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Vascular Calcification

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81 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Isabel Acosta-Ochoa Nephrology senior staff. Valladolid. Spain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898424/arterial-stiffness-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-in-stage-5d-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-an-age-affair
#1
Carmine Zoccali, Francesca Mallamaci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863350/arterial-calcification-a-new-perspective
#2
REVIEW
R Nicoll, M Henein
Arterial calcification is commonly seen in atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes and has long been considered a natural progression of atherosclerosis. Yet it is a systemic condition, occurring in a wide and diverse range of disease states and no medical treatment for cardiovascular disease has yet found a way to regress it; on the contrary, lipid-lowering therapy may worsen its progression. Although numerous studies have found associations between calcification and biomarkers, none has yet found a unifying mechanism that explains the calcification found in atherosclerosis, CKD or diabetes and many of the biomarkers are equally associated with atheroma development and cardiovascular events...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588937/vitamin-d-mediated-hypercalcemia-mechanisms-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
Peter J Tebben, Ravinder J Singh, Rajiv Kumar
Hypercalcemia occurs in up to 4% of the population in association with malignancy, primary hyperparathyroidism, ingestion of excessive calcium and/or vitamin D, ectopic production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and impaired degradation of 1,25(OH)2D. The ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin D3 (or vitamin D2) results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria due to the formation of supraphysiological amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] that bind to the vitamin D receptor, albeit with lower affinity than the active form of the vitamin, 1,25(OH)2D, and the formation of 5,6-trans 25(OH)D, which binds to the vitamin D receptor more tightly than 25(OH)D...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226133/the-heart-and-vascular-system-in-dialysis
#4
REVIEW
Christoph Wanner, Kerstin Amann, Tetsuo Shoji
The heart and the vascular tree undergo major structural and functional changes when kidney function declines and renal replacement therapy is required. The many cardiovascular risk factors and adaptive changes the heart undergoes include left ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation with concomitant systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Myocardial fibrosis is the consequence of impaired angio-adaptation, reduced capillary angiogenesis, myocyte-capillary mismatch, and myocardial micro-arteriopathy. The vascular tree can be affected by both atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis with both lipid rich plaques and abundant media calcification...
July 16, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898824/clinical-imaging-of-vascular-disease-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
REVIEW
Alan A Sag, Adrian Covic, Gerard London, Marc Vervloet, David Goldsmith, Jose Luis Gorriz, Mehmet Kanbay
Arterial wall calcification, once considered an incidental finding, is now known to be a consistent and strong predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. It is also commonly encountered in radiologic examinations as an incidental finding. Forthcoming bench, translational, and clinical data seek to establish this and pre-calcification changes as surrogate imaging biomarkers for noninvasive prognostication and treatment follow-up. Emerging paradigms seek to establish vascular calcification as a surrogate marker of disease...
June 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26905433/the-study-of-low-calcium-dialysate-on-elderly-hemodialysis-patients-with-secondary-hypoparathyroidism
#6
Jian-Rao Lu, Yang Yi, Zhong-Xiang Xiong, Xiu-Feng Cheng, Jing Hu, Hai-Yan Hang, Jie Cheng, Wen Peng
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to study the safety and efficacy of 1.25 mmol/l calcium dialysate on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in elderly patients who suffered from secondary hypoparathyroidism. METHODS: Eighty-two elderly patients (ages ≥65) who had been in MHD with dialysate calcium at 1.5 mmol/l over 6 months and had 2 consecutive serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) measurements at level below 100 pg/ml were selected and randomized into 2 groups: treatment group (41 patients, with dialysate calcium at 1...
2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759046/targeting-serum-calcium-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-end-stage-renal-disease-is-normal-too-high
#7
W Charles O'Neill
Hypocalcemia is common in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and it is standard practice to correct this back to the normal range, presumably to prevent symptomatic hypocalcemia and help control hyperparathyroidism. However, there are few studies to support this approach, and recent data suggest that this promotes vascular calcification and adynamic bone disease. Whether setting a lower target will improve outcomes has not been tested, but existing data suggest that this may have minimal risks and substantial potential benefits and should be explored...
