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Vascular Calcification

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143 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Isabel Acosta-Ochoa Nephrology senior staff. Valladolid. Spain
V Chaitanya, N Harini Devi, M M Suchitra, P V L N Srinivasa Rao, B Vijaya Lakshmi, V Siva Kumar
The pleiotropic cytokine osteopontin (OPN) is found to be involved in the pathogenesis of both kidney and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the relationship between OPN, other cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) (predialysis) patients. This is a 2-year cross-sectional prospective study involving 75 patients with CKD from stage 1 to stage 5 attending the nephrology outpatient department and 25 healthy controls. Routine biochemical parameters were analyzed on clinical chemistry Autoanalyzer Beckman Coulter DXC 600 Synchron, USA...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Allison B Reiss, Nobuyuki Miyawaki, Jane Moon, Lora J Kasselman, Iryna Voloshyna, Robert D'Avino, Joshua De Leon
Mineral bone disease (MBD) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) characterized by disruption of normal mineral homeostasis within the body. One or more of the following may occur: hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), decreased vitamin D and vascular calcification (VC). The greater the decrease in renal function, the worse the progression of CKD-MBD. These abnormalities may lead to bone loss, osteoporosis and fractures. CKD-MBD is a major contributor to the high morbidity and mortality among patients with CKD...
August 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Georg Schlieper
Cardiovascular calcification is still a major burden for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pathomechanism of vascular calcification is complex, involving numerous processes. In this issue, Yamada et al. describe a protective role of Pit-2 within this context by using PiT-2 heterozygous mice with CKD fed a high-phosphate diet. The mechanisms still need to be elucidated. Pit-2 could become a potential therapeutic target.
October 2018: Kidney International
Yuji Shiozaki, Kayo Okamura, Shohei Kohno, Audrey L Keenan, Kristina Williams, Xiaoyun Zhao, Wallace S Chick, Shinobu Miyazaki-Anzai, Makoto Miyazaki
Vascular calcification (or mineralization) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is closely associated with increased mortality and morbidity rates. We recently reported that activation of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) pathway through the saturated fatty acid (SFA)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response plays a causative role in CKD-associated vascular calcification. Here, using mouse models of CKD, we 1) studied the contribution of the proapoptotic transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) to CKD-dependent medial calcification and 2) identified an additional regulator of ER stress-mediated CHOP expression...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Najwa Skafi, Dina Abdallah, Christophe Soulage, Sophie Reibel, Nicolas Vitale, Eva Hamade, Wissam Faour, David Magne, Bassam Badran, Nader Hussein, Rene Buchet, Leyre Brizuela, Saida Mebarek
Vascular calcification (VC) is the pathological accumulation of calcium phosphate crystals in one of the layers of blood vessels, leading to loss of elasticity and causing severe calcification in vessels. Medial calcification is mostly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes. Identification of key enzymes and their actions during calcification will contribute to understand the onset of pathological calcification. Phospholipase D (PLD1, PLD2) is active at the earlier steps of mineralization in osteoblasts and chondrocytes...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kerstin Benz, Karl-Friedrich Hilgers, Christoph Daniel, Kerstin Amann
Cardiovascular complications are extremely frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and death from cardiac causes is the most common cause of death in this particular population. Cardiovascular disease is approximately 3 times more frequent in patients with CKD than in other known cardiovascular risk groups and cardiovascular mortality is approximately 10-fold more frequent in patients on dialysis compared to the age- and sex-matched segments of the nonrenal population. Among other structural and functional factors advanced calcification of atherosclerotic plaques as well as of the arterial and venous media has been described as potentially relevant for this high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology
Bianca Frauscher, Alexander H Kirsch, Corinna Schabhüttl, Kerstin Schweighofer, Máté Kétszeri, Marion Pollheimer, Duska Dragun, Katrin Schröder, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Kathrin Eller, Philipp Eller
Chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus are associated with extensive media calcification, which leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of uremic vascular media calcification. DBA/2 mice were fed with high-phosphate diet (HPD) in order to cause vascular calcification. DBA/2 mice on standard chow diet were used as control. In parallel, autophagy and its response to rapamycin, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and bafilomycin were studied in an in vitro model using mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (MOVAS)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Iain Bressendorff, Ditte Hansen, Morten Schou, Andreas Pasch, Lisbet Brandi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Serum calcification propensity is a novel functional test that quantifies the functionality of the humeral system of calcification control. Serum calcification propensity is measured by T50 , the time taken to convert from primary to secondary calciprotein particle in the serum. Lower T50 represents higher calcification propensity and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with ESKD. Increasing magnesium in serum increases T50 , but so far, no clinical trials have investigated whether increasing serum magnesium increases serum calcification propensity in subjects with ESKD...
September 7, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Mandy E Turner, Michael A Adams, Rachel M Holden
The purpose of this review is to summarize the research to date on the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on the vitamin K metabolome. Vitamin K-dependent proteins contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention via the prevention of ectopic mineralization. Sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency is common in CKD patients, and evidence suggests that it may contribute to the CVD burden in this population. Research from animal models suggests that CKD alters tissue measures of the two predominant forms of vitamin K: KI and MK-4...
August 12, 2018: Nutrients
Tetsuya Ogawa, Kosaku Nitta
Vascular calcification is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, ESRD patients also have a number of nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. The transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteoblast-like cells may be a key element in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in the presence of calcium and phosphate deposition due to abnormal bone metabolism and impaired renal excretion...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
Shunsuke Yamada, Elizabeth M Leaf, Jia Jun Chia, Timothy C Cox, Mei Y Speer, Cecilia M Giachelli
PiT-2, a type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, is a causative gene for the brain arteriolar calcification in people with familial basal ganglion calcification. Here we examined the effect of PiT-2 haploinsufficiency on vascular calcification in uremic mice using wild-type and global PiT-2 heterozygous knockout mice. PiT-2 haploinsufficiency enhanced the development of vascular calcification in mice with chronic kidney disease fed a high-phosphate diet. No differences were observed in the serum mineral biomarkers and kidney function between the wild-type and PiT-2 heterozygous knockout groups...
