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Addiction treatment

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By Christopher Cook Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's, 60000 beds referral base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24442756/potential-role-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-the-management-of-substance-use-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Erin A McClure, Cassandra D Gipson, Robert J Malcolm, Peter W Kalivas, Kevin M Gray
There is a clear and pressing need to expand pharmacotherapy options for substance use disorders (SUDs) in order to improve sustained abstinence outcomes. Preclinical literature has demonstrated the role of glutamate in addiction, suggesting that new targets for pharmacotherapy should focus on the restoration of glutamatergic function. Glutamatergic agents for SUDs may span multiple addictive behaviors and help demonstrate potentially overlapping mechanisms in addiction. The current review will focus specifically on N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a safe and well-tolerated glutamatergic agent, as a promising potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of SUDs across several substances of abuse...
February 2014: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716545/youth-with-substance-abuse-histories-exhibit-dysfunctional-representation-of-expected-value-during-a-passive-avoidance-task
#2
Stuart F White, Patrick Tyler, Mary L Botkin, Anna K Erway, Laura C Thornton, Venkata Kolli, Kayla Pope, Harma Meffert, R James Blair
Individuals with substance abuse (SA) histories show impairment in the computations necessary for decision-making, including expected value (EV) and prediction error (PE). Neuroimaging findings, however, have been inconsistent. Sixteen youth with (SApositive) and 29 youth without (SAnegative) substance abuse histories completed a passive avoidance task while undergoing functional MRI. The groups did not significantly differ on age, gender composition or IQ. Behavioral results indicated that SApositive youth showed significantly less learning than SAnegative youth over the task...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635140/noradrenergic-signaling-in-the-vta-modulates-cocaine-craving
#3
Wojciech Barnaba Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Krystyna Kwiatkowska, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753466/perceived-barriers-for-cannabis-cessation-relations-to-cannabis-use-problems-withdrawal-symptoms-and-self-efficacy-for-quitting
#4
Michael J Zvolensky, Daniel J Paulus, Lorra Garey, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Julia D Buckner, Andrew H Rogers, R Kathryn McHugh
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the United States. Regular cannabis use appears to be a dynamic, chronic process consisting of multiple quit attempts, periods of reduction, periods of abstinence, and periods of continual use. Cannabis-related processes, including withdrawal, problematic consequences of use, and self-efficacy for quitting each contribute to the cycle of use and, in part, are maintained and reinforced by perceived barriers for cannabis cessation. Yet, no work has examined the association between perceived barriers for cannabis cessation and clinically-relevant processes related to cannabis use...
July 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793355/effects-of-cannabidiol-on-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#5
James Roland Markos, Hannah M Harris, Waseem Gul, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Kenneth J Sufka
This study sought to determine whether the cannabis constituent cannabidiol attenuates the development of morphine reward in the conditioned place preference paradigm. Separate groups of mice received either saline or morphine in combination with one of four doses of cannabidiol using three sets of drug/no-drug conditioning trials. After drug-place conditioning, morphine mice displayed robust place preference that was attenuated by 10 mg/kg cannabidiol. Further, when administered alone, this dose of cannabidiol was void of rewarding and aversive properties...
August 9, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441273/case-report-of-physiologic-phenibut-dependence-treated-with-a-phenobarbital-taper-in-a-patient-being-treated-with-buprenorphine
#6
Emily Brunner, Robert Levy
: This case report describes the development of dependence to phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist, in a patient concurrently being treated with buprenorphine. The patient experienced withdrawal symptoms which were successfully treated with a phenobarbital taper based on a protocol to treat sedative use disorder. This case report provided an example of the development of a phenibut use disorder and also brought up a public health question of whether phenibut should therefore be officially classified and monitored...
