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Nifty Fifty

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28 papers 25 to 100 followers Nifty Fifty (AAVA)
Gregory Y H Lip, Robby Nieuwlaat, Ron Pisters, Deirdre A Lane, Harry J G M Crijns
BACKGROUND: Contemporary clinical risk stratification schemata for predicting stroke and thromboembolism (TE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are largely derived from risk factors identified from trial cohorts. Thus, many potential risk factors have not been included. METHODS: We refined the 2006 Birmingham/National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) stroke risk stratification schema into a risk factor-based approach by reclassifying and/or incorporating additional new risk factors where relevant...
February 2010: Chest
Brian F Gage, Carl van Walraven, Lesly Pearce, Robert G Hart, Peter J Koudstaal, B S P Boode, Palle Petersen
BACKGROUND: The rate of stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) depends on the presence of comorbid conditions and the use of antithrombotic therapy. Although adjusted-dose warfarin is superior to aspirin for reducing stroke in AF, the absolute risk reduction of warfarin depends on the stroke rate with aspirin. This prospective cohort study tested the predictive accuracy of 5 stroke risk stratification schemes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study pooled individual data from 2580 participants with nonvalvular AF who were prescribed aspirin in a multicenter trial (Atrial Fibrillation, Aspirin, Anticoagulation I study [AFASAK-1], AFASAK-2, European Atrial Fibrillation Trial, Primary Prevention of Arterial Thromboembolism in patients with nonrheumatic Atrial Fibrillation in primary care study, and Stroke Prevention and Atrial Fibrillation [SPAF]-III high risk or SPAF-III low risk)...
October 19, 2004: Circulation
P J Devereaux, Homer Yang, Salim Yusuf, Gordon Guyatt, Kate Leslie, Juan Carlos Villar, Denis Xavier, Susan Chrolavicius, Launi Greenspan, Janice Pogue, Prem Pais, Lisheng Liu, Shouchun Xu, German Málaga, Alvaro Avezum, Matthew Chan, Victor M Montori, Mike Jacka, Peter Choi
BACKGROUND: Trials of beta blockers in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery have reported conflicting results. This randomised controlled trial, done in 190 hospitals in 23 countries, was designed to investigate the effects of perioperative beta blockers. METHODS: We randomly assigned 8351 patients with, or at risk of, atherosclerotic disease who were undergoing non-cardiac surgery to receive extended-release metoprolol succinate (n=4174) or placebo (n=4177), by a computerised randomisation phone service...
May 31, 2008: Lancet
Edward O McFalls, Herbert B Ward, Thomas E Moritz, Steven Goldman, William C Krupski, Fred Littooy, Gordon Pierpont, Steve Santilli, Joseph Rapp, Brack Hattler, Kendrick Shunk, Connie Jaenicke, Lizy Thottapurathu, Nancy Ellis, Domenic J Reda, William G Henderson
BACKGROUND: The benefit of coronary-artery revascularization before elective major vascular surgery is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients at increased risk for perioperative cardiac complications and clinically significant coronary artery disease to undergo either revascularization or no revascularization before elective major vascular surgery. The primary end point was long-term mortality. RESULTS: Of 5859 patients scheduled for vascular operations at 18 Veterans Affairs medical centers, 510 (9 percent) were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either coronary-artery revascularization before surgery or no revascularization before surgery...
December 30, 2004: New England Journal of Medicine
Deepak L Bhatt, Keith A A Fox, Werner Hacke, Peter B Berger, Henry R Black, William E Boden, Patrice Cacoub, Eric A Cohen, Mark A Creager, J Donald Easton, Marcus D Flather, Steven M Haffner, Christian W Hamm, Graeme J Hankey, S Claiborne Johnston, Koon-Hou Mak, Jean-Louis Mas, Gilles Montalescot, Thomas A Pearson, P Gabriel Steg, Steven R Steinhubl, Michael A Weber, Danielle M Brennan, Liz Fabry-Ribaudo, Joan Booth, Eric J Topol
BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus low-dose aspirin has not been studied in a broad population of patients at high risk for atherothrombotic events. METHODS: We randomly assigned 15,603 patients with either clinically evident cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors to receive clopidogrel (75 mg per day) plus low-dose aspirin (75 to 162 mg per day) or placebo plus low-dose aspirin and followed them for a median of 28 months. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes...
