, Giles Critchley, Juan Sahuquillo, Andreas Unterberg, Franco Servadei, Graham M Teasdale, John D Pickard, David K Menon, Gordon D Murray, Peter J Kirkpatrick
Background The effect of decompressive craniectomy on clinical outcomes in patients with refractory traumatic intracranial hypertension remains unclear. Methods From 2004 through 2014, we randomly assigned 408 patients, 10 to 65 years of age, with traumatic brain injury and refractory elevated intracranial pressure (>25 mm Hg) to undergo decompressive craniectomy or receive ongoing medical care. The primary outcome was the rating on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) (an 8-point scale, ranging from death to "upper good recovery" [no injury-related problems]) at 6 months...
September 22, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Yong Yang, Fangshuo Zheng, Xin Xu, Xuefeng Wang
BACKGROUND: Seizure following traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a common complication that requires effective prevention to improve the outcome of TBI. Phenytoin has been the only recommended antiepileptic drug (AED) for seizure prophylaxis; however, several shortcomings have affected its use. Intravenous levetiracetam has been available since 2006 and has been increasingly accepted as a seizure prophylaxis for brain injury, mainly due to its favorable pharmacokinetic features and minimal adverse events profile...
August 2016: CNS Drugs
Jarrod M Mosier, Cameron D Hypes, John C Sakles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 24, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Ayan Sen, Joel S Larson, Kianoush B Kashani, Stacy L Libricz, Bhavesh M Patel, Pramod K Guru, Cory M Alwardt, Octavio Pajaro, J Christopher Farmer
Mechanical circulatory assist devices are now commonly used in the treatment of severe heart failure as bridges to cardiac transplant, as destination therapy for patients who are not transplant candidates, and as bridges to recovery and "decision-making". These devices, which can be used to support the left or right ventricles or both, restore circulation to the tissues, thereby improving organ function. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are the most common support devices. To care for patients with these devices, health care providers in emergency departments (EDs) and intensive care units (ICUs) need to understand the physiology of the devices, the vocabulary of mechanical support, the types of complications patients may have, diagnostic techniques, and decision-making regarding treatment...
June 25, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jordan A Kempker, Greg S Martin
This article describes the trends in the incidence of and mortality from sepsis in the United States and globally. The article then discusses the known factors associated with increased risk for developing sepsis and the limitations of the current clinical definition and the clinical correlations of the current epidemiology.
June 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
Farid Salih, Martin Holtkamp, Stephan A Brandt, Olaf Hoffmann, Florian Masuhr, Stephan Schreiber, Florian Weissinger, Peter Vajkoczy, Stefan Wolf
PURPOSE: We investigated whether a critical rise of intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to a loss of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) could serve as a surrogate marker of brain death (BD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed ICP and CPP of patients in whom BD was diagnosed (n = 32, 16-79 years). Intracranial pressure and CPP were recorded using parenchymal (n = 27) and ventricular probes (n = 5). Data were analyzed from admission until BD was diagnosed...
August 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Sumeet Reddy, Laurence Weinberg, Paul Young
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency medicine 2016. Other selected articles can be found online at Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from
March 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
J Buethe, J Nazarian, K Kalisz, M Wintermark
Diagnostic imaging is the most rapidly growing physician service in the Medicare and privately insured population. The growing share of medical costs devoted to imaging procedures has led to increasing concerns among the key federal agencies and private payers. In an attempt to educate health care providers, patients, and families on the importance of making optimal clinical decisions, the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation organized the Choosing Wisely initiative with strong collaboration from specialty societies representing nearly all medical disciplines...
June 9, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Christophe Lelubre, Pierre Bouzat, Ilaria Alice Crippa, Fabio Silvio Taccone
Anemia is frequent among brain-injured patients, where it has been associated with an increased risk of poor outcome. The pathophysiology of anemia in this patient population remains multifactorial; moreover, whether anemia merely reflects a higher severity of the underlying disease or is a significant determinant of the neurological recovery of such patients remains unclear. Interestingly, the effects of red blood cell transfusions (RBCT) in moderately anemic patients remain controversial; although hemoglobin levels are increased, different studies observed only a modest and inconsistent improvement in cerebral oxygenation after RBCT and raised serious concerns about the risk of increased complications...
