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Addiction treatment

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070191/can-delay-discounting-deliver-on-the-promise-of-rdoc
#1
Karolina M Lempert, Joanna E Steinglass, Anthony Pinto, Joseph W Kable, Helen Blair Simpson
The National Institute of Mental Health launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative to better understand dimensions of behavior and identify targets for treatment. Examining dimensions across psychiatric illnesses has proven challenging, as reliable behavioral paradigms that are known to engage specific neural circuits and translate across diagnostic populations are scarce. Delay discounting paradigms seem to be an exception: they are useful for understanding links between neural systems and behavior in healthy individuals, with potential for assessing how these mechanisms go awry in psychiatric illnesses...
August 2, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070538/on-being-in-recovery-a-national-study-of-prevalence-and-correlates-of-adopting-or-not-adopting-a-recovery-identity-among-individuals-resolving-drug-and-alcohol-problems
#2
John F Kelly, Alexandra W Abry, Connor M Milligan, Brandon G Bergman, Bettina B Hoeppner
The concept of recovery has become an organizing paradigm in the addiction field globally. Although a convenient label to describe the broad phenomena of change when individuals resolve significant alcohol or other drug (AOD) problems, little is known regarding the prevalence and correlates of adopting such an identity. Greater knowledge would inform clinical, public health, and policy communication efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional nationally representative survey (N = 39,809) of individuals resolving a significant AOD problem (n = 1,995)...
August 2, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867599/neurobiological-correlates-in-internet-gaming-disorder-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Daria J Kuss, Halley M Pontes, Mark D Griffiths
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is a potential mental disorder currently included in the third section of the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a condition that requires additional research to be included in the main manual. Although research efforts in the area have increased, there is a continuing debate about the respective criteria to use as well as the status of the condition as mental health concern. Rather than using diagnostic criteria which are based on subjective symptom experience, the National Institute of Mental Health advocates the use of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) which may support classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures because mental disorders are viewed as biological disorders that involve brain circuits that implicate specific domains of cognition, emotion, and behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923288/social-genomics-of-healthy-and-disordered-internet-gaming
#4
Jeffrey G Snodgrass, H J François Dengah Ii, Michael G Lacy, Robert J Else, Evan R Polzer, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Steven W Cole
OBJECTIVES: To combine social genomics with cultural approaches to expand understandings of the somatic health dynamics of online gaming, including in the controversial nosological construct of internet gaming disorder (IGD). METHODS: In blood samples from 56 U.S. gamers, we examined expression of the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), a leukocyte gene expression profile activated by chronic stress. We compared positively engaged and problem gamers, as identified by an ethnographically developed measure, the Positive and Negative Gaming Experiences Scale (PNGE-42), and also by a clinically derived IGD scale (IGDS-SF9)...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928123/addictive-potential-of-novel-treatments-for-refractory-depression-and-anxiety
#5
REVIEW
Dusan Kolar
Treatment-resistant mood disorders and anxiety disorders require intensive treatment, but treatment options should balance benefits and adverse effects or other potential detrimental effects on patients, including the risk of developing prescription medication addiction. Some of the newer treatment modalities for mood and anxiety disorders may have similar properties to benzodiazepines. The goal of this review was to identify the potential for developing dependence on the novel treatment approaches to treatment-resistant depression and refractory anxiety disorders...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930223/on-the-addictive-power-of-gabapentinoids-a-mini-review
#6
Udo Bonnet, Emily-Lisa Richter, Katrin Isbruch, Norbert Scherbaum
The gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin have been related to addiction citing pharmacovigilance data, some case presentations and increasing reports mainly from methadone maintenance treatment programs or emergency medicine. Most of these reports were based on patients with another current or previous substance use disorder (SUD). According to the ICD-10 dependence criteria, physical dependence (withdrawal symptoms, tolerance) was reported most frequently alongside regular use of gabapentinoids. Far less patients showed key symptoms of behavioral dependence (craving, loss of control, or addictive behavior)...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259769/detection-of-illicit-online-sales-of-fentanyls-via-twitter
