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Medical Ethics

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1687 papers 500 to 1000 followers Trending issues in health policy, medical ethics and philosophy of medicine
By Michael Young Harvard Medical School
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854084/abandonment
#1
Ranjana Srivastava
"Hospice. It’s where people go to die," she says, surprising me with her sudden lucidity. "And also for symptom management," I add gently. "Like my headache," she notes. And your homelessness, I think — the fact that your one-bedroom, upstairs council flat just won’t do anymore. "I could go home,"..
August 31, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503834/respect-for-autonomy-in-light-of-neuropsychiatry
#2
Sabine Müller
Bioethics needs an elaborated concept of autonomy based on empirical knowledge about the prerequisites of the capacity of autonomy. Whereas Beauchamp and Childress, and many other bioethicists have discussed social influences on the capacity of autonomy in depth, neurobiological influences have received less attention. A comprehensive concept of autonomy should consider both social and biological factors that can diminish the capacity of autonomy. This article focuses on neurobiological influences that can reduce the capacity of autonomy...
June 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786173/human-organisms-begin-to-exist-at-fertilization
#3
Calum Miller, Alexander Pruss
Eugene Mills has recently argued that human organisms cannot begin to exist at fertilization because the evidence suggests that egg cells persist through fertilization and simply turn into zygotes. He offers two main arguments for this conclusion: that 'fertilized egg' commits no conceptual fallacy, and that on the face of it, it looks as though egg cells survive fertilization when the process is watched through a microscope. We refute these arguments and offer several reasons of our own to think that egg cells do not survive fertilization, appealing to various forms of essentialism regarding persons, fission cases, and a detailed discussion of the biological facts relevant to fertilization and genetics...
September 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844200/oxygen-therapy-in-suspected-acute-myocardial-infarction
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Robin Hofmann, Stefan K James, Tomas Jernberg, Bertil Lindahl, David Erlinge, Nils Witt, Gabriel Arefalk, Mats Frick, Joakim Alfredsson, Lennart Nilsson, Annica Ravn-Fischer, Elmir Omerovic, Thomas Kellerth, David Sparv, Ulf Ekelund, Rickard Linder, Mattias Ekström, Jörg Lauermann, Urban Haaga, John Pernow, Ollie Östlund, Johan Herlitz, Leif Svensson
BACKGROUND: The clinical effect of routine oxygen therapy in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction who do not have hypoxemia at baseline is uncertain. METHODS: In this registry-based randomized clinical trial, we used nationwide Swedish registries for patient enrollment and data collection. Patients with suspected myocardial infarction and an oxygen saturation of 90% or higher were randomly assigned to receive either supplemental oxygen (6 liters per minute for 6 to 12 hours, delivered through an open face mask) or ambient air...
September 28, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821958/midlife-work-related-stress-is-associated-with-late-life-cognition
#5
Shireen Sindi, Ingemar Kåreholt, Alina Solomon, Babak Hooshmand, Hilkka Soininen, Miia Kivipelto
To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and late-life cognition in individuals without dementia from the general population. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study population (n = 2000) was randomly selected from independent Finnish population-based surveys (baseline mean age 50 years). Participants underwent two re-examinations in late life (mean age 71 and 78 years, respectively). 1511 subjects participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829883/professional-jobs-linked-with-als-and-parkinson-disease-deaths
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779499/-i-didn-t-mean-that-it-was-just-a-slip-of-the-tongue-racial-slips-and-gaffes-in-the-public-arena
#7
Rose Burford-Rice, Martha Augoustinos
Speech errors, slips, and gaffes made in the public arena that are perceived to be either implicitly or explicitly racially offensive often result in significant social consequences to the responsible speaker and generate public controversy. The current research, informed by conversation analysis and discursive psychology, examines how speakers manage such troubles-in-speaking in public settings. The sample of naturalistic data includes five such instances and related apologies sourced from YouTube and news websites...
August 4, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658461/modern-electroconvulsive-therapy-vastly-improved-yet-greatly-underused
#8
Harold A Sackeim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766249/if-abortion-then-infanticide
#9
David B Hershenov, Rose J Hershenov
Our contention is that all of the major arguments for abortion are also arguments for permitting infanticide. One cannot distinguish the fetus from the infant in terms of a morally significant intrinsic property, nor are they morally discernible in terms of standing in different relationships to others. The logic of our position is that if such arguments justify abortion, then they also justify infanticide. If we are right that infanticide is not justified, then such arguments will fail to justify abortion...
October 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792865/migraine
#10
REVIEW
Andrew Charles
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 377, Issue 6, Page 553-561, August 2017.
August 10, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723331/certain-about-dying-with-uncertainty
#11
Jeffrey M Drazen, Maria A Yialamas
Mrs. C. a woman with whom we’d had a long-standing patient–physician relationship, one of us for over 25 years, died recently in the 87th year of her life. A woman who had always maintained her cheerful spirit even in the midst of quite trying medical setbacks, she was one of our favorite patients...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745989/the-price-of-crossing-the-border-for-medications
#12
Michael Fralick, Jerry Avorn, Aaron S Kesselheim
Canadians are used to paying more for identical products sold south of the border. Hockey equipment, perhaps paradoxically, can sometimes cost up to 18% more up north; and there are similar price differences for toiletries, books, and electronics. There are many reasons why goods cost more in..
