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By Richard Gough Paramedic tutor, Post Qualification Manager
Lori L Boland, Jonathan S Hokanson, Karl M Fernstrom, Tyler G Kinzy, Charles J Lick, Paul A Satterlee, Brian K LaCroix
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to pilot test the delivery of sepsis education to emergency medical services (EMS) providers and the feasibility of equipping them with temporal artery thermometers (TATs) and handheld lactate meters to aid in the prehospital recognition of sepsis. METHODS: This study used a convenience sample of prehospital patients meeting established criteria for sepsis. Paramedics received education on systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, were trained in the use of TATs and hand-held lactate meters, and enrolled patients who had a recent history of infection, met ≥ 2 SIRS criteria, and were being transported to a participating hospital...
September 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ryotaro Kato, Michael R Pinsky
This review examines the available evidence for targeting a specific mean arterial pressure (MAP) in sepsis resuscitation. The clinical data suggest that targeting an MAP of 65-70 mmHg in patients with septic shock who do not have chronic hypertension is a reasonable first approximation. Whereas in patients with chronic hypertension, targeting a higher MAP of 80-85 mmHg minimizes renal injury, but it comes with increased risk of arrhythmias. Importantly, MAP alone should not be used as a surrogate of organ perfusion pressure, especially under conditions in which intracranial, intra-abdominal or tissue pressures may be elevated...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
Ravi G Gupta, Sarah M Hartigan, Markos G Kashiouris, Curtis N Sessler, Gonzalo M L Bearman
Severe sepsis and septic shock are among the leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit. Over a decade ago, early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) emerged as a novel approach for reducing sepsis mortality and was incorporated into guidelines published by the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign. In addition to requiring early detection of sepsis and prompt initiation of antibiotics, the EGDT protocol requires invasive patient monitoring to guide resuscitation with intravenous fluids, vasopressors, red cell transfusions, and inotropes...
August 28, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Cian McDermott, Michael Sheridan
The authors report a case of near-fatal sepsis with multiorgan failure resulting from a Staphylococcal tampon-associated toxic shock syndrome, requiring a lengthy critical care admission. Successful treatment of this condition focuses on early identification, source control, and administration of antimicrobial agents. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy used early may prevent widespread tissue necrosis.
2015: Case Reports in Critical Care
Diane J Chamberlain, Eileen Willis, Robyn Clark, Genevieve Brideson
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the accuracy and validity of the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) as a tool to identify and manage in a timely manner the deteriorating patient with severe sepsis. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted in five sites of adult patients. Keywords and physiological vital signs data from triage documentation were analysed for the 'identified' status compared with confirmed diagnosis of severe sepsis after admission to the intensive care unit...
September 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Ying Dong, Christian P Speer
The incidence of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) is inversely related to the degree of maturity and varies geographically from 0.61% to 14.2% among hospitalised newborns. Epidemiological data on very low birth weight infants shows that the predominant pathogens of neonatal LOS are coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Gram-negative bacilli and fungi. Due to the difficulties in a prompt diagnosis of LOS and LOS-associated high risk of mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae, empirical antibiotic treatment is initiated on suspicion of LOS...
May 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Sandra L Peake, Anthony Delaney, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, Peter A Cameron, D James Cooper, Alisa M Higgins, Anna Holdgate, Belinda D Howe, Steven A R Webb, Patricia Williams
BACKGROUND: Early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) has been endorsed in the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign as a key strategy to decrease mortality among patients presenting to the emergency department with septic shock. However, its effectiveness is uncertain. METHODS: In this trial conducted at 51 centers (mostly in Australia or New Zealand), we randomly assigned patients presenting to the emergency department with early septic shock to receive either EGDT or usual care...
October 16, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Christopher W Seymour, Colin R Cooke, Susan R Heckbert, John A Spertus, Clifton W Callaway, Christian Martin-Gill, Donald M Yealy, Thomas D Rea, Derek C Angus
INTRODUCTION: Prompt treatment of severe sepsis in the Emergency Department reduces deaths, but the role of prehospital fluid resuscitation is unknown. We sought to determine the risk-adjusted association between prehospital fluid administration and hospital mortality among emergency medical services (EMS) patients admitted with severe sepsis. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study of patients hospitalized with severe sepsis on admission among 45,394 adult EMS encounters taken to 15 hospitals from 11/2009 to 12/2010 by a two-tier EMS system in King County, Washington...
2014: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
A S Kolyva, V Zolota, D Mpatsoulis, G Skroubis, E E Solomou, I G Habeos, S F Assimakopoulos, N Goutzourelas, D Kouretas, C A Gogos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is one of the most important causes of mortality in the developed world, where almost two-thirds of the population suffer from obesity. Therefore, the coexistence of both conditions has become frequent in clinical practice and a growing number of clinical studies attempts to examine the potential effect of obesity on sepsis with controversial results up to now. The present study investigates how obesity influences the immune response of septic patients, by assessing the number and activation state of adipose tissue macrophages, serum and adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels and plasma oxidative stress markers...
