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Medical Ethics

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1659 papers 500 to 1000 followers Trending issues in health policy, medical ethics and philosophy of medicine
By Michael Young Harvard Medical School
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161905/the-possible-effects-of-the-solar-and-geomagnetic-activity-on-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Panagiotis Papathanasopoulos, Panagiota Preka-Papadema, Anastasios Gkotsinas, Nikolaos Dimisianos, Alexandros Hillaris, Christos Katsavrias, Gregorios Antonakopoulos, Xenophon Moussas, Elisabeth Andreadou, Vasileios Georgiou, Pinelopi Papachristou, Odysseas Kargiotis
OBJECTIVES: Increasing observational evidence on the biological effects of Space Weather suggests that geomagnetic disturbances may be an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses. In the present study, we aim to investigate the possible effect of geomagnetic disturbances on MS activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MS patient admittance rates were correlated with the solar and geophysical data covering an eleven-year period (1996-2006, 23rd solar cycle)...
July 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495106/israel-health-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Karl Skorecki, Richard Horton
The principle that global human identity and dignity supersede other values is a broadly accepted conviction that guides practice and policies in the realm of human health in most of the world. An assessment of the level of success that Israel has achieved in health, in the face of formidable challenges, including rapid population growth, diverse and often divided ethnic affiliations, and existential security threats, leads us to propose that extension of this principle of global human identity and dignity, together with the objective of a decent society, as overriding values beyond health to other domains of human endeavour within Israel and in its relations with neighbouring peoples, represents an entirely achievable imperative...
May 5, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397542/how-to-do-science-with-models-a-philosophical-primer
#3
Lydia Braunack-Mayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374105/suffering-and-dying-well-on-the-proper-aim-of-palliative-care
#4
Govert den Hartogh
In recent years a large empirical literature has appeared on suffering at the end of life. In this literature it is recognized that suffering has existential and social dimensions in addition to physical and psychological ones. The non-physical aspects of suffering, however, are still understood as pathological symptoms, to be reduced by therapeutical interventions as much as possible. But suffering itself and the negative emotional states it consists of are intentional states of mind which, as such, make cognitive claims: they are more or less appropriate responses to the actual circumstances of the patient...
April 3, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464162/what-do-patients-think-about-physicians-conflicts-of-interest-watching-transparency-evolve
#5
Abigail Zuger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486773/nonpublication-of-trial-results-for-new-neurological-drugs-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Amanda K Hakala, Dean Fergusson, Jonathan Kimmelman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nonpublication rates among trials of new successful and unsuccessful neurological drugs. METHODS: 'Licensed' drugs consisted of all novel agents receiving FDA licensure 2005 to 2012 inclusive in seven neurological disorders. 'Stalled' drugs included all experimental agents tested in the same domains that had at least one completed phase III trial in the same timeframe but failed to receive FDA approval. Trials of these drugs were included in our sample if their primary outcome collection occurred before October 1, 2010...
May 9, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
February 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220542/the-gut-microbiome-in-human-neurological-disease-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Helen Tremlett, Kylynda C Bauer, Silke Appel-Cresswell, Brett B Finlay, Emmanuelle Waubant
Almost half the cells and 1% of the unique genes found in our bodies are human, the rest are from microbes, predominantly bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. These microorganisms collectively form the human microbiota, with most colonizing the gut. Recent technological advances, open access data libraries, and application of high-throughput sequencing have allowed these microbes to be identified and their contribution to neurological health to be examined. Emerging evidence links perturbations in the gut microbiota to neurological disease, including disease risk, activity, and progression...
March 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457110/nicotine-addiction-and-withdrawal-among-orthodox-jews-the-effect-of-sabbath-abstinence
#9
Gabriel Munter, Yehuda Brivik, Yossi Freier-Dror, Shoshana Zevin
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a widespread problem around the world. In Israel, the prevalence of smoking is 23%. Smokers who are Orthodox abstain from smoking during the Sabbath, i.e., from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday, due to a religious prohibition. The prevalence of smoking among Orthodox men is 13%. However, there are no data on patterns of smoking or on the addiction profiles in this population. OBJECTIVES: To explore the smoking patterns, motivation for smoking and nicotine addiction among Orthodox Jewish men, compared to non-Orthodox men, as well as the differences in the urge to smoke and withdrawal symptoms on Saturday versus weekdays in the Orthodox group...