July 27, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706123/cerebral-microbleeds-in-murine-amyloid-angiopathy-natural-course-and-anticoagulant-effects
#13
Marilena Marinescu, Li Sun, Marc Fatar, Andreas Neubauer, Lothar Schad, Joanne van Ryn, Lorenz Lehmann, Roland Veltkamp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) predispose patients to intracerebral hemorrhage. Preclinical models to examine the effects of antithrombotic treatments on the development of clinically overt intracerebral hemorrhage are needed. We examined the natural course of CMB development and the effects of long-term anticoagulation with warfarin or dabigatran on cerebral micro- and macrohemorrhage in mice overexpressing the APP23 (amyloid precursor protein). METHODS: Repeated susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in APP23 mice at the age of 18 and 21 months, respectively...
August 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725295/team-reasoning-and-collective-intentionality
#14
Björn Petersson
Different versions of the idea that individualism about agency is the root of standard game theoretical puzzles have been defended by Regan 1980, Bacharach (Research in Economics 53: 117-147, 1999), Hurley (Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26: 264-265, 2003), Sugden (Philosophical Explorations 6(3):165-181, 2003), and Tuomela 2013, among others. While collectivistic game theorists like Michael Bacharach provide formal frameworks designed to avert some of the standard dilemmas, philosophers of collective action like Raimo Tuomela aim at substantive accounts of collective action that may explain how agents overcoming such social dilemmas would be motivated...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681328/diagnosis-narrative-identity-and-asymptomatic-disease
#15
Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A Rogers
An increasing number of patients receive diagnoses of disease without having any symptoms. These include diseases detected through screening programs, as incidental findings from unrelated investigations, or via routine checks of various biological variables like blood pressure or cholesterol. In this article, we draw on narrative identity theory to examine how the process of making sense of being diagnosed with asymptomatic disease can trigger certain overlooked forms of harm for patients. We show that the experience of asymptomatic disease can involve 'mismatches' between one's beliefs about one's health status on the one hand, and bodily sensations or past experience on the other...
August 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645200/prognostic-awareness-prognostic-communication-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-malignant-glioma
#16
Eli L Diamond, Holly G Prigerson, Denise C Correa, Anne Reiner, Katherine Panageas, Maria Kryza-Lacombe, Justin Buthorn, Elizabeth C Neil, Alex M Miller, Lisa M DeAngelis, Allison J Applebaum
Background: Malignant glioma (MG) is a devastating neuro-oncologic disease with almost invariably poor prognosis. Prognostic awareness (PA) is the awareness of incurable disease and shortened life-expectancy (LE). Accurate PA is associated with favorable psychological outcomes at the end-of-life (EOL) for patients with cancer, however little is known about PA or prognostic communication in MG. Moreover, research has yet to evaluate the impact of cognitive impairment on PA and preferred forms of communication...
June 22, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323328/young-dads-and-old-men
#17
Dalane W Kitzman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726437/anti-profit-beliefs-how-people-neglect-the-societal-benefits-of-profit
#18
Amit Bhattacharjee, Jason Dana, Jonathan Baron
Profit-seeking firms are stereotypically depicted as immoral and harmful to society. At the same time, profit-driven enterprise has contributed immensely to human prosperity. Though scholars agree that profit can incentivize societally beneficial behaviors, people may neglect this possibility. In 7 studies, we show that people see business profit as necessarily in conflict with social good, a view we call anti-profit beliefs. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that U.S. participants hold anti-profit views of real U...
November 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707118/exemplars-ethics-and-illness-narratives
#19
Ian James Kidd
Many people report that reading first-person narratives of the experience of illness can be morally instructive or educative. But although they are ubiquitous and typically sincere, the precise nature of such educative experiences is puzzling, for those narratives typically lack the features that modern philosophers regard as constitutive of moral reason. I argue that such puzzlement should disappear, and the morally educative power of illness narratives explained, if one distinguishes two different styles of moral reasoning: an inferentialist style that generates the puzzlement and an alternative exemplarist style that offers a compelling explanation of the morally educative power of pathographic literature...
July 13, 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569516/-the-fate-of-jewish-pharmacists-from-the-czech-lands-during-the-holocaust
#20
Tomáš Arndt, František Dohnal
The authors describe the lives of several Jewish pharmacists and their families who lived and worked in the Czech Lands during the years 1918-1945. Their stories represented a typical mosaic, which corresponds to the fate of the Jewish community in the Czech Lands during World War II - all lost their property and the majority of them were murdered or lost their immediate families. Only a few of them succeeded to survive thanks to early emigration. Some of them lived until the liberation of the concentration camp Theresienstadt, too...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
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