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By Jackie Chen Software Engineer
Jessica L Montag, Angela M AuBuchon, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger
PURPOSE: This study investigated long-term speech intelligibility outcomes in 63 prelingually deaf children, adolescents, and young adults who received cochlear implants (CIs) before age 7 (M = 2;11 [years;months], range = 0;8-6;3) and used their implants for at least 7 years (M = 12;1, range = 7;0-22;5). METHOD: Speech intelligibility was assessed using playback methods with naïve, normal-hearing listeners. RESULTS: Mean intelligibility scores were lower than scores obtained from an age- and nonverbal IQ-matched, normal-hearing control sample, although the majority of CI users scored within the range of the control sample...
December 2014: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Andrew Davenport, Jawad Ahmad, Ali Al-Khafaji, John A Kellum, Yuri S Genyk, Mitra K Nadim
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as the occurrence of renal dysfunction in a patient with end-stage liver cirrhosis in the absence of another identifiable cause of renal failure. The prognosis of HRS remains poor, with a median survival without liver transplantation of <6 months. However, understanding the pathogenesis of HRS has led to the introduction of treatments designed to increase renal perfusion and mean arterial blood pressure using vasopressors and albumin, which has led to improvement in renal function in ∼50% of patients...
January 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Nathan A May, Qiuhong Wang, Andrea Balbo, Sheryl L Konrad, Rico Buchli, William H Hildebrand, Peter Schuck, Amy W Hudson
UNLABELLED: The U21 gene product from human herpesvirus 7 binds to and redirects class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to a lysosomal compartment. The molecular mechanism by which U21 reroutes class I MHC molecules to lysosomes is not known. Here, we have reconstituted the interaction between purified soluble U21 and class I MHC molecules, suggesting that U21 does not require additional cellular proteins to interact with class I MHC molecules. Our results demonstrate that U21, itself predicted to contain an MHC class I-like protein fold, interacts tightly with class I MHC molecules as a tetramer, in a 4:2 stoichiometry...
March 2014: Journal of Virology
Carlijn E L Hoekstra, Francina M Wesdorp, Gijsbert A van Zanten
OBJECTIVES: Tinnitus is a highly prevalent symptom with potential severe morbidity. Fortunately, only a small proportion of the population experience problems due to their tinnitus in such a degree that it adversely affects their quality of life (clinically significant tinnitus). It is not known why these individuals develop more burden from tinnitus. It seems likely that the severity of tinnitus can be influenced by different factors, such as socio-demographic or tinnitus characteristics or additional health complaints...
September 2014: Ear and Hearing
Gunnar Tomasson, Christine Peloquin, Aladdin Mohammad, Thorvardur J Love, Yuqing Zhang, Hyon K Choi, Peter A Merkel
BACKGROUND: Involvement of large arteries is well-documented in giant-cell arteritis (GCA), but the risk for cardiovascular events is not well-understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risks for incident myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in individuals with incident GCA in a general population context. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: U.K. primary care database...
January 21, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Diana Bonderman, Ingrid Pretsch, Regina Steringer-Mascherbauer, Pavel Jansa, Stephan Rosenkranz, Caroline Tufaro, Andja Bojic, Carolyn S P Lam, Reiner Frey, Michael Ochan Kilama, Sigrun Unger, Lothar Roessig, Irene M Lang
BACKGROUND: Deficient nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling results from endothelial dysfunction and may underlie impaired cardiac relaxation in patients with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) and pulmonary hypertension (PH). The acute hemodynamic effects of riociguat, a novel soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, were characterized in patients with PH and HFpEF. METHODS: Clinically stable patients receiving standard HF therapy with a left ventricular ejection fraction > 50%, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥ 25 mm Hg, and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) > 15 mm Hg at rest were randomized to single oral doses of placebo or riociguat (0...
