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Vascular Calcification

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85 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Isabel Acosta-Ochoa Nephrology senior staff. Valladolid. Spain
Judith Kahn, Leona Marleen Ram, Katharina Eberhard, Andrea Groselj-Strele, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Helmut Müller
Based on native CT scans of the pelvic region using a standardized calcification score, evaluation of iliac vascular calcification was performed between 2008 and 2012 prior to listing for renal transplantation in 205 patients with chronic kidney disease. Vascular calcification showed a decrease from proximal to distal. The difference between the degree of calcification in the common iliac artery and in the external iliac artery was significant (p<0.001). Risk factors for total iliac vascular calcification were age, smoking, sex, underlying renal disease, and diabetes...
December 17, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
Ziad A Massy, Valérie Metzinger-Le Meuth, Laurent Metzinger
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification has been recognized to be a major risk factor in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and downstream cardiovascular complications. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs comprising 20-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression by inhibiting or degrading the target mRNA, and constitute potential new biomarkers and future therapeutic strategies. SUMMARY: We tested the relevance of several cardiovascular-specific miRNAs as new biomarkers for CKD, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular complications...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
Takashi Shigematsu, Tomohiro Sonou, Masaki Ohya, Keitaro Yokoyama, Hiraku Yoshida, Takashi Yokoo, Kouji Okuda, Asuka R Masumoto, Yuko Iwashita, Keiko Iseki, Satoko Kunimoto, Yukiko Yamano
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification is significant because of the close association between the degree of vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. SUMMARY: There are 2 types of vascular calcification in CKD patients. One is endothelial vascular calcification, a common type of vascular calcification. Another is medial vascular calcification, a specific type that is common in CKD patients. The former is mainly associated with atherosclerosis due to hyperlipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
Marc Vervloet, Mario Cozzolino
A high prevalence of vascular calcification (VC) and a high incidence of cardiovascular events are two key complications of chronic kidney disease. Since most observational studies found a positive association between these two complications, a causal relationship has been assumed. If so, this would render VC a target of therapy. Recent studies, however, suggested this assumption might be an oversimplification. The fundamental aspects of these recent studies are two-fold. The first novel insight is that VC is not a single entity...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
Carmine Zoccali, Francesca Mallamaci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
R Nicoll, M Henein
Arterial calcification is commonly seen in atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes and has long been considered a natural progression of atherosclerosis. Yet it is a systemic condition, occurring in a wide and diverse range of disease states and no medical treatment for cardiovascular disease has yet found a way to regress it; on the contrary, lipid-lowering therapy may worsen its progression. Although numerous studies have found associations between calcification and biomarkers, none has yet found a unifying mechanism that explains the calcification found in atherosclerosis, CKD or diabetes and many of the biomarkers are equally associated with atheroma development and cardiovascular events...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
Peter J Tebben, Ravinder J Singh, Rajiv Kumar
Hypercalcemia occurs in up to 4% of the population in association with malignancy, primary hyperparathyroidism, ingestion of excessive calcium and/or vitamin D, ectopic production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and impaired degradation of 1,25(OH)2D. The ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin D3 (or vitamin D2) results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria due to the formation of supraphysiological amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] that bind to the vitamin D receptor, albeit with lower affinity than the active form of the vitamin, 1,25(OH)2D, and the formation of 5,6-trans 25(OH)D, which binds to the vitamin D receptor more tightly than 25(OH)D...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
Christoph Wanner, Kerstin Amann, Tetsuo Shoji
The heart and the vascular tree undergo major structural and functional changes when kidney function declines and renal replacement therapy is required. The many cardiovascular risk factors and adaptive changes the heart undergoes include left ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation with concomitant systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Myocardial fibrosis is the consequence of impaired angio-adaptation, reduced capillary angiogenesis, myocyte-capillary mismatch, and myocardial micro-arteriopathy. The vascular tree can be affected by both atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis with both lipid rich plaques and abundant media calcification...
July 16, 2016: Lancet
Alan A Sag, Adrian Covic, Gerard London, Marc Vervloet, David Goldsmith, Jose Luis Gorriz, Mehmet Kanbay
Arterial wall calcification, once considered an incidental finding, is now known to be a consistent and strong predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. It is also commonly encountered in radiologic examinations as an incidental finding. Forthcoming bench, translational, and clinical data seek to establish this and pre-calcification changes as surrogate imaging biomarkers for noninvasive prognostication and treatment follow-up. Emerging paradigms seek to establish vascular calcification as a surrogate marker of disease...
June 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Jian-Rao Lu, Yang Yi, Zhong-Xiang Xiong, Xiu-Feng Cheng, Jing Hu, Hai-Yan Hang, Jie Cheng, Wen Peng
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to study the safety and efficacy of 1.25 mmol/l calcium dialysate on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in elderly patients who suffered from secondary hypoparathyroidism. METHODS: Eighty-two elderly patients (ages ≥65) who had been in MHD with dialysate calcium at 1.5 mmol/l over 6 months and had 2 consecutive serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) measurements at level below 100 pg/ml were selected and randomized into 2 groups: treatment group (41 patients, with dialysate calcium at 1...
2016: Blood Purification
W Charles O'Neill
Hypocalcemia is common in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and it is standard practice to correct this back to the normal range, presumably to prevent symptomatic hypocalcemia and help control hyperparathyroidism. However, there are few studies to support this approach, and recent data suggest that this promotes vascular calcification and adynamic bone disease. Whether setting a lower target will improve outcomes has not been tested, but existing data suggest that this may have minimal risks and substantial potential benefits and should be explored...