May 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26022261/neurokinin-1-nk%C3%A2-receptor-antagonists-as-possible-therapeutics-for-psychostimulant-use-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Michael F Olive
Abuse of and addiction to psychostimulants such as cocaine or amphetamines remain a significant societal burden, and attempts at successfully developing effective treatments for substance use disorders involving psychostimulants have been disappointingly unsuccessful to date. In addition, most pharmacologically based approaches to treating psychostimulant use disorders have largely focused on targeting monoaminergic or amino acid neurotransmission, with little emphasis being placed on neuropeptide systems. One such neuropeptide system that has received little attention is the tachykinin family of peptides and their corresponding neurokinin (NK) receptor subtypes designated NK1, NK2, and NK3...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26964683/attenuation-of-cocaine-self-administration-by-chronic-oral-phendimetrazine-in-rhesus-monkeys
#8
P W Czoty, B E Blough, T R Fennell, R W Snyder, M A Nader
Chronic treatment with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine has been consistently shown to decrease cocaine self-administration in laboratory studies and clinical trials. However, the abuse potential of d-amphetamine is an obstacle to widespread clinical use. Approaches are needed that exploit the efficacy of the agonist approach but avoid the abuse potential associated with dopamine releasers. The present study assessed the effectiveness of chronic oral administration of phendimetrazine (PDM), a pro-drug for the monoamine releaser phenmetrazine (PM), to decrease cocaine self-administration in four rhesus monkeys...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232669/agmatine-attenuates-the-discriminative-stimulus-and-hyperthermic-effects-of-methamphetamine-in-male-rats
#9
David A Thorn, Jiuzhou Li, Yanyan Qiu, Jun-Xu Li
Methamphetamine abuse remains an alarming public heath challenge, with no approved pharmacotherapies available. Agmatine is a naturally occurring cationic polyamine that has previously been shown to attenuate the rewarding and psychomotor-sensitizing effects of methamphetamine. This study examined the effects of agmatine on the discriminative stimulus and hyperthermic effects of methamphetamine. Adult male rats were trained to discriminate 0.32 mg/kg methamphetamine from saline. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased drug-associated lever responding...
September 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764275/study-of-association-of-substance-use-disorders-with-family-members-psychological-disorders
#10
Kamal Solati, Ali Hasanpour-Dehkordi
INTRODUCTION: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) represents a serious problem in Iranian community that may lead to psychological disorders in families. AIM: This study was conducted to investigate the association of SUDs with family members' psychological disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample size of the study consisted of 724 people referred to a counseling and psychology clinic in Shahrekord, southwest Iran. For data gathering, random method was adopted...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767908/work-addiction-and-quality-of-life-a-study-with-physicians
#11
Walter Fernandes de Azevedo, Lígia Andrade da Silva Telles Mathias
Objective: To evaluate the quality of life of physicians and investigate to what extent it is affected by work addiction. Methods: This is an exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted with 1,110 physicians. For data collection, we used a questionnaire with sociodemographic information, the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF, and the Work Addiction Scale. Results: Most physicians presented high quality of life...
April 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479900/opiate-withdrawal-syndrome-in-buprenorphine-abusers-admitted-to-a-rehabilitation-center-in-tunisia
#12
Ines Derbel, Asma Ghorbel, Férièle Messadi Akrout, Abdelmajid Zahaf
BACKGROUND: Illicit use of high dosage buprenorphine has been well documented in several countries, including Tunisia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this survey is to assess the buprenorphine withdrawal syndrome time course, and how it may be affected by the population characteristics among subjects admitted to a rehabilitation center in Tunisia. METHODS: A prospective research has permitted study of the socio-demographic characteristics and assessment of buprenorphine withdrawal syndrome among 32 subjects admitted for buprenorphine dependence by using the clinical opiate withdrawal scale...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26337199/salvia-officinalis-l-attenuates-morphine-analgesic-tolerance-and-dependence-in-rats-possible-analgesic-and-sedative-mechanisms
#13
Parisa Hasanein, Masoud Teimuri Far, Abbasali Emamjomeh
BACKGROUND: Salvia officinalis L. (SO) has effects on the central nervous system, including anti-addiction properties that may involve an opioid mechanism. OBJECTIVE: Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of SO on nociception and on morphine-induced tolerance and dependence were evaluated in rats. METHODS: Tolerance and dependence were induced by injection of morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) or escalating doses of morphine (2.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 50 mg/kg, s...