#7
Tim K Mackey, Janani Kalyanam
A counterfeit fentanyl crisis is currently underway in the United States.  Counterfeit versions of commonly abused prescription drugs laced with fentanyl are being manufactured, distributed, and sold globally, leading to an increase in overdose and death in countries like the United States and Canada.  Despite concerns from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency regarding covert and overt sale of fentanyls online, no study has examined the role of the Internet and social media on fentanyl illegal marketing and direct-to-consumer access...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520812/nature-s-first-atypical-opioids-kratom-and-mitragynines
#8
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, M H Ossipov
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Advances in pain research have led to an understanding that many pains are driven by more than one underlying (patho)physiologic cause (ie, they are "multimechanistic") and that better pain relief is obtained with fewer adverse effects when an analgesic is correspondingly multimechanistic. At least two of the more-modern analgesics combine opioid and non-opioid mechanisms, and have become known as "atypical opioids." Less well known is that just as Nature evolved opioids, it also evolved atypical opioids, presaging modern drug discovery efforts...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884869/the-future-of-the-international-drug-control-system-and-national-drug-prohibitions
#9
Wayne Hall
A major impediment to any nation abandoning the policy of drug prohibition has been the fact that international drug treaties to which the majority of United Nations (UN) member states are signatory prohibit the non-medical use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine and heroin. The future of these treaties is now uncertain because of decisions by Uruguay, eight US states and Canada to legalize cannabis use. This paper: (1) provides a brief account of the international drug control treaties; (2) outlines the major criticisms of the treaties; (3) analyses critically proposals for treaty reform; and (4) provides a personal view on policies that nation states could adopt to minimize the harms from the use of cannabis, party drugs and hallucinogens, opioids, stimulants and new psychoactive substances...
July 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883950/understanding-emerging-forms-of-cannabis-use-through-an-online-cannabis-community-an-analysis-of-relative-post-volume-and-subjective-highness-ratings
#10
Meredith C Meacham, Michael J Paul, Danielle E Ramo
BACKGROUND: Legalization of medical and recreational cannabis has coincided with an increase in novel forms of cannabis use and a burgeoning cannabis product industry. This research seeks to understand the occurrence of discussions about these emerging and traditional forms of use in an online social media discussion forum. METHODS: We analyzed posts to a cannabis-specific forum on the Reddit social media platform posted from January 2010-December 2016. For each of various keywords describing smoking, vaping, edibles, dabbing, and butane hash oil (BHO) concentrate use, we analyzed (1) relative prevalence of posts mentioning these cannabis forms of use; (2) user-reported subjective ratings of "highness" on a scale of 1-10; (3) the ten most common words mentioned in posts; and (4) the frequency of adverse health effect terms...
July 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568783/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-raises-prolactin-and-causes-secondary-hypogonadism-case-report
#11
Lauren LaBryer, Rohan Sharma, Kaustubh Suresh Chaudhari, Mitali Talsania, Robert Hal Scofield
Background. Kratom is a drug derived from the leaves of the tree Mitragyna speciose , which is native to southern Thailand. The route of administration is oral. Kratom has become increasingly available in the United States. The active ingredients in the drug bind the opioid mu-receptor; therefore, kratom has similar physiological effects as mu-opioids. Elevated prolactin is a common medical condition frequently caused by a variety drugs, including opioids. Case Report. A 42-year-old man presented with poor energy and low libido...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146410/cart-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-and-lateral-hypothalamic-area-exert-differential-controls-on-energy-homeostasis
#12
Jackie Lau, Aitak Farzi, Yue Qi, Regine Heilbronn, Mario Mietzsch, Yan-Chuan Shi, Herbert Herzog
OBJECTIVE: The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a pivotal neuropeptide important in the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. However, limited understanding exists for the defined effector sites underlying CART function, as discrepant effects of central CART administration have been reported. METHODS: By combining Cart-cre knock-in mice with a Cart adeno-associated viral vector designed using the flip-excision switch (AAV-FLEX) technology, specific reintroduction or overexpression of CART selectively in CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), respectively, was achieved...
