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Medical Ethics

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1643 papers 500 to 1000 followers Trending issues in health policy, medical ethics and philosophy of medicine
By Michael Young M.D. Candidate, Harvard Medical School
Alexandra Foubert-Samier, Leon Flicker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Saara Khalid, Jason C Deska, Kurt Hugenberg
Eye gaze is a potent source of social information with direct eye gaze signaling the desire to approach and averted eye gaze signaling avoidance. In the current work, we proposed that eye gaze signals whether or not to impute minds into others. Across four studies, we manipulated targets' eye gaze (i.e., direct vs. averted eye gaze) and measured explicit mind ascriptions (Study 1a, Study 1b, and Study 2) and beliefs about the likelihood of targets having mind (Study 3). In all four studies, we find novel evidence that the ascription of sophisticated humanlike minds to others is signaled by the display of direct eye gaze relative to averted eye gaze...
October 13, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Richard J Hamilton, Vadim Keyfes, Sahil S Banka
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are recreational designer drugs intended to mimic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol while surreptitiously circumventing classification by the Drug Enforcement Administration. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old black male arrived in the Emergency Department transported by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for altered mental status after complaining of chest pain associated with smoking SCs. EMS found the patient with an empty foil pack labeled "Scooby Snax Limited Edition Blueberry Potpourri...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Osamu Muramoto
BACKGROUND: This essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ventilator for over 2 years illustrates how such a consent would have made a crucial difference...
October 13, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Thaís Lira Cleto, Leandro Falcão de Araújo, Karen Grazielle Capuano, Adriane Rego Ramos, Arnaldo Prata-Barbosa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Elisha G Brownson, Callie M Thompson, Sarah Goldsberry, H Jonathan Chong, Jeffrey B Friedrich, Tam N Pham, Saman Arbabi, Gretchen J Carrougher, Nicole S Gibran
To the Editor: Electronic nicotine-delivery systems (ENDS) include electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and personal vaporizers. The prevalence of ENDS use is increasing among current, former, and never smokers. E-cigarettes share a basic design; common components include an aerosol generator, a..
October 6, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Lisa Rosenbaum
In 1985, when internist Jim O’Connell, cofounder of the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program, began doing outreach to homeless people, one of the toughest questions he faced was whether to commit someone to the hospital for involuntary psychiatric treatment. States vary in their criteria for..
October 13, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Christine Montross
In my work on the intensive treatment unit of a psychiatric hospital, I see many patients whose lives collide with the criminal justice system. Some are admitted to my care because they’re seeking respite. Others are admitted — often brought in by police — because the community seeks respite from..
October 13, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Sudie E Back, Jenna L McCauley, Kristina J Korte, Daniel F Gros, Virginia Leavitt, Kevin M Gray, Mark B Hamner, Stacia M DeSantis, Robert Malcolm, Kathleen T Brady, Peter W Kalivas
OBJECTIVE: The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine is being increasingly investigated as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). This study explored the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which frequently co-occurs with SUD and shares impaired prefrontal cortex regulation of basal ganglia circuitry, in particular at glutamate synapses in the nucleus accumbens. METHODS: Veterans with PTSD and SUD per DSM-IV criteria (N = 35) were randomly assigned to receive a double-blind, 8-week course of N-acetylcysteine (2,400 mg/d) or placebo plus cognitive-behavioral therapy for SUD (between March 2013 and April 2014)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Rachael Sv Parker, P Parker
BACKGROUND: Fatigue in military operations leads to safety and operational problems due to a decrease in alertness and performance. The primary method of counteracting the effects of sleep deprivation is to increase nightly sleep time, which in operational situations is not always feasible. History has taught us that surgeons and surgical teams are finite resources that cannot operate on patients indefinitely. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the search terms 'sleep' and 'deprivation' examining the impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in military surgical teams...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Brett Cucchiara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Neurology
Felipe Muller
This paper describes the shift that appears to be taking place in contemporary psychoanalysis, as reflected among intersubjective approaches, from a monological conception of the self to a dialogical one. The monological self emphasizes the separation between mind, body, and external world, focusing on the representational and descriptive/referential function of language. In contrast, the dialogical self emphasizes practices, the permeable nature of relationships between subjects, and the constitutive function of language...
