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By Miguel Angel Garcia Médico de familia . España
P J Larkin, N I Cherny, D La Carpia, M Guglielmo, C Ostgathe, F Scotté, C I Ripamonti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Sleiman Razzouk
Modern genetic therapy incorporates genomic testing and genome editing. It is the finest approach for precision medicine. Genome editing is a state-of-the-art technology to manipulate gene expression thus generating a particular genotype. It encompasses multiple programmable nuclease-based approaches leading to genetic changes. Not surprisingly, this method triggered internationally a wide array of controversies in the scientific community and in the public since it transforms the human genome. Given its importance, the pace of this technology is exceptionally fast...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Human Genetics
Anthony H V Schapira
Mitochondria have a crucial role in cellular bioenergetics and apoptosis, and thus are important to support cell function and in determination of cell death pathways. Inherited mitochondrial diseases can be caused by mutations of mitochondrial DNA or of nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins. Although many mitochondrial disorders are multisystemic, some are tissue specific--eg, optic neuropathy, sensorineural deafness, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the past few years, several disorders have been associated with mutations of nuclear genes responsible for mitochondrial DNA maintenance and function, and the potential contribution of mitochondrial abnormalities to progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease has been recognised...
May 12, 2012: Lancet
Gabriel M Pagnotti, Maya Styner
Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pool that also gives rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, among other cell types. To date, the presence of MAT has been attributed to preferential biasing of MSC into the adipocyte rather than osteoblast lineage, thus negatively impacting bone formation. Here, we focus on understanding the physiology of MAT in the setting of exercise, dietary interventions, and pharmacologic agents that alter fat metabolism...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ele Ferrannini
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 371, Issue 16, Page 1547-1548, October 2014.
October 16, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Erin E Mulvihill, Daniel J Drucker
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is a widely expressed enzyme transducing actions through an anchored transmembrane molecule and a soluble circulating protein. Both membrane-associated and soluble DPP4 exert catalytic activity, cleaving proteins containing a position 2 alanine or proline. DPP4-mediated enzymatic cleavage alternatively inactivates peptides or generates new bioactive moieties that may exert competing or novel activities. The widespread use of selective DPP4 inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes has heightened interest in the molecular mechanisms through which DPP4 inhibitors exert their pleiotropic actions...
December 2014: Endocrine Reviews
Bernard Man Yung Cheung, Tommy Tsang Cheung, Nithushi Rajitha Samaranayake
Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Although diet and physical activity are crucial in the management of obesity, the long-term success rate is low. Therefore antiobesity drugs are of great interest, especially when lifestyle modification has failed. As obesity is not an immediate life-threatening disease, these drugs are required to be safe. Antiobesity drugs that have been developed so far have limited efficacies and considerable adverse effects affecting tolerability and safety. Therefore, most antiobesity drugs have been withdrawn...
August 2013: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Guntram Schernthaner, Carl Erik Mogensen, Gerit-Holger Schernthaner
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects an estimated 20%-40% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Key modifiable risk factors for DN are albuminuria, anaemia, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, together with lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity. Early detection and treatment of these risk factors can prevent DN or slow its progression, and may even induce remission in some patients. DN is generally preceded by albuminuria, which frequently remains elevated despite treatment in patients with T2DM...
September 2014: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Howard Leong-Poi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2014: Circulation
Javier Delgado-Lista, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Antonio Garcia-Rios, Ana I Perez-Caballero, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Jose Lopez-Miranda
A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors...
2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Valentin S Bruttel, Jörg Wischhusen
Cancer stem cell (CSC) biology and tumor immunology have shaped our understanding of tumorigenesis. However, we still do not fully understand why tumors can be contained but not eliminated by the immune system and whether rare CSCs are required for tumor propagation. Long latency or recurrence periods have been described for most tumors. Conceptually, this requires a subset of malignant cells which is capable of initiating tumors, but is neither eliminated by immune cells nor able to grow straight into overt tumors...
2014: Frontiers in Immunology
Jeffrey Friedman
Historically, adipose tissue was considered to be a passive storage vessel discharging nutrients in times of famine and accumulating fat in times of surfeit. This view changed with the identification of leptin as an adipocyte hormone. Leptin functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that regulates food intake and metabolism to maintain homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. Before this, the existence of a system maintaining homeostatic control of energy balance was unclear. The identification of leptin has thus uncovered a new endocrine system that also links changes in nutrition to adaptive responses in most if not all other physiologic systems...
October 2014: Journal of Endocrinology
Sandra Milić, Davorka Lulić, Davor Štimac
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world. Presentation of the disease ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome that includes central abdominal obesity along with other components. Up to 80% of patients with NAFLD are obese, defined as a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2). However, the distribution of fat tissue plays a greater role in insulin resistance than the BMI. The large amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) individuals contributes to a high prevalence of NAFLD...
July 28, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Tara C Mueller, Marc A Burmeister, Jeannine Bachmann, Marc E Martignoni
Cachexia is frequently described in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is associated with reduced survival and quality of life. Unfortunately, the therapeutic options of this multi-factorial and complex syndrome are limited. This is due to the fact that, despite extensive preclinical and clinical research, the underlying pathological mechanisms leading to PDAC-associated cachexia are still not fully understood. Furthermore, there is still a lack of consensus on the definition of cachexia, which complicates the standardization of diagnosis and treatment as well as the analysis of the current literature...
July 28, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Michael Rosenbaum, Rudolph L Leibel
The hyperphagia, low sympathetic nervous system tone, and decreased circulating concentrations of bioactive thyroid hormones that are common to states of congenital leptin deficiency and hypoleptinemia following and during weight loss suggest that the major physiological function of leptin is to signal states of negative energy balance and decreased energy stores. In weight-reduced humans, these phenotypes together with pronounced hypometabolism and increased parasympathetic nervous system tone create the optimal circumstance for weight regain...
October 2014: Journal of Endocrinology
Johannes Grosse, Helen Heffron, Keith Burling, Mohammed Akhter Hossain, Abdella M Habib, Gareth J Rogers, Paul Richards, Rachel Larder, Debra Rimmington, Alice A Adriaenssens, Laura Parton, Justin Powell, Matteo Binda, William H Colledge, Joanne Doran, Yukio Toyoda, John D Wade, Samuel Aparicio, Mark B L Carlton, Anthony P Coll, Frank Reimann, Stephen O'Rahilly, Fiona M Gribble
The gut endocrine system is emerging as a central player in the control of appetite and glucose homeostasis, and as a rich source of peptides with therapeutic potential in the field of diabetes and obesity. In this study we have explored the physiology of insulin-like peptide 5 (Insl5), which we identified as a product of colonic enteroendocrine L-cells, better known for their secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptideYY. i.p. Insl5 increased food intake in wild-type mice but not mice lacking the cognate receptor Rxfp4...
July 29, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Theodore Kelesidis, Iosif Kelesidis, Sharon Chou, Christos S Mantzoros
Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue in direct proportion to amount of body fat. The circulating leptin levels serve as a gauge of energy stores, thereby directing the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and metabolism. Persons with congenital deficiency are obese, and treatment with leptin results in dramatic weight loss through decreased food intake and possible increased energy expenditure. However, most obese persons are resistant to the weight-reducing effects of leptin...
January 19, 2010: Annals of Internal Medicine
Svetlana Stajkovic, Elizabeth M Aitken, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2011: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Eric R Helms, Alan A Aragon, Peter J Fitschen
The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate...
2014: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
2014-07-03 22:29:11
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