January 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904327/pregabalin-misuse-and-abuse-in-jordan-a-qualitative-study-of-user-experiences
#13
Amneh Al-Husseini, Mayyada Wazaify, Marie Claire Van Hout
Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. A qualitative study was undertaken in Jordan, where concerns have been raised about its unprescribed availability in community pharmacies and thereby its abuse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients with a history of pregabalin use in two Jordanian addiction treatment centers. All were male patients aged 21-30 years ( n  = 11). The majority was poly-drug abusers and had a previous history of substance abuse (tramadol, Captagon, synthetic cannabinoids, and marijuana) ...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904328/assessment-of-the-italian-version-of-the-internet-disorder-scale-ids-15
#14
Lucia Monacis, Maria Sinatra, Mark D Griffiths, Valeria de Palo
Much research has focused on the validation of psychometric tools assessing Internet addiction. One of the newest measures is the Internet Disorder Scale (IDS-15) based on the modified IGD criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study aimed at investigating the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the IDS-15 by examining the construct and the concurrent and the criterion-related validity and by identifying the taxonomy and the patterns of Internet users...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904585/recent-advances-in-deep-brain-stimulation-in-psychiatric-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Anne-Hélène Clair, William Haynes, Luc Mallet
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been offered to patients suffering of severe and resistant neuropsychiatric disorders like Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (TS) and Major Depression (MDD). Modulation of several targets within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits can lead to a decrease of symptom severity in those patients. This review focuses on the recent clinical outcomes in DBS in psychiatric disorders. Studies on OCD and TS are now focusing on the long-term effects of DBS, with encouraging results regarding not only the decrease of symptoms, but also quality of life...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883025/from-failed-global-drug-prohibition-to-regulating-the-drug-market
#16
Alex Wodak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883033/canada-cannabis-legalization-and-uncertainty-around-the-united-nations-drug-control-conventions
#17
David R Bewley-Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569345/fish-oil-treatment-reduces-chronic-alcohol-exposure-induced-synaptic-changes
#18
Zhe Shi, Youna Xie, Huixia Ren, Baixuan He, Meng Wang, Jian-Bo Wan, Ti-Fei Yuan, Xiaoli Yao, Huanxing Su
Alcohol addiction is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that represents one of the most serious global public health problems. Yet, currently there still lacks an effective pharmacotherapy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs) have exhibited beneficial effects in a variety of neurological disorders, particularly in reversing behavioral deficits and neurotoxicity induced by prenatal alcohol exposure and binge drinking. In the present study, we investigated if fish oil, which is rich in N-3 PUFAs, had beneficial effects on preventing relapse and alleviating withdrawal symptoms after chronic alcohol exposure...
March 22, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737638/preventing-morphine-reinforcement-with-high-frequency-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-lateral-hypothalamic-area
#19
Mojdeh Fattahi, Ghorbangol Ashabi, Seyed Morteza Karimian, Esmail Riahi
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as a promising intervention for patients with treatment-refractory substance use disorder. Here, we investigated if high-frequency DBS in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) could affect drug-induced reinforcement. Rats were bilaterally implanted with bipolar stimulation electrodes in the LHA and trained to the morphine conditioned place preference. DBS (monophasic square pulses, 130 Hz, 100-microsecond pulse duration and 150 μA) was applied during the morphine-pairing trials (30 minutes daily for 4 days) or drug-free postconditioning test (15 minutes) to determine its effect on the acquisition or expression of morphine reward, respectively...
May 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744956/imaging-resilience-and-recovery-in-alcohol-dependence
#20
REVIEW
Katrin Charlet, Annika Rosenthal, Falk W Lohoff, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. METHODS: Original papers on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from PubMed and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
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