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Infectious diseases.

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10 papers 25 to 100 followers Evidence of MERS-CoV transmission from camels to humans.
By Mohamed Elmustafa Elsayed Specialist internal medicine, member of royal college of physicians of London, Edinbrough and Glasgow. Currently works as Trust doctor, QA hospital, Portsmouth.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968696/parasitic-contamination-of-fresh-vegetables-sold-at-central-markets-in-khartoum-state-sudan
#1
Mona Ali Mohamed, Emmanuel Edwar Siddig, Arwa Hassan Elaagip, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed Edris, Awad Ahmed Nasr
BACKGROUND: Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071986/a-pilot-study-to-assess-bacterial-and-toxin-reduction-in-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-given-fidaxomicin-or-vancomycin
#2
Abrar K Thabit, M Jahangir Alam, Mohammed Khaleduzzaman, Kevin W Garey, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of fidaxomicin and vancomycin on Clostridium difficile toxins and correlation with clinical and microbiologic outcomes. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection were randomly assigned a 10-day course of fidaxomicin or vancomycin. Stool samples collected at baseline (day 0), mid-therapy (days 3-5), end of therapy (days 10-13) and follow-up (days 19-38) were assessed for quantity of toxins A and B as well as spore and vegetative cells counts...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12847550/genetic-susceptibility-to-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-the-sudan-linkage-and-association-with-il4-and-ifngr1
#3
H S Mohamed, M E Ibrahim, E N Miller, C S Peacock, E A G Khalil, H J Cordell, J M M Howson, A M El Hassan, R E H Bereir, J M Blackwell
Longitudinal studies in Sudan show ethnic differences in incidence and clinical phenotypes associated with Leishmania donovani. Immunologically, bias in type 1 vs type 2 cytokine responses is important. To determine whether polymorphisms at IL4/IL9 or IFNGR1 contribute to susceptibility, we examined 59 multicase families of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with/without post Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Multipoint nonparametric analysis (Allegro) linked IL4/IL9 to VL per se (P=0.002). Transmission disequilibrium testing with robust variance estimates confirmed association in the presence of linkage between VL per se and IL4 (P=0...
July 2003: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994090/efficacy-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-versus-levofloxacin-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-cutis-caused-by-levofloxacin-resistant-pathogens-results-from-the-aspect-cuti-trial
#4
Jennifer A Huntington, George Sakoulas, Obiamiwe Umeh, Daniel J Cloutier, Judith N Steenbergen, Caleb Bliss, Ellie J C Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: Empirical fluoroquinolone therapy is widely used in treating complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), even in areas of high fluoroquinolone resistance. While it is believed that high antibiotic concentrations in urine might be sufficient to overcome and effectively treat infections caused by resistant bacteria, clinical trial data validating this assumption are limited. This post hoc analysis evaluated the efficacy of ceftolozane/tazobactam versus levofloxacin in the subgroup of patients with cUTIs caused by levofloxacin-resistant pathogens in a randomized, controlled trial (NCT01345929/NCT01345955)...
July 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908803/protective-effect-of-contemporary-pertussis-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
T Roice Fulton, Varun K Phadke, Walter A Orenstein, Alan R Hinman, Wayne D Johnson, Saad B Omer
BACKGROUND: Acellular pertussis (aP) and whole-cell (wP) pertussis vaccines are presumed to have similar short-term (<3 years after completion of the primary series) efficacy. However, vaccine effect varies between individual pertussis vaccine formulations, and many originally studied formulations are now unavailable. An updated analysis of the short-term protective effect of pertussis vaccines limited to formulations currently on the market in developed countries is needed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies that evaluated pertussis vaccine efficacy or effectiveness within 3 years after completion (>3 doses) of a primary series of a currently available aP or wP vaccine formulation...
May 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908806/postobstructive-pneumonia-an-underdescribed-syndrome
#6
Michael S Abers, Barcleigh P Sandvall, Rahul Sampath, Carlo Zuno, Natalie Uy, Victor L Yu, Charles E Stager, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: Postobstructive community-acquired pneumonia (PO-CAP) is relatively common in clinical practice. The clinical syndrome is poorly defined, and the role of infection as a cause of the infiltrate is uncertain. We prospectively studied patients with PO-CAP and compared them to a cohort of patients with bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (B-CAP). METHODS: We prospectively studied patients hospitalized for CAP; 5.4% had PO-CAP, defined as a pulmonary infiltrate occurring distal to an obstructed bronchus...
April 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962078/efficacy-and-safety-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-plus-metronidazole-versus-meropenem-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-intra-abdominal-infection-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-double-blind-phase-3-program
#7
John E Mazuski, Leanne B Gasink, Jon Armstrong, Helen Broadhurst, Greg G Stone, Douglas Rank, Lily Llorens, Paul Newell, Jan Pachl
BACKGROUND: When combined with ceftazidime, the novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam provides a carbapenem alternative against multidrug-resistant infections. Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole were compared with meropenem in 1066 men and women with complicated intra-abdominal infections from 2 identical, randomized, double-blind phase 3 studies (NCT01499290 and NCT01500239). METHODS: The primary end point was clinical cure at test-of-cure visit 28-35 days after randomization, assessed by noninferiority of ceftazidime-avibactam plus metronidazole to meropenem in the microbiologically modified intention-to-treat (mMITT) population (in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidance), and the modified intention-to-treat and clinically evaluable populations (European Medicines Agency guidance)...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26445673/lactate-kinetics-in-sepsis-and-septic-shock-a-review-of-the-literature-and-rationale-for-further-research
#8
REVIEW
Jason Chertoff, Michael Chisum, Bryan Garcia, Jorge Lascano
Over the last two decades, there have been vast improvements in sepsis-related outcomes, largely resulting from the widespread adoption of aggressive fluid resuscitation and infection control. With increased understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis, novel diagnostics and resuscitative interventions are being discovered. In recent years, few diagnostic tests like lactate have engendered more attention and research in the sepsis arena. Studies highlighting lactate's prognostic potential for mortality and other outcomes are ubiquitous and largely focus on the early stage of sepsis management, defined as the initial 6 h and widely referred to as the "golden hours...
2015: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25285380/jama-patient-page-ebola-virus-disease
#9
Jill Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24896817/evidence-for-camel-to-human-transmission-of-mers-coronavirus
#10
Esam I Azhar, Sherif A El-Kafrawy, Suha A Farraj, Ahmed M Hassan, Muneera S Al-Saeed, Anwar M Hashem, Tariq A Madani
We describe the isolation and sequencing of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) obtained from a dromedary camel and from a patient who died of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infection after close contact with camels that had rhinorrhea. Nasal swabs collected from the patient and from one of his nine camels were positive for MERS-CoV RNA. In addition, MERS-CoV was isolated from the patient and the camel. The full genome sequences of the two isolates were identical. Serologic data indicated that MERS-CoV was circulating in the camels but not in the patient before the human infection occurred...
June 26, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
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