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By Erica Yama Nephrologist
Mauro Neri, Gianluca Villa, Francesco Garzotto, Sean Bagshaw, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jorge Cerda, Fiorenza Ferrari, Silvia Guggia, Michael Joannidis, John Kellum, Jeong Chul Kim, Ravindra L Mehta, Zaccaria Ricci, Alberto Trevisani, Silvio Marafon, William R Clark, Jean-Louis Vincent, Claudio Ronco
This article reports the conclusions of a consensus expert conference on the basic principles and nomenclature of renal replacement therapy (RRT) currently utilized to manage acute kidney injury (AKI). This multidisciplinary consensus conference discusses common definitions, components, techniques, and operations of the machines and platforms used to deliver extracorporeal therapies, utilizing a "machine-centric" rather than a "patient-centric" approach. We provide a detailed description of the performance characteristics of membranes, filters, transmembrane transport of solutes and fluid, flows, and methods of measurement of delivered treatment, focusing on continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) which are utilized in the management of critically ill patients with AKI...
October 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
P Marik, R Bellomo
Aggressive fluid resuscitation to achieve a central venous pressure (CVP) greater than 8 mm Hg has been promoted as the standard of care, in the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However recent clinical trials have demonstrated that this approach does not improve the outcome of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Pathophysiologically, sepsis is characterized by vasoplegia with loss of arterial tone, venodilation with sequestration of blood in the unstressed blood compartment and changes in ventricular function with reduced compliance and reduced preload responsiveness...
March 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jay L Koyner, Danielle L Davison, Ermira Brasha-Mitchell, Divya M Chalikonda, John M Arthur, Andrew D Shaw, James A Tumlin, Sharon A Trevino, Michael R Bennett, Paul L Kimmel, Michael G Seneff, Lakhmir S Chawla
Clinicians have access to limited tools that predict which patients with early AKI will progress to more severe stages. In early AKI, urine output after a furosemide stress test (FST), which involves intravenous administration of furosemide (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg), can predict the development of stage 3 AKI. We measured several AKI biomarkers in our previously published cohort of 77 patients with early AKI who received an FST and evaluated the ability of FST urine output and biomarkers to predict the development of stage 3 AKI (n=25 [32...
August 2015: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Maciej T Wybraniec, Katarzyna Mizia-Stec
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remains one of the crucial issues related to the development of invasive cardiology. The massive use of contrast media exposes patients to a great risk of contrast-induced nephropathy and chronic kidney disease development, and increases morbidity and mortality rates. The serum creatinine concentration does not allow for a timely and accurate CI-AKI diagnosis; hence numerous other biomarkers of renal injury have been proposed. Renalase, a novel catecholamine-metabolizing amine oxidase, is synthesized mainly in proximal tubular cells and secreted into urine and blood...
December 2015: Cardiorenal Medicine
Steven D Weisbord, Paul M Palevsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Ravindra L Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Patrick M Honore, Rita Jacobs, Inne Hendrickx, Sean M Bagshaw, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Willem Boer, Elisabeth De Waele, Viola Van Gorp, Herbert D Spapen
Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) remains an important challenge in critical care medicine. We reviewed current available evidence on prevention and treatment of SAKI with focus on some recent advances and developments. Prevention of SAKI starts with early and ample fluid resuscitation preferentially with crystalloid solutions. Balanced crystalloids have no proven superior benefit. Renal function can be evaluated by measuring lactate clearance rate, renal Doppler, or central venous oxygenation monitoring...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
David E Leaf, Anand Srivastava, Xiaoxi Zeng, Gearoid M McMahon, Heather E Croy, Mallika L Mendu, Allen Kachalia, Sushrut S Waikar
BACKGROUND: The patterns, performance characteristics, and yield of diagnostic tests ordered for the evaluation of acute kidney injury (AKI) have not been rigorously evaluated. METHODS: We characterized the frequency of AKI diagnostic testing for urine, blood, radiology, and pathology tests in all adult inpatients who were admitted with or developed AKI (N = 4903 patients with 5731 AKI episodes) during a single calendar year. We assessed the frequency of abnormal test results overall and by AKI stage...
January 15, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Olga Baraldi, Chiara Valentini, Gabriele Donati, Giorgia Comai, Vania Cuna, Irene Capelli, Maria Laura Angelini, Maria Ilaria Moretti, Andrea Angeletti, Fabio Piscaglia, Gaetano La Manna
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients with end-stage liver disease and advanced cirrhosis regardless of the underlying cause. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a functional form of kidney failure, is one of the many possible causes of AKI. HRS is potentially reversible but involves highly complex pathogenetic mechanisms and equally complex clinical and therapeutic management. Once HRS has developed, it has a very poor prognosis. This review focuses on the diagnostic approach to HRS and discusses the therapeutic protocols currently adopted in clinical practice...
