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Vascular Calcification

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By Isabel Acosta-Ochoa Nephrology senior staff. Valladolid. Spain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055421/magnesium-as-a-new-player-in-ckd-too-little-is-as-bad-as-too-much
#1
Naoto Hamano, Hirotaka Komaba, Masafumi Fukagawa
Vascular calcification is a serious complication of chronic kidney disease, but the current therapeutic strategy is insufficient for preventing its progression. Magnesium is a potent inhibitor of calcification and represents a promising therapeutic candidate. Diaz-Tocados and colleagues now demonstrate that magnesium supplementation prevents the progression of vascular calcification in a uremic rat model, independently of the phosphate-binding capacity. We should keep in mind, however, that too much magnesium could have adverse effects on bone metabolism...
November 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870151/progression-of-arterial-stiffness-is-associated-with-changes-in-bone-mineral-markers-in-advanced-ckd
#2
Rathika Krishnasamy, Sven-Jean Tan, Carmel M Hawley, David W Johnson, Tony Stanton, Kevin Lee, David W Mudge, Scott Campbell, Grahame J Elder, Nigel D Toussaint, Nicole M Isbel
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There are limited prospective data however on progression of arterial stiffness in CKD, including evaluating associations with bone mineral markers such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and soluble α-klotho (sKl). METHODS: In this prospective, single-center, observational study, arterial stiffness [measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV)] and hormones influencing mineral homeostasis, including serum FGF23 and sKl, were compared between non-dialysis CKD stages 4/5 and healthy controls at baseline and 12 months (12 m)...
September 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709592/vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease-here-to-stay
#3
Christina M Wyatt, Tilman B Drueke
Vascular calcification is common in patients with advanced kidney disease, and has been strongly linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Recent clinical and translational studies demonstrate that vascular calcification is also associated with cardiovascular morbidity in the setting of chronic kidney disease, and that once established, may persist even when kidney function is restored.
August 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760336/dietary-magnesium-supplementation-prevents%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-reverses-vascular-and-soft-tissue%C3%A2-calcifications-in-uremic-rats
#4
Juan M Diaz-Tocados, Alan Peralta-Ramirez, María E Rodríguez-Ortiz, Ana I Raya, Ignacio Lopez, Carmen Pineda, Carmen Herencia, Addy Montes de Oca, Noemi Vergara, Sonja Steppan, M Victoria Pendon-Ruiz de Mier, Paula Buendía, Andrés Carmona, Julia Carracedo, Juan F Alcalá-Díaz, Joao Frazao, Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Antonio Canalejo, Arnold Felsenfeld, Mariano Rodriguez, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, Yolanda Almadén, Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda
Although magnesium has been shown to prevent vascular calcification in vitro, controlled in vivo studies in uremic animal models are limited. To determine whether dietary magnesium supplementation protects against the development of vascular calcification, 5/6 nephrectomized Wistar rats were fed diets with different magnesium content increasing from 0.1 to 1.1%. In one study we analyzed bone specimens from rats fed 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.6% magnesium diets, and in another study we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal magnesium on vascular calcification in 5/6 nephrectomized rats...
November 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703899/the-coronary-artery-calcification-score-and-common-iliac-artery-calcification-score-in-non-dialysis-ckd-patients
#5
Sonoo Mizuiri, Yoshiko Nishizawa, Kazuomi Yamashita, Kenji Mizuno, Masahiro Ishine, Doi Shigehiro, Takao Masaki, Shigemoto Kenichiro
AIM: Many studies have validated Agatston's coronary artery calcification score (CACS) for assessing vascular calcification (VC) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the CACS and common iliac artery calcification score (IACS) and to examine the variables related to each score. METHODS: The subjects were 145 non-dialysis CKD patients. The CACS and IACS were determined using the same thoracicoabdominal multi-detector computed tomography...