April 20, 2006: New England Journal of Medicine
William E Boden, Robert A O'Rourke, Koon K Teo, Pamela M Hartigan, David J Maron, William J Kostuk, Merril Knudtson, Marcin Dada, Paul Casperson, Crystal L Harris, Bernard R Chaitman, Leslee Shaw, Gilbert Gosselin, Shah Nawaz, Lawrence M Title, Gerald Gau, Alvin S Blaustein, David C Booth, Eric R Bates, John A Spertus, Daniel S Berman, G B John Mancini, William S Weintraub
BACKGROUND: In patients with stable coronary artery disease, it remains unclear whether an initial management strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with intensive pharmacologic therapy and lifestyle intervention (optimal medical therapy) is superior to optimal medical therapy alone in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial involving 2287 patients who had objective evidence of myocardial ischemia and significant coronary artery disease at 50 U...
April 12, 2007: New England Journal of Medicine
Arthur J Moss, Wojciech Zareba, W Jackson Hall, Helmut Klein, David J Wilber, David S Cannom, James P Daubert, Steven L Higgins, Mary W Brown, Mark L Andrews
BACKGROUND: Patients with reduced left ventricular function after myocardial infarction are at risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This randomized trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an implantable defibrillator on survival in such patients. METHODS: Over the course of four years, we enrolled 1232 patients with a prior myocardial infarction and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.30 or less. Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to receive an implantable defibrillator (742 patients) or conventional medical therapy (490 patients)...
March 21, 2002: New England Journal of Medicine
D S Echt, P R Liebson, L B Mitchell, R W Peters, D Obias-Manno, A H Barker, D Arensberg, A Baker, L Friedman, H L Greene
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: In the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial, designed to test the hypothesis that suppression of ventricular ectopy after a myocardial infarction reduces the incidence of sudden death, patients in whom ventricular ectopy could be suppressed with encainide, flecainide, or moricizine were randomly assigned to receive either active drug or placebo. The use of encainide and flecainide was discontinued because of excess mortality. We examined the mortality and morbidity after randomization to encainide or flecainide or their respective placebo...
March 21, 1991: New England Journal of Medicine
Allen Jeremias, C Michael Gibson
Current guidelines for the diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction are largely based on an elevated troponin level. While this rapid and sensitive blood test is certainly valuable in the appropriate setting, its widespread use in a variety of clinical scenarios may lead to the detection of troponin elevation in the absence of thrombotic acute coronary syndromes. Many diseases, such as sepsis, hypovolemia, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, myocarditis, myocardial contusion, and renal failure, can be associated with an increase in troponin level...
May 3, 2005: Annals of Internal Medicine
J S Hochman, L A Sleeper, J G Webb, T A Sanborn, H D White, J D Talley, C E Buller, A K Jacobs, J N Slater, J Col, S M McKinlay, T H LeJemtel
BACKGROUND: The leading cause of death in patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction is cardiogenic shock. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate early revascularization in patients with cardiogenic shock. METHODS: Patients with shock due to left ventricular failure complicating myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to emergency revascularization (152 patients) or initial medical stabilization (150 patients). Revascularization was accomplished by either coronary-artery bypass grafting or angioplasty...
August 26, 1999: New England Journal of Medicine
C P Cannon, C M Gibson, C T Lambrew, D A Shoultz, D Levy, W J French, J M Gore, W D Weaver, W J Rogers, A J Tiefenbrunn
CONTEXT: Rapid time to treatment with thrombolytic therapy is associated with lower mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, data on time to primary angioplasty and its relationship to mortality are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that more rapid time to reperfusion results in lower mortality in the strategy of primary angioplasty. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of data collected from the Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction between June 1994 and March 1998...
June 14, 2000: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
S Yusuf, F Zhao, S R Mehta, S Chrolavicius, G Tognoni, K K Fox
BACKGROUND: Despite current treatments, patients who have acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation have high rates of major vascular events. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel when given with aspirin in such patients. METHODS: We randomly assigned 12,562 patients who had presented within 24 hours after the onset of symptoms to receive clopidogrel (300 mg immediately, followed by 75 mg once daily) (6259 patients) or placebo (6303 patients) in addition to aspirin for 3 to 12 months...
August 16, 2001: New England Journal of Medicine
Z M Chen, L X Jiang, Y P Chen, J X Xie, H C Pan, R Peto, R Collins, L S Liu
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the emergency treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), early mortality and morbidity remain high. The antiplatelet agent clopidogrel adds to the benefit of aspirin in acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation, but its effects in patients with ST-elevation MI were unclear. METHODS: 45,852 patients admitted to 1250 hospitals within 24 h of suspected acute MI onset were randomly allocated clopidogrel 75 mg daily (n=22,961) or matching placebo (n=22,891) in addition to aspirin 162 mg daily...
