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Obesity

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10 papers 100 to 500 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604169/health-effects-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-195-countries-over-25-years
#1
Ashkan Afshin, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Marissa B Reitsma, Patrick Sur, Kara Estep, Alex Lee, Laurie Marczak, Ali H Mokdad, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Joseph S Salama, Theo Vos, Kalkidan H Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Muktar B Ahmed, Ziyad Al-Aly, Ala’a Alkerwi, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Azmeraw T Amare, Alemayehu Amberbir, Adeladza K Amegah, Erfan Amini, Stephen M Amrock, Ranjit M Anjana, Johan Ärnlöv, Hamid Asayesh, Amitava Banerjee, Aleksandra Barac, Estifanos Baye, Derrick A Bennett, Addisu S Beyene, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Stan Biryukov, Espen Bjertness, Dube J Boneya, Ismael Campos-Nonato, Juan J Carrero, Pedro Cecilio, Kelly Cercy, Liliana G Ciobanu, Leslie Cornaby, Solomon A Damtew, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Samath D Dharmaratne, Bruce B Duncan, Babak Eshrati, Alireza Esteghamati, Valery L Feigin, João C Fernandes, Thomas Fürst, Tsegaye T Gebrehiwot, Audra Gold, Philimon N Gona, Atsushi Goto, Tesfa D Habtewold, Kokeb T Hadush, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Simon I Hay, Masako Horino, Farhad Islami, Ritul Kamal, Amir Kasaeian, Srinivasa V Katikireddi, Andre P Kengne, Chandrasekharan N Kesavachandran, Yousef S Khader, Young-Ho Khang, Jagdish Khubchandani, Daniel Kim, Yun J Kim, Yohannes Kinfu, Soewarta Kosen, Tiffany Ku, Barthelemy Kuate Defo, G Anil Kumar, Heidi J Larson, Mall Leinsalu, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S Lim, Patrick Liu, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Azeem Majeed, Reza Malekzadeh, Deborah C Malta, Mohsen Mazidi, Colm McAlinden, Stephen T McGarvey, Desalegn T Mengistu, George A Mensah, Gert B M Mensink, Haftay B Mezgebe, Erkin M Mirrakhimov, Ulrich O Mueller, Jean J Noubiap, Carla M Obermeyer, Felix A Ogbo, Mayowa O Owolabi, George C Patton, Farshad Pourmalek, Mostafa Qorbani, Anwar Rafay, Rajesh K Rai, Chhabi L Ranabhat, Nikolas Reinig, Saeid Safiri, Joshua A Salomon, Juan R Sanabria, Itamar S Santos, Benn Sartorius, Monika Sawhney, Josef Schmidhuber, Aletta E Schutte, Maria I Schmidt, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Moretza Shamsizadeh, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Min-Jeong Shin, Rahman Shiri, Ivy Shiue, Hirbo S Roba, Diego A S Silva, Jonathan I Silverberg, Jasvinder A Singh, Saverio Stranges, Soumya Swaminathan, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Fentaw Tadese, Bemnet A Tedla, Balewgizie S Tegegne, Abdullah S Terkawi, J S Thakur, Marcello Tonelli, Roman Topor-Madry, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Olalekan A Uthman, Masoud Vaezghasemi, Tommi Vasankari, Vasiliy V Vlassov, Stein E Vollset, Elisabete Weiderpass, Andrea Werdecker, Joshua Wesana, Ronny Westerman, Yuichiro Yano, Naohiro Yonemoto, Gerald Yonga, Zoubida Zaidi, Zerihun M Zenebe, Ben Zipkin, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015...
July 6, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23065822/insulin-resistance-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-revisited-an-update-on-mechanisms-and-implications
#2
REVIEW
Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, Andrea Dunaif
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is now recognized as an important metabolic as well as reproductive disorder conferring substantially increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Affected women have marked insulin resistance, independent of obesity. This article summarizes the state of the science since we last reviewed the field in the Endocrine Reviews in 1997. There is general agreement that obese women with PCOS are insulin resistant, but some groups of lean affected women may have normal insulin sensitivity. There is a post-binding defect in receptor signaling likely due to increased receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 serine phosphorylation that selectively affects metabolic but not mitogenic pathways in classic insulin target tissues and in the ovary...