January 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26769003/lamin-a-is-involved-in-the-development-of-vascular-calcification-induced-by-chronic-kidney-failure-and-phosphorus-load
#8
Isabel Quirós-González, Pablo Román-García, Cristina Alonso-Montes, Sara Barrio-Vázquez, Natalia Carrillo-López, Manuel Naves-Díaz, María Isabel Mora, Fernando José Corrales, Francisco J López-Hernández, María Piedad Ruiz-Torres, Jorge Benito Cannata-Andía, José Luis Fernández-Martín
Vascular calcification remains one of the main factors associated to morbidity and mortality in both ageing and chronic kidney disease. Both hyperphosphataemia, a well-known promoter of vascular calcification, and abnormal processing defects of lamin A/C have been associated to ageing. The main aim of this study was to analyse the effect of phosphorus load in the differential expression pattern of genes and proteins, particularly of lamin A/C, which are involved in phenotypic change of the vascular smooth muscle cells to osteoblast-like cells...
March 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26581047/apelin-a-novel-inhibitor-of-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Xue Han, Li-Yan Wang, Zong-Li Diao, Wen-Hu Liu
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification (VC) is closely related to cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Apelin has emerged as a potent regulator of cardiovascular function, but its role in VC during CKD remains unknown. We determined whether apelin plays a role in phosphate-induced mineralization of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and in adenine-induced CKD rats with aortic calcification. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro, apelin-13 was found to inhibit calcium deposition in HASMCs (Pi(+) Apelin(+) group vs Pi(+) Apelin(-) group: 50...
January 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26484016/relationship-between-pulmonary-hypertension-peripheral-vascular-calcification-and-major-cardiovascular-events-in-dialysis-patients
#10
Sun Chul Kim, Hyo Jung Chang, Myung-Gyu Kim, Sang-Kyung Jo, Won-Yong Cho, Hyoung-Kyu Kim
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is a recently recognized complication of chronic kidney disease. In this study, we investigated the association between PHT, peripheral vascular calcifications (VCs), and major cardiovascular events. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 172 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing dialysis [hemodialysis (HD)=84, peritoneal dialysis=88]. PHT was defined as an estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure>37 mmHg using echocardiography...
March 2015: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26466318/vitamin-k-antagonism-aggravates-chronic-kidney-disease-induced-neointimal-hyperplasia-and-calcification-in-arterialized-veins-role-of-vitamin-k-treatment
#11
Emma Zaragatski, Jochen Grommes, Leon J Schurgers, Stephan Langer, Lieven Kennes, Miriam Tamm, Thomas A Koeppel, Jennifer Kranz, Tina Hackhofer, Karen Arakelyan, Michael J Jacobs, Maria Kokozidou
Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the common vascular access type for a hemodialysis patient. Its failure is due to neointimal hyperplasia. Vitamin K antagonists are given to lower thrombosis tendency, but have side effects that enhance arterial calcifications. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin K antagonists and vitamin K2 (K2) treatment on neointimal hyperplasia development and calcification in rats and in arterialized human veins. AVF was generated in female rats while chronic kidney disease (CKD) was induced using an adenine-enriched diet...
March 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475595/aortic-aging-in-esrd-structural-hemodynamic-and-mortality-implications
#12
Gérard M London, Michel E Safar, Bruno Pannier
Aging incurs aortic stiffening and dilation, but these changes are less pronounced in peripheral arteries, resulting in stiffness and geometry gradients influencing progression of the forward and reflected pressure waves. Because premature arterial aging is observed in ESRD, we determined the respective roles of stiffness and aortic geometry gradients in 73 controls and 156 patients on hemodialysis. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial PWV to evaluate the stiffness gradient [(brachial PWV/aortic PWV)(0...
June 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26394645/vitamin-d-a-dynamic-molecule-how-relevant-might-the-dynamism-for-a-vitamin-be
#13
REVIEW
Sandro Mazzaferro, Marzia Pasquali
Cholecalciferol, the precursor of Vitamin D3, is a very old, highly conserved, molecule. Its presence is evident in non-mineralized 750 million-year-old living species, such as plankton. The more active metabolites, a receptor and a D binding protein, appear later, along with the increasing complexity of animal species living in the sea. In the sea, however, the biological function of vitamin D is unlikely to be linked with mineral metabolism, and we can hypothesize a relationship with an immune response. It is in terrestrial animals exhibiting cellular bone that the complexity of vitamin D increases...
January 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26409849/pathophysiology-of-vascular-calcification
#14
REVIEW
Neal X Chen, Sharon M Moe
Vascular calcification can lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The initiating factors and clinical consequences depend on the underlying disease state and location of the calcification. The pathogenesis of vascular calcification is complex and involves a transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells to an osteo/chondrocytic cell that expresses RUNX2 and produces matrix vesicles. The imbalance of promoters (such as hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia) and inhibitors (e.g., fetuin-A) is critical in the development of vascular calcification...