June 17, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Gurneet Singh Sawhney, Cecil R Ross, Manmeet Singh Chhabra, Vineesh K Varghese, Ashish Tiwari, Ashis K Chand
Chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly. Patients taking antiplatelets and/or anticoagulants have increased risk of bleeding during the perioperative period. Precise dose blood products and specific surgical technique have been effective in preventing hemorrhagic complications perioperatively. From Jan 2010 to Dec 2012, 25 patients who were on antiplatelets and/or oral anticoagulants underwent emergency surgery for chronic or acute on chronic SDH. Patients were divided into three groups: group I-patients on antiplatelets, group II-patients on oral anticoagulants, and group III-patients taking both...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Surgery
Alice Henschke, Richard Lee, Anthony Delaney
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of readily available evidence regarding critical care aspects of the management of patients with severe burn injuries. METHOD: PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Databases and bibliographies of included studies and burns review articles were searched from inception of databases to end of February 2015. We included systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies with concurrent controls on the topics of (a) fluid resuscitation (b) analgesia (c) haemodynamic monitoring and targets (d) ventilation (e) blood transfusion...
September 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Jeffrey E Gotts, Michael A Matthay
Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock represent increasingly severe systemic inflammatory responses to infection. Sepsis is common in the aging population, and it disproportionately affects patients with cancer and underlying immunosuppression. In its most severe form, sepsis causes multiple organ dysfunction that can produce a state of chronic critical illness characterized by severe immune dysfunction and catabolism. Much has been learnt about the pathogenesis of sepsis at the molecular, cell, and intact organ level...
May 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Ewan C Goligher, Niall D Ferguson, Laurent J Brochard
Mechanical ventilation supports gas exchange and alleviates the work of breathing when the respiratory muscles are overwhelmed by an acute pulmonary or systemic insult. Although mechanical ventilation is not generally considered a treatment for acute respiratory failure per se, ventilator management warrants close attention because inappropriate ventilation can result in injury to the lungs or respiratory muscles and worsen morbidity and mortality. Key clinical challenges include averting intubation in patients with respiratory failure with non-invasive techniques for respiratory support; delivering lung-protective ventilation to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury; maintaining adequate gas exchange in severely hypoxaemic patients; avoiding the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; and diagnosing and treating the many pathophysiological mechanisms that impair liberation from mechanical ventilation...
April 30, 2016: Lancet
Suganth Suppiah, Ying Meng, Michael G Fehlings, Eric M Massicotte, Albert Yee, Mohammed F Shamji
BACKGROUND: A spinal epidural abscess is a medical emergency. Despite urgent surgical intervention and adjuvant antibiotic therapy, neurologic prognosis remains variable and guarded. The optimal approach to managing this condition is debated with substantial variability in clinical practice, dependent on patient demographic and pretreatment neurologic status as well as radiologic appearance. METHODS: A systematic search in MEDLINE and similar databases was conducted for literature published from 1990 to 2015 using the search term "spinal epidural abscess", limiting the search results to human studies published in the English language...
September 2016: World Neurosurgery
Cecilia Becattini, Agnese Sembolini, Maurizio Paciaroni
The clinical benefit of resuming anticoagulant treatment after an anticoagulants-associated intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is debated. No randomized trial has been conducted on this particular clinical issue. The risk of ICH recurrence from resuming anticoagulant therapy is expected to be higher after index lobar than deep ICH and in patients with not amendable risk factors for ICH. Retrospective studies have recently shown improved survival with resumption of treatment after index anticoagulants-associated ICH...
September 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
Carlos F Muniz, Apeksha V Shenoy, Kathryn L O╩╝Connor, Sophia C Bechek, Emily J Boyle, Mary M Guanci, Tara M Tehan, Sahar F Zafar, Andrew J Cole, Aman B Patel, Michael B Westover, Eric S Rosenthal
Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is the most common and disabling complication among patients admitted to the hospital for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Clinical and radiographic methods often fail to detect DCI early enough to avert irreversible injury. We assessed the clinical feasibility of implementing a continuous EEG (cEEG) ischemia monitoring service for early DCI detection as part of an institutional guideline. An institutional neuromonitoring guideline was designed by an interdisciplinary team of neurocritical care, clinical neurophysiology, and neurosurgery physicians and nursing staff and cEEG technologists...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Brandon Foreman
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects 30,000 people in the Unites States alone each year. Delayed cerebral ischemia occurs days after subarachnoid hemorrhage and represents a potentially treatable cause of morbidity for approximately one-third of those who survive the initial hemorrhage. While vasospasm has been traditionally linked to the development of cerebral ischemia several days after subarachnoid hemorrhage, emerging evidence reveals that delayed cerebral ischemia is part of a much more complicated post-subarachnoid hemorrhage syndrome...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Mathieu van der Jagt
Maintenance fluids in critically ill brain-injured patients are part of routine critical care. Both the amounts of fluid volumes infused and the type and tonicity of maintenance fluids are relevant in understanding the impact of fluids on the pathophysiology of secondary brain injuries in these patients. In this narrative review, current evidence on routine fluid management of critically ill brain-injured patients and use of haemodynamic monitoring is summarized. Pertinent guidelines and consensus statements on fluid management for brain-injured patients are highlighted...
May 31, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Yasuhiro Kuroda
This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
2016-06-01 16:26:14
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