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Alan J Garber, Martin J Abrahamson, Joshua I Barzilay, Lawrence Blonde, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Michael A Bush, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Ralph A DeFronzo, Daniel Einhorn, Vivian A Fonseca, Jeffrey R Garber, W Timothy Garvey, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Irl B Hirsch, Paul S Jellinger, Janet B McGill, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Paul D Rosenblit, Guillermo E Umpierrez
A1C = hemoglobin A1C AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ADVANCE = Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation AGI = alpha-glucosidase inhibitor apo B = apolipoprotein B ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease BAS = bile acid sequestrant BMI = body mass index BP = blood pressure CHD = coronary heart disease CKD = chronic kidney disease CVD = cardiovascular disease DASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DPP-4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4 eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate FDA = Food and Drug Administration GLP-1 = glucagon-like peptide 1 HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol IMPROVE-IT = Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-P = low-density lipoprotein particle Look AHEAD = Look Action for Health in Diabetes NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn OSA = obstructive sleep apnea SFU = sulfonylurea SGLT-2 = sodium glucose cotransporter-2 SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose T2D = type 2 diabetes TZD = thiazolidinedione VADT = Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial...
February 2017: Endocrine Practice
Simon Ds Fraser, Tom Blakeman
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important and common noncommunicable condition globally. In national and international guidelines, CKD is defined and staged according to measures of kidney function that allow for a degree of risk stratification using commonly available markers. It is often asymptomatic in its early stages, and early detection is important to reduce future risk. The risk of cardiovascular outcomes is greater than the risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease for most people with CKD...
2016: Pragmatic and Observational Research
Ines Crespo, Ana Louisa Vital, María Gonzalez-Tablas, María del Carmen Patino, Alvaro Otero, María Celeste Lopes, Catarina de Oliveira, Patricia Domingues, Alberto Orfao, Maria Dolores Tabernero
In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the understanding of the molecular biology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); thus, complex genetic alterations and genomic profiles, which recurrently involve multiple signaling pathways, have been defined, leading to the first molecular/genetic classification of the disease. In this regard, different genetic alterations and genetic pathways appear to distinguish primary (eg, EGFR amplification) versus secondary (eg, IDH1/2 or TP53 mutation) GBM. Such genetic alterations target distinct combinations of the growth factor receptor-ras signaling pathways, as well as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/phosphatase and tensin homolog/AKT, retinoblastoma/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) N2A-p16(INK4A), and TP53/mouse double minute (MDM) 2/MDM4/CDKN2A-p14(ARF) pathways, in cells that present features associated with key stages of normal neurogenesis and (normal) central nervous system cell types...
July 2015: American Journal of Pathology
D Woo, J Khoury, M M Haverbusch, P Sekar, M L Flaherty, D O Kleindorfer, B M Kissela, C J Moomaw, R Deka, J P Broderick
OBJECTIVE: Smoking and family history of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are independent risk factors for aSAH. Using a population-based case-control study of hemorrhagic stroke, we hypothesized that having both a first-degree relative with a brain aneurysm or SAH (+FH) and current smoking interact to increase the risk of aSAH. METHODS: Cases of aneurysmal SAH were prospectively recruited from all 17 hospitals in the five-county region around the University of Cincinnati...
January 6, 2009: Neurology
Raimund Helbok, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Ronny Beer, Anelia Dietmann, Ana Patrícia Antunes, Florian Sohm, Marlene Fischer, Werner Oskar Hackl, Paul Rhomberg, Peter Lackner, Bettina Pfausler, Claudius Thomé, Christian Humpel, Erich Schmutzhard
INTRODUCTION: There is a substantial amount of evidence from animal models that early brain injury (EBI) may play an important role for secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) allows online measurement of brain metabolites, including the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is indicative for disruption of the blood-brain barrier. METHODS: Twenty-six consecutive poor-grade aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring were analyzed for brain hemodynamic and metabolic changes, including CMD-IL-6 and CMD-MMP-9 levels...
March 9, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Yoichi Uozumi, Oliver Sakowitz, Berk Orakcioglu, Edgar Santos, Modar Kentar, Daniel Haux, Andreas Unterberg
BACKGROUND: The role of decompressive craniectomy (DC) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients is still controversial. In this study we evaluated the effect of DC for aSAH patients. METHODS: A matched-pair analysis was performed to compare the outcomes of patients with DC to those of patients without DC. Among 295 consecutive aSAH patients, 56 required DC. Of the remaining group, 56 matched controls were found. The match was conducted on the basis of epidemiological and potential prognostic factors, such as age, gender, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade, Fisher group and occurrence of vasospasm...
2014: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Talkad S Raghuveer, Austin J Cox
Appropriate resuscitation must be available for each of the more than 4 million infants born annually in the United States. Ninety percent of infants transition safely, and it is up to the physician to assess risk factors, identify the nearly 10 percent of infants who need resuscitation, and respond appropriately. A team or persons trained in neonatal resuscitation should be promptly available to provide resuscitation. The Neonatal Resuscitation Program, which was initiated in 1987 to identify infants at risk of needing resuscitation and provide high-quality resuscitation, underwent major updates in 2006 and 2010...