October 2018: Kidney International
Geir Bjorklund, Erik Svanberg, Maryam Dadar, David J Card, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Dominic J Harrington, Jan Aaseth
Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which is synthesized in bone and many further mesenchymal cells, which is also highly expressed by vascular smooth 1muscle cells (VSMCs) and chondrocytes. Numerous studies have confirmed that MGP acts as a calcification-inhibitor although the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. The modulation of tissue calcification by MGP is potentially regulated in several ways including direct inhibition of calcium-phosphate precipitation, the formation of matrix vesicles (MVs), the formation of apoptotic bodies (ABs), and trans-differentiation of VSMCs...
July 15, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Seohyun Park, Chan Joo Lee, Jong Hyun Jhee, Hae-Ryong Yun, Hyoungnae Kim, Su-Young Jung, Youn Kyung Kee, Chang-Yun Yoon, Jung Tak Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Seung Hyeok Han, Shin-Wook Kang, Sungha Park, Tae-Hyun Yoo
BACKGROUND: Extracellular fluid (ECF) excess is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity in patients undergoing dialysis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ECF status, which is affected by renal function, and coronary artery calcification (CAC), which is a marker of cardiovascular disease, in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1741 patients at all stages of pre-dialysis CKD from the prospective observational cohort of CMERC-HI (Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center-High Risk) were analyzed for the association between ECF status and CAC...
June 30, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Ik Jun Choi, Sungmin Lim, Eun-Ho Choo, Jin-Jin Kim, Byung-Hee Hwang, Tae-Hoon Kim, Suk Min Seo, Yoon-Seok Koh, Dong Il Shin, Hun-Jun Park, Pum-Joon Kim, Doo-Soo Jeon, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Jung-Im Jung, Kiyuk Chang, Ki-Bae Seung
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the combined effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes on the extent and developmental pattern of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: A total of 3,017 self-referred asymptomatic individuals without known CAD who underwent 64-channel dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography between 2006 and 2010 were enrolled. The patients were divided into six groups based on their diabetes status (nondiabetic or diabetic) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (eGFR > 90 mL/min/1...
2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
Clare L Hawkins
Vascular calcification is a frequent complication of advanced chronic kidney disease. Protein carbamylation is implicated in the acceleration of vascular disease in chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms are not clear. Mori et al. report that protein carbamylation exacerbates vascular calcification by decreasing ectonucleotide pyrophosphate/phosphodiesterase 1 expression, owing to carbamylation of mitochondrial proteins and oxidative stress. This provides new insight into the pathways responsible for calcification in chronic kidney disease...
July 2018: Kidney International
Pradeep Dayanand, Harigopal Sandhyavenu, Sandeep Dayanand, Jasmin Martinez, Janani Rangaswami
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification is known to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular adverse events and mortality. Atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging, abnormal bone mineral homeostasis and high uremic milieu such as chronic kidney disease are major factors that contribute to the progression of vascular calcification. Several mechanisms such as the osteoblastic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells in response to oxidative stress have shed light on the active nature of vascular calcification, which was once thought to be a passive process...
2018: Current Cardiology Reviews
Raymond R Townsend
This narrative review summarizes a decade of experience examining the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of arterial stiffness, as assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, with outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Our goal is to review the importance of the pulse wave contour and pulse wave velocity and present data on the reproducibility of pulse wave velocity measurements, determinants of pulse wave velocity, and the relationship that velocity measurements have with longitudinal kidney and cardiovascular outcomes...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Kristin M McCabe, Jason G Zelt, Martin Kaufmann, Kimberly Laverty, Emilie Ward, Henry Barron, Glenville Jones, Michael A Adams, Rachel M Holden
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a markedly increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Nontraditional risk factors, such as increased phosphate retention, increased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and deficiencies in vitamins D and K metabolism, likely play key roles in the development of vascular calcification during CKD progression. Calcitriol [1,25-(OH)2 -D3 ] is a key transcriptional regulator of matrix Gla protein, a vitamin K-dependent protein that inhibits vascular calcification...
September 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Hye Eun Yoon, Yaeni Kim, Sang Dong Kim, Jin Kyoung Oh, Yong-An Chung, Seok Joon Shin, Chul Woo Yang, Suk Min Seo
BACKGROUND Inflammatory activity of the artery can be assessed by measuring 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake with positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT). Improvement in vascular function after renal transplantation has been reported, but no studies have used 18F-FDG PET/CT to examine the changes in vascular inflammation. This study investigated the changes in the inflammatory activity in the carotid artery after renal transplantation in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIAL AND METHODS 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed before and at 4 months after transplantation...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Sinee Disthabanchong
Phosphate is essential for life but its accumulation can be detrimental. In end-stage renal disease, widespread vascular calcification occurs as a result of chronic phosphate load. The accumulation of phosphate is likely to occur long before the rise in serum phosphate above the normal range since several observational studies in both general population and early-stage CKD patients have identified the relationship between high-normal serum phosphate and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Consumption of food high in phosphate increases both fasting and postprandial serum phosphate and habitual intake of high phosphate diet is associated with aging, cardiac hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, and subclinical atherosclerosis...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology
2018-06-04 15:43:08
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