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Statistics and Nephrology

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214 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Isabel Acosta-Ochoa Nephrology senior staff. Valladolid. Spain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199802/adjusting-risk-adjustment-accounting-for-variation-in-diagnostic-intensity
#1
Amy Finkelstein, Matthew Gentzkow, Peter Hull, Heidi Williams
In the U.S. health care system, payments and performance measures are often adjusted to account for differences in patients’ baseline health and demographic characteristics. The idea behind such risk adjustments is to create a level playing field, so that providers aren’t penalized for serving..
February 16, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196236/clinical-practice-guidelines-expanded-use-and-misuse
#2
EDITORIAL
Sheldon Greenfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196238/when-will-mendelian-randomization-become-relevant-for-clinical-practice-and-public-health
#3
EDITORIAL
George Davey Smith, Lavinia Paternoster, Caroline Relton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196262/language-for-actionable-recommendations-in-clinical-guidelines-avoiding-hedging-and-equivocation
#4
Richard S Klasco, Lewis H Glinert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195044/research-misconduct-and-the-intergrowth-21st-study
#5
Richard Horton, Sabine Kleinert, Sarah Linklater, Zoë Mullan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192565/acknowledging-and-overcoming-nonreproducibility-in-basic-and-preclinical-research
#6
John P A Ioannidis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192563/evaluation-of-evidence-of-statistical-support-and-corroboration-of-subgroup-claims-in-randomized-clinical-trials
#7
Joshua D Wallach, Patrick G Sullivan, John F Trepanowski, Kristin L Sainani, Ewout W Steyerberg, John P A Ioannidis
Importance: Many published randomized clinical trials (RCTs) make claims for subgroup differences. Objective: To evaluate how often subgroup claims reported in the abstracts of RCTs are actually supported by statistical evidence (P < .05 from an interaction test) and corroborated by subsequent RCTs and meta-analyses. Data Sources: This meta-epidemiological survey examines data sets of trials with at least 1 subgroup claim, including Subgroup Analysis of Trials Is Rarely Easy (SATIRE) articles and Discontinuation of Randomized Trials (DISCO) articles...
February 13, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168821/metrics-and-data-analysis-in-transplantation-quality-improvement-via-transparency
#8
EDITORIAL
J A Fishman
Transparency in clinical data has been identified as a driver of improved clinical outcomes in transplantation by many including Porter (1). Transparency in this context includes the broad availability of outcomes data including clinical outcomes adjusted for risk, the costs of care, and the experience of the center in providing those services - as a basis for comparing the "value" of healthcare services at various clinical centers. At the same time, and perhaps of greater importance, dramatic advances in transplant immunology and immunosuppression, microbiologic diagnosis and therapy, surgical techniques, organ procurement and allocation, and in clinical management of complex patients have been major drivers of improved transplant outcomes...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166709/biomarker-validation-with-an-imperfect-reference-issues-and-bounds
#9
Sarah C Emerson, Sushrut S Waikar, Claudio Fuentes, Joseph V Bonventre, Rebecca A Betensky
Motivated by the goal of evaluating a biomarker for acute kidney injury, we consider the problem of assessing operating characteristics for a new biomarker when a true gold standard for disease status is unavailable. In this case, the biomarker is typically compared to another imperfect reference test, and this comparison is used to estimate the performance of the new biomarker. However, errors made by the reference test can bias assessment of the new test. Analysis methods like latent class analysis have been proposed to address this issue, generally employing some strong and unverifiable assumptions regarding the relationship between the new biomarker and the reference test...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178929/latent-variable-modeling-improves-aki-risk-factor-identification-and-aki-prediction-compared-to-traditional-methods
#10
Loren E Smith, Derek K Smith, Jeffrey D Blume, Edward D Siew, Frederic T Billings
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is diagnosed based on postoperative serum creatinine change, but AKI models have not consistently performed well, in part due to the omission of clinically important but practically unmeasurable variables that affect creatinine. We hypothesized that a latent variable mixture model of postoperative serum creatinine change would partially account for these unmeasured factors and therefore increase power to identify risk factors of AKI and improve predictive accuracy...
February 8, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143424/pilot-non-dialysis-chronic-renal-insufficiency-study-p-nd-cris-a-pilot-study-of-an-open-prospective-hospital-based-french-cohort
#11
Jacques Massol, Gérard Janin, Camille Bachot, Christophe Gousset, Geoffroy Sainte-Claire Deville, Jean-Marc Chalopin
BACKGROUND: Before establishing a prospective cohort, an initial pilot study is recommended. However, there are no precise guidelines on this subject. This paper reports the findings of a French regional pilot study carried out in three nephrology departments, before realizing a major prospective Non Dialysis Chronic Renal Insufficiency study (ND-CRIS). METHODS: We carried out an internal pilot study. The objectives of this pilot study were to validate the feasibility (regulatory approval, providing patients with information, availability of variables, refusal rate of eligible patients) and quality criteria (missing data, rate of patients lost to follow-up, characteristics of the patients included and non-included eligible patients, quality control of the data gathered) and estimate the human resources necessary (number of clinical research associates required)...
