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Emergency Department

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17 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Jose M. Barria Castro MD from Panama
Nalini Vadivelu, Leandro Lumermann, Richard Zhu, Gopal Kodumudi, Amir O Elhassan, Alan David Kaye
Drug addiction is present in a significant proportion of the population in the USA and worldwide. Drug addiction can occur with the abuse of many types of substances including cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, opioids, and tranquilizers. There is a high likelihood that clinicians will encounter patients with substance abuse disorders on a regular basis with the prevalence of the use of illicit substances and the high rate of abuse of prescription drugs. The use of abuse deterrent formulations of prescription opioid agents, pill counts, and urine drug abuse screenings are all useful strategies...
May 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Richard H Sterns, Marvin Grieff, Paul L Bernstein
Treatment options for hyperkalemia have not changed much since the introduction of the cation exchange resin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Covis Pharmaceuticals, Cary, NC), over 50 years ago. Although clinicians of that era did not have ready access to hemodialysis or loop diuretics, the other tools that we use today-calcium, insulin, and bicarbonate-were well known to them. Currently recommended insulin regimens provide too little insulin to achieve blood levels with a maximal kalemic effect and too little glucose to avoid hypoglycemia...
March 2016: Kidney International
Meghan Delaney, Silvano Wendel, Rachel S Bercovitz, Joan Cid, Claudia Cohn, Nancy M Dunbar, Torunn O Apelseth, Mark Popovsky, Simon J Stanworth, Alan Tinmouth, Leo Van De Watering, Jonathan H Waters, Mark Yazer, Alyssa Ziman
Blood transfusion is one of the most common procedures in patients in hospital so it is imperative that clinicians are knowledgeable about appropriate blood product administration, as well as the signs, symptoms, and management of transfusion reactions. In this Review, we, an international panel, provide a synopsis of the pathophysiology, treatment, and management of each diagnostic category of transfusion reaction using evidence-based recommendations whenever available.
April 12, 2016: Lancet
Mervyn Singer, Clifford S Deutschman, Christopher Warren Seymour, Manu Shankar-Hari, Djillali Annane, Michael Bauer, Rinaldo Bellomo, Gordon R Bernard, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Craig M Coopersmith, Richard S Hotchkiss, Mitchell M Levy, John C Marshall, Greg S Martin, Steven M Opal, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Tom van der Poll, Jean-Louis Vincent, Derek C Angus
IMPORTANCE: Definitions of sepsis and septic shock were last revised in 2001. Considerable advances have since been made into the pathobiology (changes in organ function, morphology, cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, and circulation), management, and epidemiology of sepsis, suggesting the need for reexamination. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and, as needed, update definitions for sepsis and septic shock. PROCESS: A task force (n = 19) with expertise in sepsis pathobiology, clinical trials, and epidemiology was convened by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine...
February 23, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Emily S Orscheln, Andrew T Trout
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h...
March 2016: Pediatric Radiology
J-A Olsen, E B Lerner, D Persse, F Sterz, M Lozano, M A Brouwer, M Westfall, P M van Grunsven, D T Travis, U R Herken, C Brunborg, L Wik
BACKGROUND: The Circulation Improving Resuscitation Care (CIRC) Trial found equivalent survival in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who received integrated load-distributing band CPR (iA-CPR) compared to manual CPR (M-CPR). We hypothesized that as chest compression duration increased, iA-CPR provided a survival benefit when compared to M-CPR. METHODS: A pre-planned secondary analysis of OHCA of presumed cardiac etiology from the randomized CIRC trial...
February 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Thomas D Rea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2015: Circulation
Haluk Un, Mehmet Dogan, Omer Uz, Zafer Isilak, Mehmet Uzun
Hemodynamically unstable patients with supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs) should be treated with electrical cardioversion. If the patient is stable, acute termination of tachycardia can be achieved by vagal maneuvers or medical therapy. The Valsalva maneuver, carotid massage, and ice to the face are the most common vagal maneuvers. In our experience with patients, we observed that vagal stimulation increases with lying backward. Our suggested maneuver is based on quickly lying backward, from a seated position...
January 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Katherine M Berg, Lars W Andersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Resuscitation
Ryoichi Ochiai
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been intensively and continuously studied in various settings, but its mortality is still as high as 30-40 %. For the last 20 years, lung protective strategy has become a standard care for ARDS, but we still do not know the best way to ventilate patients with ARDS. Tidal volume itself does not seem to have an important role to develop ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), but the driving pressure, which is inspiratory plateau pressure-PEEP, is the most important to predict and affect the outcome of ARDS, though there is no safe limit for the driving pressure...
2015: Journal of Intensive Care
P E Marik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Natasha Gill, Gurinder Sangha, Naveen Poonai, Rodrick Lim
Nicotine poisoning is well described in the pediatric population, and even small oral doses may result in toxic effects. The source of nicotine is usually tobacco products and nicotine replacement products such as gum and patches. With the more frequent use of novel products such as e-cigarettes, concern has arisen regarding liquid nicotine. As there are no regulations regarding childproof bottling and packaging, there may be increased potential for unintentional ingestion of these colorfully and appealingly packaged products by children...
November 2015: CJEM
T Pakkanen, I Virkkunen, T Silfvast, T Randell, H Huhtala, A Yli-Hankala
BACKGROUND: The aim of physician staffed emergency medical services (EMS) is to supplement other EMS units in the care of prehospital patients. The need for advanced airway management in critical prehospital patients can be considered as one indicator of the severity of the patient's condition. Our primary aim was to study the long-term outcome of critically ill patients (excluding cardiac arrest) who were intubated by EMS physicians in the prehospital setting. METHODS: Data of 845 patients, whose airways were secured by the EMS physicians during a 5-year (2007-2011) period, were retrospectively evaluated...
April 2015: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Adnan I Qureshi, Louis R Caplan
Atherosclerotic disease often involves the intracranial arteries including those encased by cranial bones and dura, and those located in the subarachnoid space. Age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial atherosclerosis can result in thromboembolism with or without hypoperfusion leading to transient or permanent cerebral ischaemic events. High rates of recurrent ischaemic stroke and other cardiovascular events mandate early diagnosis and treatment...
March 15, 2014: Lancet
Adaira Landry, Alex Koyfman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Diana Egerton-Warburton, Robert Meek, Michaela J Mee, George Braitberg
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We compare efficacy of ondansetron and metoclopramide with placebo for adults with undifferentiated emergency department (ED) nausea and vomiting. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 2 metropolitan EDs in Melbourne, Australia. Eligible patients with ED nausea and vomiting were randomized to receive 4 mg intravenous ondansetron, 20 mg intravenous metoclopramide, or saline solution placebo. Primary outcome was mean change in visual analog scale (VAS) rating of nausea severity from enrollment to 30 minutes after study drug administration...
November 2014: Annals of Emergency Medicine
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