November 2014: Chest
Ravi D Vaishya, Mitan Gokulgandhi, Sulabh Patel, Mukul Minocha, Ashim K Mitra
Development and characterization of dexamethasone (DEX)-encapsulated polymeric nanomicelles have been reported. A low molecular weight di-block copolymer was synthesized and characterized for its structure, molecular weights, critical micelle concentration (CMC), and cytotoxicity in ocular cells. In order to delineate the effects of drug-polymer interactions on drug solubilization in micelle core, a response surface methodology was generated with the help of SAS 9.02 (exploratory model). The method for preparing micelle was modified based on the results obtained from exploratory model...
October 2014: AAPS PharmSciTech
Silvia Camporesi, Michael J McNamee
In light of the World Anti Doping Agency's 2013 Code Revision process, we critically explore the applicability of two of three criteria used to determine whether a method or substance should be considered for their Prohibited List, namely its (potential) performance enhancing effects and its (potential) risk to the health of the athlete. To do so, we compare two communities of human guinea pigs: (i) individuals who make a living out of serial participation in Phase 1 pharmacology trials; and (ii) elite athletes who engage in what is effectively 'unregulated clinical research' by using untested prohibited or non-prohibited performance enhancing substances and methods, alone or in combination...
February 5, 2014: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Luca Azzolin, Tito Panciera, Sandra Soligo, Elena Enzo, Silvio Bicciato, Sirio Dupont, Silvia Bresolin, Chiara Frasson, Giuseppe Basso, Vincenza Guzzardo, Ambrogio Fassina, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
The Hippo transducers YAP/TAZ have been shown to play positive, as well as negative, roles in Wnt signaling, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we provide biochemical, functional, and genetic evidence that YAP and TAZ are integral components of the β-catenin destruction complex that serves as cytoplasmic sink for YAP/TAZ. In Wnt-ON cells, YAP/TAZ are physically dislodged from the destruction complex, allowing their nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt/YAP/TAZ-dependent biological effects...
July 3, 2014: Cell
Pranay Srivastava, Rajesh S Yadav, Lalit P Chandravanshi, Rajendra K Shukla, Yogesh K Dhuriya, Lalit K S Chauhan, Hari N Dwivedi, Aditiya B Pant, Vinay K Khanna
Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls...
September 15, 2014: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Chrysostomos Dimitriadis, Nigar Sekercioglu, Chrysoula Pipili, Dimitrios Oreopoulos, Joanne M Bargman
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has previously been associated with water overload and weight gain, or with malnutrition and intracellular potassium depletion. Although there is a sizable literature about transmembrane sodium and water removal in PD, there are few reports about the incidence and characteristics of hyponatremia in the clinical setting. AIM: We evaluated the incidence and factors associated with hyponatremia in PD patients in a single PD unit...
May 2014: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Yuanyuan Hu, Nikolai Berdunov, Chong-an Di, Iris Nandhakumar, Fengjiao Zhang, Xike Gao, Daoben Zhu, Henning Sirringhaus
We have investigated the influence of the symmetry of the side chain substituents in high-mobility, solution processable n-type molecular semiconductors on the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We compare two molecules with the same conjugated core, but either symmetric or asymmetric side chain substituents, and investigate the transport properties and thin film growth mode using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We find that asymmetric side chains can induce a favorable two-dimensional growth mode with a bilayer structure, which enables ultrathin films with a single bilayer to exhibit excellent transport properties, while the symmetric molecules adopt an unfavorable three-dimensional growth mode in which transport in the first monolayer at the interface is severely hindered by high-resistance grain boundaries...
July 22, 2014: ACS Nano
Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Jai K Das, Rajiv Bahl, Joy E Lawn, Rehana A Salam, Vinod K Paul, M Jeeva Sankar, Jeeva M Sankar, Hannah Blencowe, Arjumand Rizvi, Victoria B Chou, Neff Walker
Progress in newborn survival has been slow, and even more so for reductions in stillbirths. To meet Every Newborn targets of ten or fewer neonatal deaths and ten or fewer stillbirths per 1000 births in every country by 2035 will necessitate accelerated scale-up of the most effective care targeting major causes of newborn deaths. We have systematically reviewed interventions across the continuum of care and various delivery platforms, and then modelled the effect and cost of scale-up in the 75 high-burden Countdown countries...