December 2015: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26336165/spironolactone-ameliorates-arterial-medial-calcification-in-uremic-rats-the-role-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-signaling-in-vascular-calcification
#15
Narihito Tatsumoto, Shunsuke Yamada, Masanori Tokumoto, Masahiro Eriguchi, Hideko Noguchi, Kumiko Torisu, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Takanari Kitazono
Vascular calcification (VC) is a critical complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effects of spironolactone (SPL), a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on VC have not been fully investigated in CKD. The present in vivo study determined the protective effects of SPL on VC in CKD rats. Rats were divided into a control group and four groups of rats with adenine-induced CKD. Three groups were treated with 0, 50, and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) SPL for 8 wk, and one group was treated with 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) SPL for the last 2 wk of the 8-wk treatment period...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26333546/the-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-initiate-uraemic-vascular-calcifications
#16
Eva Hecht, Christian Freise, Karoline V Websky, Hamoud Nasser, Nadja Kretzschmar, Philipp Stawowy, Berthold Hocher, Uwe Querfeld
BACKGROUND: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 are physiological regulators of vascular remodelling. Their dysregulation could contribute to vascular calcification. We examined the role of the MMP-2 and MMP-9 in uraemic vascular calcification in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: The impact of pharmacological MMP inhibition on the development of media calcifications was explored in an aggressive animal model of uraemic calcification. In addition, the selective effects of addition and inhibition, respectively, of MMP-2 and MMP-9 on calcium-/phosphate-induced calcifications were studied in a murine cell line of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
May 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26333718/carotid-intima-media-thickness-is-independently-associated-with-urinary-sodium-excretion-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Sedat Ustundag, Gulay Yilmaz, Can Sevinc, Seval Akpinar, Osman Temizoz, Necdet Sut, Ayten Ustundag
Atherosclerosis-induced premature vascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pathogenetic mechanism of atherosclerosis in patients with CKD has not been fully explained. Experimental studies have demonstrated that high dietary sodium intake not only increases circulatory volume and blood pressure, but also facilitates development of atherosclerosis by reducing production-bioavailability of nitric oxide due to oxidative stress and accordingly by enhancing endothelial and arterial stiffness...
2015: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26312829/phosphate-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-effects-on-vascular-and-endothelial-function
#18
Kathryn K Stevens, Rajan K Patel, Patrick B Mark, Christian Delles, Alan G Jardine
BACKGROUND: Hyperphosphataemia is a risk factor for accelerated cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. The mechanism is poorly understood; it is unclear whether phosphate has direct effects or effects mediated via calcification or FGF23. We investigated direct effects of phosphate on endothelial function using myography to study rat and human blood vessels. In addition we assessed the effects of phosphate loading on endothelial function in a clinical study. METHODS: Resistance vessels from patients with (n=12) and without (n=13) chronic kidney disease were incubated in normal or high phosphate...
February 26, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26253008/-uraemic-and-non-uraemic-calcific-arteriopathy-the-need-for-rapid-diagnosis-and-therapy
#19
G Perceau
Calcific arteriopathy (CA), also commonly known as calciphylaxis, is a disease carrying a poor prognosis. It is seen primarily in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), particularly those on haemodialysis (HD), where it is referred to as uraemic calcific arteriopathy (UCA), but it also occurs outside this setting, in which case it is known as non-uraemic calcific arteriopathy (NUCA). It is caused by thrombotic cutaneous arteriolar microangiopathy associated with fine calcium deposits in the media associated with hyperplasia of the intima of the dermal and hypodermal arterioles...
August 2015: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26235933/trimethylamine-n-oxide-from-gut-microbiota-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-focus-on-diet
#20
REVIEW
Cristiane Moraes, Denis Fouque, Ana Claudia F Amaral, Denise Mafra
Low-protein diet is the recommended nutritional intervention for nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients because excess protein intake can damage kidney function and produce uremic toxins. Some of these toxins are generated from amino acids breakdown by gut microbiota as p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate that have been clearly associated with cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients. Another uremic toxin, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a degradation product of choline and L-carnitine (which come mainly from animal protein such as red meat and eggs) is now considered as a proatherogenic metabolite...
November 2015: Journal of Renal Nutrition
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