February 1, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143438/medication-adherence-in-randomized-controlled-trials-evaluating-cardiovascular-or-mortality-outcomes-in-dialysis-patients-a-systematic-review
#12
Karumathil M Murali, Judy Mullan, Jenny H C Chen, Steven Roodenrys, Maureen Lonergan
BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence is common among renal dialysis patients. High degrees of non-adherence in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) can lead to failure to detect a true treatment effect. Cardio-protective pharmacological interventions have shown no consistent benefit in RCTs involving dialysis patients. Whether non-adherence contributes to this lack of efficacy is unknown. We aimed to investigate how medication adherence and drug discontinuation were assessed, reported and addressed in RCTs, evaluating cardiovascular or mortality outcomes in dialysis patients...
January 31, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134405/-bibliometric-indicators-of-nephrology-journals-strengths-and-weaknesses
#13
Antonio Maria Torrisi, Antonio Granata
Scientific journals are an important communication tool through which authors, publishers, editors, readers, librarians support the circulation of information. How do I select the journal to submit for publication? How can my research have the widest circulation? How can I make my article and my scientific activities to be positively considered by assessment boards? These are some of the main questions that arise when an author chooses to write an article. The research evaluation can be based on qualitative indicators such as the peer review and/or quantities of a not bibliometric or bibliometric type, such as the Impact Factor or SCImago Journal Rank indicator...
November 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097303/clinicians-expectations-of-the-benefits-and-harms-of-treatments-screening-and-tests-a-systematic-review
#14
Tammy C Hoffmann, Chris Del Mar
Importance: Inaccurate clinician expectations of the benefits and harms of interventions can profoundly influence decision making and may be contributing to increasing intervention overuse. Objective: To systematically review all studies that have quantitatively assessed clinicians' expectations of the benefits and/or harms of any treatment, test, or screening test. Evidence Review: A comprehensive search strategy of 4 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO) from the start years to March 17-20, 2015, with no language or study type restriction, was performed...
January 9, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099837/cost-effectiveness-analysis-2-0
#15
Peter J Neumann, Gillian D Sanders
Cost-effectiveness analysis in U.S. health care seems poised for a second act of sorts. Although it has never actually gone away, efforts to apply it have encountered resistance, and the federal government and some health care organizations have sometimes prohibited its use or relegated it to a..
January 19, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088771/do-we-still-need-cross-sectional-studies-in-nephrology-yes-we-do
#16
Giovanni Tripepi, Graziella D'Arrigo, Kitty J Jager, Vianda S Stel, Friedo W Dekker, Carmine Zoccali
Cross-sectional studies represent the second line of evidence (after case reports) in the ladder of evidence aimed at defining disease aetiology. This study design is used to generate hypotheses about the determinants of a given disease but also to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic tests and to assess the burden of a given disease in a population. The intrinsic limitation of cross-sectional studies, when applied to generate aetiological hypotheses, is that both the exposure under investigation and the disease of interest are measured at the same point in time...
January 14, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064161/statistical-significance-versus-clinical-relevance
#17
REVIEW
Marieke H C van Rijn, Anneke Bech, Jean Bouyer, Jan A J G van den Brand
In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples...
January 7, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055041/a-tale-of-two-trials-reconciling-differences-in-results-by-exploring-heterogeneous-treatment-effects
#18
Sanjay Kaul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056039/prediction-models-and-their-external-validation-studies-for-mortality-of-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-a-systematic-review
#19
Tetsu Ohnuma, Shigehiko Uchino
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review AKI outcome prediction models and their external validation studies, to describe the discrepancy of reported accuracy between the results of internal and external validations, and to identify variables frequently included in the prediction models. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic databases (until January 2016). Studies were eligible if they derived a model to predict mortality of AKI patients or externally validated at least one of the prediction models, and presented area under the receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUROC) to assess model discrimination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974039/transforming-evidence-generation-to-support-health-and-health-care-decisions
#20
Robert M Califf, Melissa A Robb, Andrew B Bindman, Josephine P Briggs, Francis S Collins, Patrick H Conway, Trinka S Coster, Francesca E Cunningham, Nancy De Lew, Karen B DeSalvo, Christine Dymek, Victor J Dzau, Rachael L Fleurence, Richard G Frank, J Michael Gaziano, Petra Kaufmann, Michael Lauer, Peter W Marks, J Michael McGinnis, Chesley Richards, Joe V Selby, David J Shulkin, Jeffrey Shuren, Andrew M Slavitt, Scott R Smith, B Vindell Washington, P Jon White, Janet Woodcock, Jonathan Woodson, Rachel E Sherman
Making better choices about health and health care requires the best possible evidence. Unfortunately, many of the decisions made today in our health care system are not supported by high-quality evidence derived from randomized, controlled trials or well-designed observational studies. But as..
December 15, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
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