2014: Nutrition & Diabetes
Poorna Madhusudan, Bharath Kumar Tirupakuzhi Vijayaraghavan, Matthew Edward Cove
Sepsis results in widespread inflammatory responses altering homeostasis. Associated circulatory abnormalities (peripheral vasodilation, intravascular volume depletion, increased cellular metabolism, and myocardial depression) lead to an imbalance between oxygen delivery and demand, triggering end organ injury and failure. Fluid resuscitation is a key part of treatment, but there is little agreement on choice, amount, and end points for fluid resuscitation. Over the past few years, the safety of some fluid preparations has been questioned...
2014: BioMed Research International
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
Timothy Horeczko, Jeffrey P Green, Edward A Panacek
INTRODUCTION: Consensus guidelines recommend sepsis screening for adults with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), but the epidemiology of SIRS among adult emergency department (ED) patients is poorly understood. Recent emphasis on cost-effective, outcomes-based healthcare prompts the evaluation of the performance of large-scale efforts such as sepsis screening. We studied a nationally representative sample to clarify the epidemiology of SIRS in the ED and subsequent category of illness...
May 2014: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Keliang Xie, Lingling Liu, Yonghao Yu, Guolin Wang
Sepsis is characterized by a severe inflammatory response to infection. It remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients despite developments in monitoring devices, diagnostic tools, and new therapeutic options. Recently, some studies have found that molecular hydrogen is a new therapeutic gas. Our studies have found that hydrogen gas can improve the survival and organ damage in mice and rats with cecal ligation and puncture, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis. The mechanisms are associated with the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis, which might be through NF- κ B and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway...
2014: BioMed Research International
Prashant Nasa, Deven Juneja, Omender Singh
The incidence of severe sepsis and septic shock is increasing in the older population leading to increased admissions to the intensive care units (ICUs). The elderly are predisposed to sepsis due to co-existing co-morbidities, repeated and prolonged hospitalizations, reduced immunity, functional limitations and above all due to the effects of aging itself. A lower threshold and a higher index of suspicion is required to diagnose sepsis in this patient population because the initial clinical picture may be ambiguous, and aging increases the risk of a sudden deterioration in sepsis to severe sepsis and septic shock...
February 4, 2012: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Charles R Wira, Melissa W Francis, Sundeep Bhat, Robert Ehrman, David Conner, Mark Siegel
INTRODUCTION: Severe sepsis is a leading cause of non-coronary death in hospitals across the United States. Early identification and risk stratification in the emergency department (ED) is difficult because there is limited ability to predict escalation of care. In this study we evaluated if a sustained shock index (SI) elevation in the ED was a predictor of short-term cardiovascular collapse, defined as vasopressor dependence within 72 hours of initial presentation. METHODS: Retrospective dual-centered cross-sectional study using patients identified in the Yale-New Haven Hospital Emergency Medicine sepsis registry...
February 2014: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sung-Yeon Cho, Jung-Hyun Choi
Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in critically ill patients, despite efforts to improve patient outcome. Thus far, no magic drugs exist for severe sepsis and septic shock. Instead, early diagnosis and prompt initial management such as early goal-directed therapy are key to improve sepsis outcome. For early detection of sepsis, biological markers (biomarkers) can help clinicians to distinguish infection from host response to inflammation. Ideally, biomarkers can be used for risk stratification, diagnosis, monitoring of treatment responses, and outcome prediction...
March 2014: Infection & Chemotherapy
Massimo Sartelli, Fausto Catena, Salomone Di Saverio, Luca Ansaloni, Mark Malangoni, Ernest E Moore, Frederick A Moore, Rao Ivatury, Raul Coimbra, Ari Leppaniemi, Walter Biffl, Yoram Kluger, Gustavo P Fraga, Carlos A Ordonez, Sanjay Marwah, Igor Gerych, Jae Gil Lee, Cristian Tranà, Federico Coccolini, Francesco Corradetti, James Kirkby-Bott
Although sepsis is a systemic process, the pathophysiological cascade of events may vary from region to region.Abdominal sepsis represents the host's systemic inflammatory response to bacterial peritonitis.It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates, and is the second most common cause of sepsis-related mortality in the intensive care unit.The review focuses on sepsis in the specific setting of severe peritonitis.
2014: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Craig M Lilly
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 0, Issue 0, Ahead of Print.
May 1, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Donald M Yealy, John A Kellum, David T Huang, Amber E Barnato, Lisa A Weissfeld, Francis Pike, Thomas Terndrup, Henry E Wang, Peter C Hou, Frank LoVecchio, Michael R Filbin, Nathan I Shapiro, Derek C Angus
BACKGROUND: In a single-center study published more than a decade ago involving patients presenting to the emergency department with severe sepsis and septic shock, mortality was markedly lower among those who were treated according to a 6-hour protocol of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT), in which intravenous fluids, vasopressors, inotropes, and blood transfusions were adjusted to reach central hemodynamic targets, than among those receiving usual care. We conducted a trial to determine whether these findings were generalizable and whether all aspects of the protocol were necessary...
May 1, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
James A Russell
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 0, Issue 0, Ahead of Print.
April 24, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
2014-06-18 10:15:54
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