November 6, 2015: World Journal of Nephrology
Mohammad Alsady, Ruben Baumgarten, Peter M T Deen, Theun de Groot
Trace amounts of lithium are essential for our physical and mental health, and administration of lithium has improved the quality of life of millions of patients with bipolar disorder for >60 years. However, in a substantial number of patients with bipolar disorder, long-term lithium therapy comes at the cost of severe renal side effects, including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and rarely, ESRD. Although the mechanisms underlying the lithium-induced renal pathologies are becoming clearer, several recent animal studies revealed that short-term administration of lower amounts of lithium prevents different forms of experimental AKI...
June 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Claudio Ronco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Mariane T Amano, Matheus Correa-Costa, Angela Castoldi, Raphael J F Felizardo, Danilo C de Almeida, Enio J Bassi, Pedro M Moraes-Vieira, Meire I Hiyane, Andrea C D Rodas, Jean P S Peron, Cristhiane F Aguiar, Marlene A Reis, Willian R Ribeiro, Claudete J Valduga, Rui Curi, Marco Aurelio Ramirez Vinolo, Caroline M Ferreira, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are fermentation end products produced by the intestinal microbiota and have anti-inflammatory and histone deacetylase-inhibiting properties. Recently, a dual relationship between the intestine and kidneys has been unraveled. Therefore, we evaluated the role of SCFA in an AKI model in which the inflammatory process has a detrimental role. We observed that therapy with the three main SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) improved renal dysfunction caused by injury. This protection was associated with low levels of local and systemic inflammation, oxidative cellular stress, cell infiltration/activation, and apoptosis...
August 2015: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Edward G Clark, Sean M Bagshaw
The use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for severe acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently necessary in the face of life-threatening complications; however, there is wide practice variation with respect to triggers for RRT initiation. Recent evidence suggests that RRT may be independently associated with impaired recovery following AKI. There are plausible mechanistic reasons why RRT may be harmful and this concept is supported by ancillary evidence in the form of studies that have assessed the impact of different modalities of RRT for AKI as well as some of the literature pertaining to initiation of chronic hemodialysis in end-stage kidney disease patients (ESKD)...
January 2015: Seminars in Dialysis
Mark E Thomas, Caroline Blaine, Anne Dawnay, Mark A J Devonald, Saoussen Ftouh, Chris Laing, Susan Latchem, Andrew Lewington, David V Milford, Marlies Ostermann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common syndrome that is independently associated with increased mortality. A standardized definition is important to facilitate clinical care and research. The definition of AKI has evolved rapidly since 2004, with the introduction of the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal disease (RIFLE), AKI Network (AKIN), and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classifications. RIFLE was modified for pediatric use (pRIFLE). They were developed using both evidence and consensus...
January 2015: Kidney International
Lorenzo A Calò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Kidney International
Edward D Siew, Andrew Davenport
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously termed acute renal failure, is associated with increased mortality, prolonged hospital stay, and accelerated chronic kidney disease (CKD). Over the past 2 decades, dramatic rises in the incidences of AKI have been reported, particularly within the United States. The question arises as to whether these changes reflect actual increases in disease incidence, or are potentially explained by the introduction of consensus definitions that rely on small standardized changes in serum creatinine, changes in coding and reimbursement, or increasingly available and more liberal use of dialysis...
January 2015: Kidney International
Mohammed Al-Jaghbeer, John A Kellum
Acid-base disturbances are very common in critically ill and injured patients as well as contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders is vital to their proper management. This review will discuss the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of acid-base disturbances in intensive care patients--with particular attention to evidence from recent studies examining the effects of fluid resuscitation on acid-base and its consequences.
July 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Angela K Muriithi, Nelson Leung, Anthony M Valeri, Lynn D Cornell, Sanjeev Sethi, Mary E Fidler, Samih H Nasr
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), and its prevalence in the elderly may be increasing. It is largely unknown whether AIN in the elderly is similar to that in younger adults; therefore, we investigated the causes and characteristics of AIN in 45 elderly patients (65 years and older) and in 88 younger adults (18-64 years old). Compared with younger patients, the elderly had significantly more drug-induced AIN (87 vs. 64%), proton pump inhibitor-induced AIN (18 vs...
February 2015: Kidney International
Chang Yin Chionh, Sachin S Soni, Fredric O Finkelstein, Claudio Ronco, Dinna N Cruz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The role of peritoneal dialysis in the management of AKI is not well defined, although it remains frequently used, especially in low-resource settings. A systematic review was performed to describe outcomes in AKI treated with peritoneal dialysis and compare peritoneal dialysis with extracorporeal blood purification, such as continuous or intermittent hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched in July of 2012...
October 2013: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
2014-08-08 03:21:30
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