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Peter Nissen Chalmers, Geoff S Van Thiel, Scott W Trenhaile
Surgical repair, reduction, fixation, and reconstruction for glenohumeral trauma, instability, and degenerative joint disease often require an open surgical exposure. Open shoulder surgery is challenging because the deltoid and rotator cuff musculature envelop the joint, and in most approaches, exposure is limited by the proximity and importance of the axillary nerve. An understanding of the importance of the deltoid and the rotator cuff for glenohumeral function has led to a progression of innovative, advanced, and less invasive approaches to the shoulder...
April 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Irene S Davis, Bradley J Bowser, David R Mullineaux
BACKGROUND: Running has been critical to human survival. Therefore, the high rate of injuries experienced by modern day runners is puzzling. Landing on the heel, as most modern day shod runners do, results in a distinct vertical impact force that has been shown to be associated with running-related injuries. However, these injury studies were retrospective in nature and do not establish cause and effect. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether runners with high impacts are at greater risk for developing medically diagnosed injuries...
July 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
B M Nigg, J Baltich, S Hoerzer, H Enders
In the past 100 years, running shoes experienced dramatic changes. The question then arises whether or not running shoes (or sport shoes in general) influence the frequency of running injuries at all. This paper addresses five aspects related to running injuries and shoe selection, including (1) the changes in running injuries over the past 40 years, (2) the relationship between sport shoes, sport inserts and running injuries, (3) previously researched mechanisms of injury related to footwear and two new paradigms for injury prevention including (4) the 'preferred movement path' and (5) the 'comfort filter'...
October 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Mitchell H Rosner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Boris Gojanovic, Rebecca Shultz, Francois Feihl, Gordon Matheson
PURPOSE: Optimal high-intensity interval training (HIIT) regimens for running performance are unknown, although most protocols result in some benefit to key performance factors (running economy (RE), anaerobic threshold (AT), or maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)). Lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills offer the unique possibility to partially unload runners and reach supramaximal speeds. We studied the use of LBPP to test an overspeed HIIT protocol in trained runners. METHODS: Eleven trained runners (35 ± 8 yr, VO2max, 55...
December 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alister McCormick, Carla Meijen, Samuele Marcora
BACKGROUND: No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. OBJECTIVE: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance...
July 2015: Sports Medicine
Adam Sebastian Tenforde, Michael Fredericson, Lauren Carter Sayres, Phil Cutti, Kristin Lynn Sainani
BACKGROUND: Adolescent runners may be at risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) associated with sports participation. Few prior investigations have evaluated bone health in young runners, particularly males. PURPOSE: To characterize sex-specific risk factors for low BMD in adolescent runners. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Training characteristics, fracture history, eating behaviors and attitudes, and menstrual history were measured using online questionnaires...
June 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Brian Gallagher, Fotios P Tjoumakaris, Marc I Harwood, Robert P Good, Michael G Ciccotti, Kevin B Freedman
BACKGROUND: Structure-modifying medications or nutraceuticals may be an effective treatment for osteoarthritis. This study identified 12 treatments that may possess chondroprotective properties: oral glucosamine; chondroitin; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); polyunsaturated fatty acids; S-adenosylmethionine; avocado and soybean unsaponifiable fractions; methylsulfonylmethane; vitamins C, D, and E; intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid; and platelet-rich plasma (PRP)...
March 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
David Montero, Candela Diaz-Cañestro, Carsten Lundby
PURPOSE: Although endurance training (ET) commonly augments maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max), it remains unclear whether such increase is associated with that of maximal cardiac output (Qmax) alone or along with arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-V˙O2diff). Herein, we sought to systematically review and determine the effects of ET on V˙O2max, Qmax, and a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise, and on their associations, in healthy young subjects. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science (from their inception until September 2014) for articles assessing the effects of ET lasting ≥3 wk on V˙O2max and Qmax and/or a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise in healthy young adults (mean age <40 yr)...
October 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
T Ono, A Higashihara, J Shinohara, N Hirose, T Fukubayashi
The purpose of this study was to identify the period of the gait cycle during which the hamstring muscles were likely injured by estimating the magnitude of tensile force in each muscle during overground sprinting. We conducted three-dimensional motion analysis of 12 male athletes performing overground sprinting at their maximal speed and calculated the hamstring muscle-tendon length and joint angles of the right limb throughout a gait cycle during which the ground reaction force was measured. Electromyographic activity during sprinting was recorded for the biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles of ipsilateral limb...