December 2012: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040833/insights-into-the-relationships-between-diabetes-prediabetes-and-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Lorenzo Scappaticcio, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
Diabetes mellitus and cancer are two growing health problems. They have in common many modifiable risk factors including sex, age, obesity, physical activity, diet, alcohol, and smoking, and have a long latency before overtly manifesting. Patients with diabetes experience a roughly 20-25% higher cancer incidence compared to individuals without diabetes, and it depends on cancer site. Moreover, patients with diabetes who further develop cancer have increased early and late mortality in comparison with cancer patients without diabetes...
May 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25720588/dietary-inflammatory-index-and-anthropometric-measures-of-obesity-in-a-population-sample-at-high-cardiovascular-risk-from-the-predimed-prevenci%C3%A3-n-con-dieta-mediterr%C3%A3-nea-trial
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
M Ruiz-Canela, I Zazpe, N Shivappa, J R Hébert, A Sánchez-Tainta, D Corella, J Salas-Salvadó, M Fitó, R M Lamuela-Raventós, J Rekondo, J Fernández-Crehuet, M Fiol, J M Santos-Lozano, L Serra-Majem, X Pinto, J A Martínez, E Ros, R Estruch, M A Martínez-González
The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet)...
March 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20203013/metabolic-syndrome-and-altered-gut-microbiota-in-mice-lacking-toll-like-receptor-5
#5
Matam Vijay-Kumar, Jesse D Aitken, Frederic A Carvalho, Tyler C Cullender, Simon Mwangi, Shanthi Srinivasan, Shanthi V Sitaraman, Rob Knight, Ruth E Ley, Andrew T Gewirtz
Metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity-related metabolic abnormalities that increase an individual's risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we show that mice genetically deficient in Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a component of the innate immune system that is expressed in the gut mucosa and that helps defend against infection, exhibit hyperphagia and develop hallmark features of metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and increased adiposity...
April 9, 2010: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23671428/biochemistry-of-adipose-tissue-an-endocrine-organ
#6
Marisa Coelho, Teresa Oliveira, Ruben Fernandes
Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example)...
April 20, 2013: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25280423/evaluation-of-immune-response-microbiota-and-blood-markers-after-probiotic-bacteria-administration-in-obese-mice-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#7
Ivanna Novotny Núñez, Carolina Maldonado Galdeano, Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Gabriela Perdigón
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with alterations in intestinal microbiota and immunity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration on intestinal and humoral immune response, clinical parameters, and gut microbiota was evaluated using a high-fat diet to induce obesity in a mouse model. METHODS: Adult mice received a conventional balanced diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with milk, milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (FM), L...
November 2014: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25280424/lysophospholipid-profile-in-serum-and-liver-by-high-fat-diet-and-tumor-induction-in-obesity-resistant-balb-c-mice
#8
Hyang Yeon Kim, Minhee Kim, Hye Min Park, Jiyoung Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Choong Hwan Lee, Jung Han Yoon Park
OBJECTIVE: Our previous study revealed that chronic consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) stimulates colon cancer progression in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the significant alteration of metabolites caused by tumor progression and an HFD in the serum and liver in the same mouse model. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were fed either a control diet or a HFD for 20.5 wk. The syngeneic CT26 colon carcinoma cells were injected into the right rear flank of mice after 16 wk of feeding...
November 2014: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24457205/a-gender-sensitised-weight-loss-and-healthy-living-programme-for-overweight-and-obese-men-delivered-by-scottish-premier-league-football-clubs-ffit-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kate Hunt, Sally Wyke, Cindy M Gray, Annie S Anderson, Adrian Brady, Christopher Bunn, Peter T Donnan, Elisabeth Fenwick, Eleanor Grieve, Jim Leishman, Euan Miller, Nanette Mutrie, Petra Rauchhaus, Alan White, Shaun Treweek
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. METHODS: We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week...
April 5, 2014: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24905767/lower-activity-levels-are-related-to-higher-plantar-pressures-in-overweight-children
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Diane L Riddiford-Harland, Julie R Steele, Dylan P Cliff, Anthony D Okely, Philip J Morgan, Rachel A Jones, Louise A Baur
PURPOSE: This study aimed to establish whether the peak plantar pressures generated by overweight and obese school-age children during walking were associated with their objectively measured physical activity. METHODS: Physical activity levels of a subset of 73 overweight/obese children from a randomized controlled trial (mean ± SD: age, 8.3 ± 1.1 yr; 47 girls; body mass index z-score, 2.7 ± 0.7) were objectively measured using accelerometers. Plantar pressure distributions were also quantified as the participants walked over a pressure platform...
February 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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