July 26, 2014: Lancet
Kana Ogawa, Yoshihiko Tanaka, Takehito Uruno, Xuefeng Duan, Yosuke Harada, Fumiyuki Sanematsu, Kazuhiko Yamamura, Masao Terasawa, Akihiko Nishikimi, Jean-François Côté, Yoshinori Fukui
Mast cells play a key role in the induction of anaphylaxis, a life-threatening IgE-dependent allergic reaction, by secreting chemical mediators that are stored in secretory granules. Degranulation of mast cells is triggered by aggregation of the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, and involves dynamic rearrangement of microtubules. Although much is known about proximal signals downstream of FcεRI, the distal signaling events controlling microtubule dynamics remain elusive. Here we report that DOCK5, an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rac, is essential for mast cell degranulation...
June 30, 2014: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Linda Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2014: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Juyou Wu, Xiaoya Qin, Shutian Tao, Xueting Jiang, Yun-Kuan Liang, Shaoling Zhang
Long-chain base phosphates (LCBPs) have been correlated with amounts of crucial biological processes ranging from cell proliferation to apoptosis in animals. However, their functions in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report that LCBPs, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and phytosphingosine-1-phosphate (Phyto-S1P), modulate pollen tube growth in a concentration-dependent bi-phasic manner. The pollen tube growth in the stylar transmitting tissue was promoted by SPHK1 overexpression (SPHK1-OE) but dampened by SPHK1 knockdown (SPHK1-KD) compared with wild-type of Arabidopsis; however, there was no detectable effect on in vitro pollen tube growth caused by misexpression of SPHK1...
August 2014: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Swarnaseetha Adusumalli, Mohd Feroz Mohd Omar, Richie Soong, Touati Benoukraf
The combination of DNA bisulfite treatment with high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled investigation of genome-wide DNA methylation beyond CpG sites and CpG islands. These technologies have opened new avenues to understand the interplay between epigenetic events, chromatin plasticity and gene regulation. However, the processing, managing and mining of this huge volume of data require specialized computational tools and statistical methods that are yet to be standardized. Here, we describe a complete bisulfite sequencing analysis workflow, including recently developed programs, highlighting each of the crucial analysis steps required, i...
May 2015: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Kerry Danahy Ebert
BACKGROUND: Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. AIMS: To explore the relationship between a measure of non-verbal auditory working memory (NVWM) and sentence repetition performance in a sample of bilingual children with LI...
September 2014: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Sandra Voorend-van Bergen, Anja A Vaessen-Verberne, Anneke M Landstra, Hein J Brackel, Norbert J van den Berg, Daan Caudri, Johan C de Jongste, Peter J Merkus, Mariëlle W Pijnenburg
BACKGROUND: Data from asthma diaries are frequently used as an end point in asthma studies; however, data on the validity of Web-based diaries are scarce. OBJECTIVES: First, we examined the validity of a Web-based diary in assessing asthma control. Second, we determined the cutoff points for well-controlled asthma of the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and the Asthma Control Test (ACT), and calculated the minimal important difference for both tests. METHODS: Children with asthma, ages 4-18 years (n = 228) completed a 4-week Web-based diary, C-ACT, ACT, and an asthma-related quality-of-life questionnaire at baseline and after 1-year follow-up...
June 2014: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
V Schluessel
Adaptation of brain structures, function and higher cognitive abilities most likely have contributed significantly to the evolutionary success of elasmobranchs, but these traits remain poorly studied when compared to other vertebrates, specifically mammals. While the pallium of non-mammalian vertebrates lacks the mammalian neocortical organization responsible for all cognitive abilities of mammals, several behavioural and neuroanatomical studies in recent years have clearly demonstrated that elasmobranchs, just like teleosts and other non-mammalian vertebrates, can nonetheless solve a multitude of cognitive tasks...
January 2015: Animal Cognition
2014-06-07 01:37:05
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