July 13, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682566/-vascular-calcifications-in-subjects-with-and-without-chronic-renal-failure-types-sites-and-risk-factors
#6
Annibale Marinelli, Anteo Di Napoli
Vascular calcifications worse outcomes in the general population and in patients on dialysis. We investigated 146 patients on chronic hemodialysis and 63 healthy controls with normal renal function under 65 years of age. All subjects underwent B-mode ultrasonography of common and internal carotid artery, abdominal aorta, common and superficial femoral artery and posterior tibial artery to assess the presence of intimal and medial calcifications. Intimal and media calcifications were present at the level of the carotid vessel, the abdominal aorta, the common femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery and the posterior tibial artery, respectively in 45%, 50%, 45%, 50%, 42% of patients on dialysis and in 5%, 15%, 24%, 5%, 2% of controls (p <0,01)...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688892/vascular-ossification-pathology-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#7
Michael A Fuery, Lusha Liang, Frederick S Kaplan, Emile R Mohler
In recent years, the mechanisms and clinical significance of vascular calcification have been increasingly investigated. For over a century, however, pathologists have recognized that vascular calcification is a form of heterotopic ossification. In this review, we aim to describe the pathology and molecular processes of vascular ossification, to characterize its clinical significance and treatment options, and to elucidate areas that require further investigation. The molecular mechanisms of vascular ossification involve the activation of regulators including bone morphogenic proteins and chondrogenic transcription factors and the loss of mineralization inhibitors like fetuin-A and pyrophosphate...
July 5, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593882/vascular-calcification-the-role-of-micrornas
#8
Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Vascular calcification represents the deposition of calcium phosphate salts in the tunica media of the vascular wall. It occurs during aging but is accelerated and pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and established cardiovascular disease. Due to the loss of elasticity of the vessel wall, vascular calcification might result in left ventricular hypertrophy and compromise coronary perfusion. Accordingly, several studies showed that vascular calcification is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
April 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502983/alkaline-phosphatase-a-novel-treatment-target-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-ckd
#9
REVIEW
Mathias Haarhaus, Vincent Brandenburg, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Peter Stenvinkel, Per Magnusson
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of early death in the settings of chronic kidney disease (CKD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and ageing. Cardiovascular events can be caused by an imbalance between promoters and inhibitors of mineralization, which leads to vascular calcification. This process is akin to skeletal mineralization, which is carefully regulated and in which isozymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have a crucial role. Four genes encode ALP isozymes in humans. Intestinal, placental and germ cell ALPs are tissue-specific, whereas the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of ALP (TNALP) is present in several tissues, including bone, liver and kidney...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480902/cardiovascular-disease-coronary-artery-calcification-predicts-risk-of-cvd-in-patients-with-ckd
#10
Paolo Raggi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373275/k-alcification-protection-in-dialysis-patients-the-underestimated-phenomenon-of-vitamin-k-deficiency
#11
EDITORIAL
Markus Ketteler, Vincent Matthias Brandenburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279437/coronary-plaque-characteristics-in-hemodialysis-dependent-patients-as-assessed-by-optical%C3%A2-coherence-tomography
#12
Chee Yang Chin, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Akiko Maehara, Wenbin Zhang, Cheolmin Tetsumin Lee, Myong Hwa Yamamoto, Lei Song, Yasir Parviz, Nisha B Jhalani, Sumit Mohan, Lloyd E Ratner, David J Cohen, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Gregg W Stone, Richard A Shlofmitz, Tsunekazu Kakuta, Gary S Mintz, Ziad A Ali
Coronary arteries in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been shown to exhibit more extensive atherosclerosis and calcium. We aimed to assess characteristics of coronary plaque in hemodialysis (HD)-dependent patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This was a multicenter, retrospective study of 124 patients with stable angina who underwent OCT imaging. Sixty-two HD-dependent patients who underwent pre-intervention OCT for coronary artery disease were compared 1:1 with a cohort of patients without CKD, matched for age, diabetes mellitus, gender, and culprit vessel...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253835/abdominal-aortic-calcification-on-a-plain-x-ray-and-the-relation-with-significant-coronary-artery-disease-in-asymptomatic-chronic-dialysis-patients
#13
M K de Bie, M S Buiten, J I Rotmans, M Hogenbirk, M J Schalij, T J Rabelink, J W Jukema
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common in asymptomatic chronic dialysis patients and plays an important role in their poor survival. Early identification of these high-risk patients could improve treatment and reduce mortality. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) has previously been associated with CAD in autopsy studies. Since the AAC can be quantified easily using a lateral lumbar X-ray we hypothesized that the extent of AAC as assessed on a lateral lumbar X-ray might be predictive of the presence of significant CAD in dialysis patients...
