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Health Psychology Course

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18 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Grant D. Nelson, PhD Professor & Clinician of Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine
Thomas W McDade, Morgan Hoke, Judith B Borja, Linda S Adair, Christopher Kuzawa
Chronic inflammation is a potentially important pathway through which psychosocial stressors increase risk for cardiovascular disease. However, prior research on stress and inflammation has been conducted almost exclusively in high income, industrialized populations with low levels of infectious disease. In this study we test the hypothesis that psychosocial stressors are associated with elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) among young adults in the Philippines (n=1622), who have grown up in an ecological and epidemiological setting that differs substantially from that of the US...
July 2013: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Aryeh D Stein, Fernando C Barros, Santosh K Bhargava, Wei Hao, Bernardo L Horta, Nanette Lee, Christopher W Kuzawa, Reynaldo Martorell, Siddarth Ramji, Alan Stein, Linda Richter
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of being born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA) on several adult outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data for 4518 adult participants in 5 birth cohorts from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. RESULTS: In the study population, 12.8% of males and 11.9% of females were born preterm, and 26.8% of males and 22.4% of females were born term but SGA. Adults born preterm were 1.11 cm shorter (95% CI, 0...
December 2013: Journal of Pediatrics
Thomas W McDade
Recent research has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, although inflammation has long been recognized as a critical line of defense against infectious disease. However, current scientific understandings of the links between chronic low-grade inflammation and diseases of aging are based primarily on research in high-income nations with low levels of infectious disease and high levels of overweight/obesity. From a comparative and historical point of view, this epidemiological situation is relatively unique, and it may not capture the full range of ecological variation necessary to understand the processes that shape the development of inflammatory phenotypes...
October 16, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J David Creswell, Laura E Pacilio, Emily K Lindsay, Kirk Warren Brown
OBJECTIVE: To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. METHODS: Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program...
June 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Timothy A Carey, Warren Mansell, Sara J Tai
Although the biopsychosocial model has been a popular topic of discussion for over four decades it has not had the traction in fields of research that might be expected of such an intuitively appealing idea. One reason for this might be the absence of an identified mechanism or a functional architecture that is authentically biopsychosocial. What is needed is a robust mechanism that is equally important to biochemical processes as it is to psychological and social processes. Negative feedback may be the mechanism that is required...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Frédéric Angelier, John C Wingfield
In this perspective paper, we emphasize the importance that integrative mechanisms, and especially the GC (glucocorticoid) stress response, can play in the ability of vertebrates to cope with ongoing global change. The GC stress response is an essential mediator of allostasis (i.e., the responses of an organism to a perturbation) that aims at maintaining stability (homeostasis) despite changing conditions. The GC stress response is a complex mechanism that depends on several physiological components and aims at promoting immediate survival at the expense of other life-history components (e...
September 1, 2013: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ilia N Karatsoreos, Bruce S McEwen
The brain is constantly adapting to a changing environment. It detects environmental stimuli, integrates that information with internal states, and engages appropriate behavioral and physiological responses. This process of stability through change is termed "allostasis", and serves as a mechanism by which an organism can adapt to a changing environment to function optimally, and ultimately ensure survival. The ability to adapt to stressors in the environment by "bending" but not "breaking" can be considered as "resilience"...
2013: F1000Prime Reports
Jerry Suls, David S Krantz, Geoffrey C Williams
The five review articles in this special issue describe the progress that has been made forging links between personality and social psychological theories, methods, and results with biological, social, and cultural factors related to physical health. However, many efforts have fallen short of the goals of the biopsychosocial model. The rationale and description of 3 strategies to achieve a fuller integration across different levels of analysis are highlighted: (a) more cross-disciplinary research collaborations and training; (b) systematic efforts to make research and theory more clinically relevant; and (c) striving for more representative samples, settings, and outcomes...