January 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444298/the-line-drawing-problem-in-disease-definition
#10
Wendy A Rogers, Mary Jean Walker
Biological dysfunction is regarded, in many accounts, as necessary and perhaps sufficient for disease. But although disease is conceptualized as all-or-nothing, biological functions often differ by degree. A tension is created by attempting to use a continuous variable as the basis for a categorical definition, raising questions about how we are to pinpoint the boundary between health and disease. This is the line-drawing problem. In this paper, we show how the line-drawing problem arises within "dysfunction-requiring" accounts of disease, such as those of Christopher Boorse and Jerome Wakefield...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370246/electronic-health-records-and-the-disappearing-patient
#11
Linda M Hunt, Hannah S Bell, Allison M Baker, Heather A Howard
With rapid consolidation of American medicine into large-scale corporations, corporate strategies are coming to the forefront in health care delivery, requiring a dramatic increase in the amount and detail of documentation, implemented through use of electronic health records (EHRs). EHRs are structured to prioritize the interests of a myriad of political and corporate stakeholders, resulting in a complex, multi-layered, and cumbersome health records system, largely not directly relevant to clinical care. Drawing on observations conducted in outpatient specialty clinics, we consider how EHRs prioritize institutional needs manifested as a long list of requisites that must be documented with each consultation...
March 31, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186531/what-does-the-patient-say-levinas-and-medical-ethics
#12
Lawrence Burns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379764/school-hygiene-as-a-tool-of-modernization-european-culture-and-jewish-colonies-in-galilee-1882-1939
#13
Yair Seltenreich
During the efforts to modernize the farmers of Jewish colonies in Galilee, both teachers and doctors came to view hygiene less as an agent of health and cleanliness and more as a symbol of physical and mental regeneration. Schools thus emerged as a natural arena for hygieno-pedagogic activities. Doctors' attempts to eradicate malaria or trachoma by associating the concept of hygiene with modern sanitation and outdoor activities were soon followed by pedagogical efforts to endow hygiene with moral values.
2017: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334321/the-rise-of-crowdfunding-for-medical-care-promises-and-perils
#14
Michael J Young, Ethan Scheinberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939171/improving-the-electronic-nexus-between-generalists-and-specialists-a-public-health-imperative
#15
Michael J Young, Julien Pham
Recent changes in healthcare delivery and payment policy have precipitated interest among healthcare providers across the U.S. seeking innovative strategies to achieve higher quality, lower cost care through improved resource-utilization. One dimension of healthcare delivery with distinctive potential for improvement is care coordination between primary care and specialist providers. Optimizing the nexus between PCPs and specialists through innovations including eConsultation platforms portends reductions in unnecessary referrals and testing, and may help align incentives to promote high-value care...
December 2016: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672165/the-terrorist-inside-my-husband-s-brain
#16
EDITORIAL
Susan Schneider Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760873/aerobic-exercise-a-possible-therapy-for-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#17
EDITORIAL
Alexandra Foubert-Samier, Leon Flicker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738192/the-eyes-are-the-windows-to-the-mind-direct-eye-gaze-triggers-the-ascription-of-others-minds
#18
Saara Khalid, Jason C Deska, Kurt Hugenberg
Eye gaze is a potent source of social information with direct eye gaze signaling the desire to approach and averted eye gaze signaling avoidance. In the current work, we proposed that eye gaze signals whether or not to impute minds into others. Across four studies, we manipulated targets' eye gaze (i.e., direct vs. averted eye gaze) and measured explicit mind ascriptions (Study 1a, Study 1b, and Study 2) and beliefs about the likelihood of targets having mind (Study 3). In all four studies, we find novel evidence that the ascription of sophisticated humanlike minds to others is signaled by the display of direct eye gaze relative to averted eye gaze...
December 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769613/synthetic-cannabinoid-abuse-resulting-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-requiring-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#19
Richard J Hamilton, Vadim Keyfes, Sahil S Banka
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are recreational designer drugs intended to mimic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol while surreptitiously circumventing classification by the Drug Enforcement Administration. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old black male arrived in the Emergency Department transported by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for altered mental status after complaining of chest pain associated with smoking SCs. EMS found the patient with an empty foil pack labeled "Scooby Snax Limited Edition Blueberry Potpourri...
April 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737717/informed-consent-for-the-diagnosis-of-brain-death-a-conceptual-argument
#20
Osamu Muramoto
BACKGROUND: This essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ventilator for over 2 years illustrates how such a consent would have made a crucial difference...
October 13, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
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