March 2, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988970/calcification-score-evaluation-in-patients-listed-for-renal-transplantation
#14
Judith Kahn, Leona Marleen Ram, Katharina Eberhard, Andrea Groselj-Strele, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Helmut Müller
Based on native CT scans of the pelvic region using a standardized calcification score, evaluation of iliac vascular calcification was performed between 2008 and 2012 prior to listing for renal transplantation in 205 patients with chronic kidney disease. Vascular calcification showed a decrease from proximal to distal. The difference between the degree of calcification in the common iliac artery and in the external iliac artery was significant (P<.001). Risk factors for total iliac vascular calcification were age, smoking, sex, underlying renal disease, and diabetes...
March 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951581/micrornas-are-associated-with-uremic-toxicity-cardiovascular-calcification-and-disease
#15
Ziad A Massy, Valérie Metzinger-Le Meuth, Laurent Metzinger
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification has been recognized to be a major risk factor in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and downstream cardiovascular complications. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs comprising 20-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression by inhibiting or degrading the target mRNA, and constitute potential new biomarkers and future therapeutic strategies. SUMMARY: We tested the relevance of several cardiovascular-specific miRNAs as new biomarkers for CKD, cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular complications...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951564/preventive-strategies-for-vascular-calcification-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Takashi Shigematsu, Tomohiro Sonou, Masaki Ohya, Keitaro Yokoyama, Hiraku Yoshida, Takashi Yokoo, Kouji Okuda, Asuka R Masumoto, Yuko Iwashita, Keiko Iseki, Satoko Kunimoto, Yukiko Yamano
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification is significant because of the close association between the degree of vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. SUMMARY: There are 2 types of vascular calcification in CKD patients. One is endothelial vascular calcification, a common type of vascular calcification. Another is medial vascular calcification, a specific type that is common in CKD patients. The former is mainly associated with atherosclerosis due to hyperlipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914706/vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease-different-bricks-in-the-wall
#17
REVIEW
Marc Vervloet, Mario Cozzolino
A high prevalence of vascular calcification (VC) and a high incidence of cardiovascular events are two key complications of chronic kidney disease. Since most observational studies found a positive association between these two complications, a causal relationship has been assumed. If so, this would render VC a target of therapy. Recent studies, however, suggested this assumption might be an oversimplification. The fundamental aspects of these recent studies are two-fold. The first novel insight is that VC is not a single entity...
April 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898424/arterial-stiffness-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-in-stage-5d-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-an-age-affair
#18
Carmine Zoccali, Francesca Mallamaci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863350/arterial-calcification-a-new-perspective
#19
REVIEW
R Nicoll, M Henein
Arterial calcification is commonly seen in atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes and has long been considered a natural progression of atherosclerosis. Yet it is a systemic condition, occurring in a wide and diverse range of disease states and no medical treatment for cardiovascular disease has yet found a way to regress it; on the contrary, lipid-lowering therapy may worsen its progression. Although numerous studies have found associations between calcification and biomarkers, none has yet found a unifying mechanism that explains the calcification found in atherosclerosis, CKD or diabetes and many of the biomarkers are equally associated with atheroma development and cardiovascular events...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588937/vitamin-d-mediated-hypercalcemia-mechanisms-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Peter J Tebben, Ravinder J Singh, Rajiv Kumar
Hypercalcemia occurs in up to 4% of the population in association with malignancy, primary hyperparathyroidism, ingestion of excessive calcium and/or vitamin D, ectopic production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and impaired degradation of 1,25(OH)2D. The ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin D3 (or vitamin D2) results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria due to the formation of supraphysiological amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] that bind to the vitamin D receptor, albeit with lower affinity than the active form of the vitamin, 1,25(OH)2D, and the formation of 5,6-trans 25(OH)D, which binds to the vitamin D receptor more tightly than 25(OH)D...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
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