May 2013: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Camelia E Hostinar, Regina M Sullivan, Megan R Gunnar
Discovering the stress-buffering effects of social relationships has been one of the major findings in psychobiology in the last century. However, an understanding of the underlying neurobiological and psychological mechanisms of this buffering is only beginning to emerge. An important avenue of this research concerns the neurocircuitry that can regulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. The present review is a translational effort aimed at integrating animal models and human studies of the social regulation of the HPA axis from infancy to adulthood, specifically focusing on the process that has been named social buffering...
January 2014: Psychological Bulletin
Ilia N Karatsoreos, Ilia N Karatoreos, Bruce S McEwen
BACKGROUND: Adaptation is key to survival. An organism must adapt to environmental challenges in order to be able to thrive in the environment in which they find themselves. Resilience can be thought of as a measure of the ability of an organism to adapt, and to withstand challenges to its stability. In higher animals, the brain is a key player in this process of adaptation and resilience, and through a process known as "allostasis" can obtain "stability through change"; protecting homeostasis in the face of stressors in the environment...
April 2013: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Richard C Friedman, Jennifer I Downey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2012: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Josef M Schmidt
Since the nineteenth century the theory of conventional medicine has been developed in close alignment with the mechanistic paradigm of natural sciences. Only in the twentieth century occasional attempts were made to (re)introduce the 'subject' into medical theory, as by Thure von Uexküll (1908-2004) who elaborated the so-called biopsychosocial model of the human being, trying to understand the patient as a unit of organic, mental, and social dimensions of life. Although widely neglected by conventional medicine, it is one of the most coherent, significant, and up-to-date models of medicine at present...
April 2012: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Linda Clare, Sharon M Nelis, Anthony Martyr, Judith Roberts, Christopher J Whitaker, Ivana S Markova, Ilona Roth, Robert T Woods, Robin G Morris
BACKGROUND: Insufficient attention has been paid to the influence of psychological and social factors on discrepancy-based measures of awareness. OBJECTIVES: The present study tested a biopsychosocial model of awareness in early-stage dementia by gathering evidence regarding the relative contributions of neuropsychological, individual psychological and social factors to the level of scoring on measures used to index awareness. METHOD: Awareness was assessed in relation to memory, activities of daily living and social functioning in 101 individuals with early-stage dementia participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness (MIDAS) Study...
February 2012: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
S Nassir Ghaemi
The biopsychosocial model is the conceptual status quo of contemporary psychiatry. Although it has played an important role in combatting psychiatric dogmatism, it has devolved into mere eclecticism. Other non-reductionistic approaches to medicine and psychiatry such as William Osler's medical humanism or Karl Jaspers' method-based psychiatry should be reconsidered.
July 2009: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
A Bitton, P L Dobkin, M D Edwardes, M J Sewitch, J B Meddings, S Rawal, A Cohen, S Vermeire, L Dufresne, D Franchimont, G E Wild
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disorder. Both biological and psychosocial factors may modulate the illness experience. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify clinical, biological and psychosocial parameters as predictors of clinical relapse in quiescent CD. METHODS: Patients in medically induced remission were followed prospectively for 1 year, or less if they relapsed. Disease characteristics were determined at baseline...
October 2008: Gut
Samuel A McLean, Daniel J Clauw, James L Abelson, Israel Liberzon
OBJECTIVES: Persistent pain and psychological sequelae are common after motor vehicle collision (MVC), but their etiology remains poorly understood. Such common sequelae include whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), fibromyalgia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Increasing evidence suggests that these disorders share overlapping epidemiologic and clinical features. A model is proposed in which central neurobiological systems, including physiologic systems and neuroanatomical structures involved in the stress response, are an important substrate for the development of all 3 disorders and interact with psychosocial and other factors to influence chronic symptom development...
September 2005: Psychosomatic Medicine
P A Engel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2001: Psychosomatics
G L Engel
In an era of managed care that encourages shortened patient encounters, large group practices that limit a consistent primary care physician, and a reliance upon self-report inventories, it is easy to lose the essence of the doctor-patient relationship. Important information seems limited to that which can be entered into a database field. Fortunately, Dr. George L. Engel continues to remind us that it is the dyad of patient and physician that forms the substrate whereby meaningful data can be observed and obtained from a suffering individual...
November 1997: Psychosomatics
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