January 2016: Kidney International
Isabel Quirós-González, Pablo Román-García, Cristina Alonso-Montes, Sara Barrio-Vázquez, Natalia Carrillo-López, Manuel Naves-Díaz, María Isabel Mora, Fernando José Corrales, Francisco J López-Hernández, María Piedad Ruiz-Torres, Jorge Benito Cannata-Andía, José Luis Fernández-Martín
Vascular calcification remains one of the main factors associated to morbidity and mortality in both ageing and chronic kidney disease. Both hyperphosphataemia, a well-known promoter of vascular calcification, and abnormal processing defects of lamin A/C have been associated to ageing. The main aim of this study was to analyse the effect of phosphorus load in the differential expression pattern of genes and proteins, particularly of lamin A/C, which are involved in phenotypic change of the vascular smooth muscle cells to osteoblast-like cells...
March 2016: Bone
Xue Han, Li-Yan Wang, Zong-Li Diao, Wen-Hu Liu
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification (VC) is closely related to cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Apelin has emerged as a potent regulator of cardiovascular function, but its role in VC during CKD remains unknown. We determined whether apelin plays a role in phosphate-induced mineralization of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and in adenine-induced CKD rats with aortic calcification. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro, apelin-13 was found to inhibit calcium deposition in HASMCs (Pi(+) Apelin(+) group vs Pi(+) Apelin(-) group: 50...
January 2016: Atherosclerosis
Sun Chul Kim, Hyo Jung Chang, Myung-Gyu Kim, Sang-Kyung Jo, Won-Yong Cho, Hyoung-Kyu Kim
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is a recently recognized complication of chronic kidney disease. In this study, we investigated the association between PHT, peripheral vascular calcifications (VCs), and major cardiovascular events. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 172 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing dialysis [hemodialysis (HD)=84, peritoneal dialysis=88]. PHT was defined as an estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure>37 mmHg using echocardiography...
March 2015: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Emma Zaragatski, Jochen Grommes, Leon J Schurgers, Stephan Langer, Lieven Kennes, Miriam Tamm, Thomas A Koeppel, Jennifer Kranz, Tina Hackhofer, Karen Arakelyan, Michael J Jacobs, Maria Kokozidou
Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the common vascular access type for a hemodialysis patient. Its failure is due to neointimal hyperplasia. Vitamin K antagonists are given to lower thrombosis tendency, but have side effects that enhance arterial calcifications. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin K antagonists and vitamin K2 (K2) treatment on neointimal hyperplasia development and calcification in rats and in arterialized human veins. AVF was generated in female rats while chronic kidney disease (CKD) was induced using an adenine-enriched diet...
March 2016: Kidney International
Gérard M London, Michel E Safar, Bruno Pannier
Aging incurs aortic stiffening and dilation, but these changes are less pronounced in peripheral arteries, resulting in stiffness and geometry gradients influencing progression of the forward and reflected pressure waves. Because premature arterial aging is observed in ESRD, we determined the respective roles of stiffness and aortic geometry gradients in 73 controls and 156 patients on hemodialysis. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial PWV to evaluate the stiffness gradient [(brachial PWV/aortic PWV)(0...
June 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Sandro Mazzaferro, Marzia Pasquali
Cholecalciferol, the precursor of Vitamin D3, is a very old, highly conserved, molecule. Its presence is evident in non-mineralized 750 million-year-old living species, such as plankton. The more active metabolites, a receptor and a D binding protein, appear later, along with the increasing complexity of animal species living in the sea. In the sea, however, the biological function of vitamin D is unlikely to be linked with mineral metabolism, and we can hypothesize a relationship with an immune response. It is in terrestrial animals exhibiting cellular bone that the complexity of vitamin D increases...
January 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Neal X Chen, Sharon M Moe
Vascular calcification can lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The initiating factors and clinical consequences depend on the underlying disease state and location of the calcification. The pathogenesis of vascular calcification is complex and involves a transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells to an osteo/chondrocytic cell that expresses RUNX2 and produces matrix vesicles. The imbalance of promoters (such as hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia) and inhibitors (e.g., fetuin-A) is critical in the development of vascular calcification...
December 2015: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Narihito Tatsumoto, Shunsuke Yamada, Masanori Tokumoto, Masahiro Eriguchi, Hideko Noguchi, Kumiko Torisu, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Takanari Kitazono
Vascular calcification (VC) is a critical complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effects of spironolactone (SPL), a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on VC have not been fully investigated in CKD. The present in vivo study determined the protective effects of SPL on VC in CKD rats. Rats were divided into a control group and four groups of rats with adenine-induced CKD. Three groups were treated with 0, 50, and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) SPL for 8 wk, and one group was treated with 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) SPL for the last 2 wk of the 8-wk treatment period...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Eva Hecht, Christian Freise, Karoline V Websky, Hamoud Nasser, Nadja Kretzschmar, Philipp Stawowy, Berthold Hocher, Uwe Querfeld
BACKGROUND: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 are physiological regulators of vascular remodelling. Their dysregulation could contribute to vascular calcification. We examined the role of the MMP-2 and MMP-9 in uraemic vascular calcification in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: The impact of pharmacological MMP inhibition on the development of media calcifications was explored in an aggressive animal model of uraemic calcification. In addition, the selective effects of addition and inhibition, respectively, of MMP-2 and MMP-9 on calcium-/phosphate-induced calcifications were studied in a murine cell line of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
May 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
2015-09-05 10:26:23
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