November 5, 2005: Lancet
Jeffrey L Carson, Michael L Terrin, Helaine Noveck, David W Sanders, Bernard R Chaitman, George G Rhoads, George Nemo, Karen Dragert, Lauren Beaupre, Kevin Hildebrand, William Macaulay, Courtland Lewis, Donald Richard Cook, Gwendolyn Dobbin, Khwaja J Zakriya, Fred S Apple, Rebecca A Horney, Jay Magaziner
BACKGROUND: The hemoglobin threshold at which postoperative red-cell transfusion is warranted is controversial. We conducted a randomized trial to determine whether a higher threshold for blood transfusion would improve recovery in patients who had undergone surgery for hip fracture. METHODS: We enrolled 2016 patients who were 50 years of age or older, who had either a history of or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and whose hemoglobin level was below 10 g per deciliter after hip-fracture surgery...
December 29, 2011: New England Journal of Medicine
P C Hébert, G Wells, M A Blajchman, J Marshall, C Martin, G Pagliarello, M Tweeddale, I Schweitzer, E Yetisir
BACKGROUND: To determine whether a restrictive strategy of red-cell transfusion and a liberal strategy produced equivalent results in critically ill patients, we compared the rates of death from all causes at 30 days and the severity of organ dysfunction. METHODS: We enrolled 838 critically ill patients with euvolemia after initial treatment who had hemoglobin concentrations of less than 9.0 g per deciliter within 72 hours after admission to the intensive care unit and randomly assigned 418 patients to a restrictive strategy of transfusion, in which red cells were transfused if the hemoglobin concentration dropped below 7...
February 11, 1999: New England Journal of Medicine
Frank A Lederle, Dylan Zylla, Roderick MacDonald, Timothy J Wilt
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis has been recommended for nonsurgical patients, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. PURPOSE: To assess the benefits and harms of prophylaxis in hospitalized adult medical patients and those with acute stroke. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library from 1950 through April 2011, reference lists, and study authors. STUDY SELECTION: English-language randomized trials were included if they provided clinical outcomes and evaluated therapy with low-dose heparin or related agents or mechanical measures compared with placebo, no treatment, or other active prophylaxis in the target population...
November 1, 2011: Annals of Internal Medicine
Shoshana J Herzig, Michael D Howell, Long H Ngo, Edward R Marcantonio
CONTEXT: The use of acid-suppressive medication has been steadily increasing, particularly in the inpatient setting, despite lack of an accepted indication in the majority of these patients. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between acid-suppressive medication and hospital-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Prospective pharmacoepidemiologic cohort study. All patients who were admitted to a large, urban, academic medical center in Boston, Massachusetts, from January 2004 through December 2007; at least 18 years of age; and hospitalized for 3 or more days were eligible for inclusion...
May 27, 2009: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Silvy Laporte, Patrick Mismetti, Hervé Décousus, Fernando Uresandi, Remedios Otero, Jose Luis Lobo, Manuel Monreal
BACKGROUND: Clinical predictors for fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with venous thromboembolism have never been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the international prospective Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbolica venosa (RIETE) registry about patients with objectively confirmed symptomatic acute venous thromboembolism, we determined independent predictive factors for fatal PE. Between March 2001 and July 2006, 15 520 consecutive patients (mean age+/-SD, 66...
April 1, 2008: Circulation
Jodi B Segal, Michael B Streiff, Lawrence V Hofmann, Lawrence V Hoffman, Katherine Thornton, Eric B Bass
BACKGROUND: New treatments are available for treatment of venous thromboembolism. PURPOSE: To review the evidence on the efficacy of interventions for treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the 1950s through June 2006. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized, controlled trials; systematic reviews of trials; and observational studies; all restricted to English-language articles...
February 6, 2007: Annals of Internal Medicine
Paul D Stein, Pamela K Woodard, John G Weg, Thomas W Wakefield, Victor F Tapson, H Dirk Sostman, Thomas A Sos, Deborah A Quinn, Kenneth V Leeper, Russell D Hull, Charles A Hales, Alexander Gottschalk, Lawrence R Goodman, Sarah E Fowler, John D Buckley
PURPOSE: To formulate comprehensive recommendations for the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, based on randomized trials. METHODS: Diagnostic management recommendations were formulated based on results of the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II) and outcome studies. RESULTS: The PIOPED II investigators recommend stratification of all patients with suspected pulmonary embolism according to an objective clinical probability assessment...
December 2006: American Journal of Medicine
2014-05-13 20:04:41
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