2015: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285325/mglu1-receptor-as-a-drug-target-for-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-time-to-gather-stones-together
#14
REVIEW
Olga A Dravolina, Edwin Zvartau, Wojciech Danysz, Anton Y Bespalov
Modulation of the mGlu1 receptor was repeatedly shown to inhibit various phenomena associated with exposure to abused drugs. Efficacy in preclinical models was observed with both positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) using essentially non-overlapping sets of experimental methods. Taken together, these data indicate that the mGlu1 receptor certainly plays a significant role in the plasticity triggered by the exposure to abused drugs and is involved in the maintenance of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors...
May 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#15
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715848/patient-outcomes-in-dose-reduction-or-discontinuation-of-long-term-opioid-therapy-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Joseph W Frank, Travis I Lovejoy, William C Becker, Benjamin J Morasco, Christopher J Koenig, Lilian Hoffecker, Hannah R Dischinger, Steven K Dobscha, Erin E Krebs
Background: Expert guidelines recommend reducing or discontinuing long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) when risks outweigh benefits, but evidence on the effect of dose reduction on patient outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. Purpose: To synthesize studies of the effectiveness of strategies to reduce or discontinue LTOT and patient outcomes after dose reduction among adults prescribed LTOT for chronic pain. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception through April 2017; reference lists; and expert contacts...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742625/online-sales-of-unscheduled-pharmaceutical-agents-a-case-report-of-tianeptine-use-in-the-united-states
#17
Swapnil Gupta, Ryan Wallace, Jordan Sloshower
: Tianeptine is a tricyclic antidepressant that stimulates mu-opioid receptors at high doses. It is marketed and used across Europe and Latin America as an antidepressant, but is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. In the United States, tianeptine is sold through online health stores as a cognition enhancer, dietary supplement, or as research chemical. We report the case of a 36-year-old man with a history of major depressive disorder, responsive to sertraline, who turned to the unmonitored use of tianeptine purchased online to treat residual feelings of apathy and boredom...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459969/reports-of-adverse-events-associated-with-use-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-2013-2016-a-review
#18
Barry K Logan, Amanda L A Mohr, Melissa Friscia, Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Marilyn A Huestis
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) represent significant analytical and interpretive challenges to forensic and clinical toxicologists. Timely access to case reports and reports of adverse incidents of impairment or toxicity is imperative to clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as to interpretation of forensic results. Delays in identifying the presence of a novel intoxicating agent have significant consequences for public health and public safety. Adverse effects of intoxications with novel cannabinoids, stimulants, hallucinogens, benzodiazepines and opioids spanning January 2013 through December 2016 as reported in emergency departments, death investigations, impaired driving cases and other forensic contexts are the subject of this review...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541119/treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-with-ibogaine-detoxification-and-drug-use-outcomes
#19
Thomas Kingsley Brown, Kenneth Alper
BACKGROUND: Ibogaine is a monoterpene indole alkaloid used in medical and nonmedical settings for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Its mechanism of action is apparently novel. There are no published prospective studies of drug use outcomes with ibogaine. OBJECTIVES: To study outcomes following opioid detoxification with ibogaine. METHODS: In this observational study, 30 subjects with DSM-IV Opioid Dependence (25 males, 5 females) received a mean total dose of 1,540 ± 920 mg ibogaine HCl...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406363/insurance-receipt-and-readiness-for-opportunities-under-the-affordable-care-act-a-national-survey-of-treatment-providers-for-substance-use-disorders
#20
Lydia Aletraris, Mary Bond Edmond, Paul M Roman
This study measures the readiness of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment to use opportunities under the Affordable Care Act by examining Medicaid and private insurance acceptance between 2011 and 2013, as well as center characteristics associated with acceptance. Data for this study were from a random sample of SUD treatment centers in the United States. Interviews were conducted on site and face to face, with administrative and clinical directors. We employed logistic regression analyses to examine Medicaid acceptance and private insurance acceptance...
April 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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