April 15, 2011: American Family Physician
Jeffrey M Perlman, Jonathan Wyllie, John Kattwinkel, Dianne L Atkins, Leon Chameides, Jay P Goldsmith, Ruth Guinsburg, Mary Fran Hazinski, Colin Morley, Sam Richmond, Wendy M Simon, Nalini Singhal, Edgardo Szyld, Masanori Tamura, Sithembiso Velaphi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2010: Circulation
Marc D Berg, Stephen M Schexnayder, Leon Chameides, Mark Terry, Aaron Donoghue, Robert W Hickey, Robert A Berg, Robert M Sutton, Mary Fran Hazinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2010: Pediatrics
Frank C Powell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2005: New England Journal of Medicine
Wei-Chih Liao, Yu-Kang Tu, Ming-Shiang Wu, Jaw-Town Lin, Hsiu-Po Wang, Kuo-Liong Chien
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations between blood glucose and risk of pancreatic cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. DATA SOURCES: Search of PubMed, Scopus, and related reviews before 30 November 2013 without language restriction. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Prospective studies evaluating the association between blood glucose concentration and pancreatic cancer...
January 2, 2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
David A Hanley, Ann Cranney, Glenville Jones, Susan J Whiting, William D Leslie, David E C Cole, Stephanie A Atkinson, Robert G Josse, Sidney Feldman, Gregory A Kline, Cheryl Rosen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2010: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Megha M Tollefson, Anna L Bruckner
Atopic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition characterized by relapsing eczematous lesions in a typical distribution. It can be frustrating for pediatric patients, parents, and health care providers alike. The pediatrician will treat the majority of children with atopic dermatitis as many patients will not have access to a pediatric medical subspecialist, such as a pediatric dermatologist or pediatric allergist. This report provides up-to-date information regarding the disease and its impact, pathogenesis, treatment options, and potential complications...
December 2014: Pediatrics
Flora Poon, Sewon Kang, Anna L Chien
Photoaging is frequently encountered in a dermatologic practice. This systematic literature review aims to explore the etiology of photoaging and address the evidence behind its current management. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, UpToDate, and the Cochrane Library was conducted. Articles were limited to those relating to photoaging. There are two major approaches in the current management of photoaging. This includes strategies to prevent against ultraviolet damage (e.g. sunscreen) and medications that attempt to reverse existing skin damage (topical retinoids and 5-fluorouracil)...
March 2015: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Louis J Aronne
Over the past decade, treatment for obesity has been limited because of an incomplete understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity, lack of recognition of it as a disease, and limited efficacy of treatment options. Safety concerns related to medical and surgical approaches for obesity have also been a major barrier. The challenging nature of obesity management is reflected in a survey of primary care physicians which indicated that treating patients with obesity can be as difficult as treating patients with nicotine or alcohol dependence...
July 2014: Journal of Family Practice
Shehan Hettiaratchy, Peter Dziewulski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2004: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Nastassja Koen, Dan J Stein
Given the enormous contribution of anxiety disorders to the burden of disease, it is key to optimize their prevention and treatment. In this critical review we assess advances in the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, as well as remaining challenges, in recent decades, the field has seen rigorous clinical trial methods to quantify the efficacy and safety of serendipitously discovered agents, more focused development of medications with selective mechanisms of action, and the gradual translation of insights from laboratory research into proof-of-principle clinical trials...
2011: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Nancy Greer, Neal A Foman, Roderick MacDonald, James Dorrian, Patrick Fitzgerald, Indulis Rutks, Timothy J Wilt
BACKGROUND: Nonhealing ulcers affect patient quality of life and impose a substantial financial burden on the health care system. PURPOSE: To systematically evaluate benefits and harms of advanced wound care therapies for nonhealing diabetic, venous, and arterial ulcers. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1995 to June 2013), the Cochrane Library, and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: English-language randomized trials reporting ulcer healing or time to complete healing in adults with nonhealing ulcers treated with advanced therapies...
October 15, 2013: Annals of Internal Medicine
C B Archer, S N Cohen, S E Baron
This article discusses the effects of acne (sometimes referred to as acne vulgaris), how to diagnose it confidently and how to distinguish it from rosacea, and the options available for treatment, especially in primary care. We also suggest when referral to dermatology should be considered, and try to anticipate some frequently asked questions.
May 2012: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
K H Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is clinically very heterogeneous and these differences can cause confusion. Differential diagnosis is also complicated by co-infections, particularly in infancy and early childhood. This paper describes the stages and differential diagnosis during the various stages of childhood. The authors also provide advice on how to distinguish between AD and other disorders together with guidance on tackling common issues with treatment such as steroid phobia.
July 2014: British Journal of Dermatology
2014-07-11 04:50:35
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