February 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
M Tyrrell Burrus, Brian C Werner, Jim S Starman, F Winston Gwathmey, Eric W Carson, Robert P Wilder, David R Diduch
Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management...
June 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Inge Bos, Patrick De Boever, Luc Int Panis, Romain Meeusen
This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem...
November 2014: Sports Medicine
Laurent B Seitz, Alvaro Reyes, Tai T Tran, Eduardo Saez de Villarreal, G Gregory Haff
BACKGROUND: Although lower-body strength is correlated with sprint performance, whether increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis determined whether increases in lower-body strength (measured with the free-weight back squat exercise) transfer positively to sprint performance, and identified the effects of various subject characteristics and resistance-training variables on the magnitude of sprint improvement...
December 2014: Sports Medicine
Karen Schwabe, Martin P Schwellnus, Wayne Derman, Sonja Swanevelder, Esme Jordaan
BACKGROUND: The half-marathon (21 km) race is a very popular mass community-based distance running event. It is important to determine risk factors for medical complications during these events, so that prevention programmes can be developed. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors associated with medical complications during 21 km road running events. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Two Oceans half-marathon (21 km) races...
June 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Karen Schwabe, Martin P Schwellnus, Wayne Derman, Sonja Swanevelder, Esme Jordaan
BACKGROUND: It is important to identify risk factors associated with medical complications during ultra-marathons so that prevention programmes can be developed. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for medical complications during ultra-marathons. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Two Oceans ultra-marathon (56 km) races. PARTICIPANTS: 26 354 race starters. METHODS: Medical complications (defined as any runner requiring assessment by a doctor at the race medical facility or a local hospital on race day) were recorded over 4 years...
June 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Andrew R Chapman, Paul W Hodges, Andrew M Briggs, Paul J Stapley, Bill Vicenzino
UNLABELLED: Previous studies have shown that cycling can directly influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running in some highly trained triathletes. A relationship between this altered neuromuscular control of running and musculoskeletal pain and injury has been proposed; however, this link has not been investigated. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of cycling on neuromuscular control during subsequent running in highly trained triathletes with and without exercise-related leg pain (ERLP)...
February 2010: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
S Paulson, W A Braun
Barefoot running and running using minimalist footwear have become increasingly popular in recent years. Footwear choice may affect running mechanics and the metabolic cost of running. To investigate these factors, 8 well-trained, female distance runners (mean age=20.1±1.4 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Following orientation to testing procedures, subjects completed 3 running economy tests on separate days. Treatment order (barefoot, minimalist footwear and running shoe) was counter-balanced...
August 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Yuliang Sun, Shutao Wei, Yunjian Zhong, Weijie Fu, Li Li, Yu Liu
PURPOSE: The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. METHODS: Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated...
February 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Anna V Lorimer, Patria A Hume
BACKGROUND: Research into the nature of overuse Achilles tendon injuries is extensive, yet uncertainty remains around how to identify athletes susceptible to Achilles tendon injury. OBJECTIVE: To identify the strength of evidence for biomechanical risk factors associated with Achilles tendon injuries. RESEARCH METHODS: SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Web of Science and PubMed were searched for Achilles tendon injury risk factors and biomechanical measures which are altered in runners with Achilles tendon injuries, excluding ruptures...
October 2014: Sports Medicine
L F Azevedo, P S Perlingeiro, D T Hachul, I L Gomes-Santos, P C Brum, T G Allison, C E Negrão, L D N J De Matos
We investigated the influence of sport modalities in resting bradycardia and its mechanisms of control in highly trained athletes. In addition, the relationships between bradycardia mechanisms and cardiac structural adaptations were tested. Professional male athletes (13 runners, 11 cyclists) were evaluated. Heart rate (HR) was recorded at rest on beat-to-beat basis (ECG). Selective pharmacological blockade was performed with atropine and esmolol. Vagal effect, intrinsic heart rate (IHR), parasympathetic (n) and sympathetic (m) modulations, autonomic influence (AI) and autonomic balance (Abal) were calculated...
October 2014: International Journal of Sports Medicine
2014-06-21 02:16:19
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