October 2016: Psychoanalytic Quarterly
Eyal Gamliel, Hamutal Kreiner, Todd McElroy
: Construal level theory predicts that people will judge immoral events more harshly when these are presented in a way that elicits a higher construal level, relative to a lower construal level. Previous research supported this prediction using an Israeli sample but not a U.S. SAMPLE: This article compared Israeli and U.S. samples with respect to the interactive effect of utility and construal level on unethical behavioral intentions. We found that construal level did not affect unethical behavioral intentions in either the U...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Blake Victor Kent
Research on organizational commitment suggests there is an association between American theists' emotional attachment to God and their emotional commitment to the workplace. A sense of divine calling has been shown to partially mediate this association, but beyond that, little is known. The purpose of this study is to shed further light on the relationship between secure attachment to God and affective organizational commitment. I do so by testing whether the employee's religious tradition is associated with affective organizational commitment and whether the employee's firm attributes moderate the relationship between attachment to God and organizational commitment...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
Kalina Yordanova
Large numbers of young people have joined jihadists groups in the Syrian/Iraqi conflict. Why would these young people decide to become jihadist fighters? What are the representations of the West they hold and how do these representations shape their decision? Drawing on the psychotherapeutic work with Syrian and Iraqi asylum seekers, this paper seeks to explain the most intimate reasons of young Muslim would-be fighters to join the Islamic State militias.
July 4, 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Alexandre Dal-Pan, Stéphanie Dudonné, Philippe Bourassa, Morgane Bourdoulous, Cyntia Tremblay, Yves Desjardins, Frédéric Calon
No effective preventive treatment is available for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies indicate that a diet rich in fruit is associated with cognitive improvement. It was thus proposed that high polyphenol concentrations found in berries can prevent cognitive impairment associated with aging and AD. Therefore, the Neurophenols project aimed at investigating the effects of a polyphenolic extract from blueberries and grapes (PEBG) in the triple-transgenic (3xTg-AD) mouse model of AD, which develops AD neuropathological markers, including amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, leading to memory deficits...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Chana Wiesman, Esther Rose, Allison Grant, Adam Zimilover, Susan Klugman, Nicole Schreiber-Agus
PURPOSE: The notion of offering population-based screening to the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population for the BRCA1/2 founder mutations continues to gain support. A program called the BRCAcommunity initiative was designed to identify the benefits and barriers associated with implementing this screening in a clinical setting. METHODS: Interested AJ individuals were stratified into high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) groups based on self-reported cancer histories. Those at HR were offered traditional genetic counseling/testing; those at LR were offered group genetic counseling and subsidized AJ BRCA founder mutation testing...
October 13, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Caley Tapp, Stefano Occhipinti
Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between moral contagion and disgust. Study 1 established that the contamination effect is unique to transgressions that fall within the moral domain. Study 2 replicated this effect and further showed that the underlying mechanism is intimately related to disgust, as disgust was found to uniquely mediate the relationship between moral transgressions and contamination responses. In Study 3, disgust was again found to mediate this relationship. In addition, the results of Study 3 show that the moral contagion effect was not dependent upon the presence of a core disgust cue within the transgression...
August 1, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Janina Steinmetz, Qian Xu, Ayelet Fishbach, Ying Zhang
We test the hypothesis that people, when observed, perceive their actions as more substantial because they add the audience's perspective to their own perspective. We find that participants who were observed while eating (Study 1) or learned they were observed after eating (Study 2) recalled eating a larger portion than unobserved participants. The presence of others magnified both desirable and undesirable actions. Thus, observed (vs. unobserved) participants believed they gave both more correct and incorrect answers in a lab task (Study 3) and, moving to a field study, the larger the audience, the larger the contribution badminton players claimed toward their teams' successes as well as failures (Study 4)...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
2016-09-12 19:21:09
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