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WBC's, inflamm, immaturatey, etc.

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7 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Brooke Manor Endocrinology
Mark A Travis, Dean Sheppard
The cytokine TGF-β plays an integral role in regulating immune responses. TGF-β has pleiotropic effects on adaptive immunity, especially in the regulation of effector and regulatory CD4(+) T cell responses. Many immune and nonimmune cells can produce TGF-β, but it is always produced as an inactive complex that must be activated to exert functional effects. Thus, activation of latent TGF-β provides a crucial layer of regulation that controls TGF-β function. In this review, we highlight some of the important functional roles for TGF-β in immunity, focusing on its context-specific roles in either dampening or promoting T cell responses...
2014: Annual Review of Immunology
Shiro Kanegasaki, Kouji Matsushima, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Keiichi Nakagawa, Tomoko Tsuchiya
Radiotherapy can produce antitumor benefits beyond the local site of irradiation, an immune-based phenomenon known as the abscopal effect, but the mechanisms underlying these benefits are poorly understood. Preclinical studies of ECI301, a mutant derivative of macrophage inhibitory protein-1α, have shown that its administration can improve the antitumor effects of radiotherapy in a manner associated with a tumor-independent abscopal effect. In this article, we report that i.v. administration of ECI301 after intratumoral injection of tumor cell lysates can inhibit tumor growth, not only at the site of injection but also at nontreated sites...
September 15, 2014: Cancer Research
Neil C Robson, Laura Hidalgo, Tristan McAlpine, Heng Wei, Víctor G Martínez, Ana Entrena, Gustavo J Melen, Andrew S MacDonald, Alexander Phythian-Adams, Rosa Sacedón, Eugene Maraskovsky, Jonathan Cebon, Manuel Ramírez, Angeles Vicente, Alberto Varas
Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for innate tumor immunity due to their specialized ability to recognize and kill neoplastically transformed cells. However, NK cells require a specific set of cytokine-mediated signals to achieve optimal effector function. Th1-associated cytokines promote effector functions that are inhibited by the prototypic Th2 cytokine IL4 and the TGFβ superfamily members TGFβ1 and activin-A. Interestingly, the largest subgroup of the TGFβ superfamily are the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), but the effects of BMP signaling on NK cell effector functions have not been evaluated...
September 15, 2014: Cancer Research
Naiara Martinez-Velez, Enric Xipell, Patricia Jauregui, Marta Zalacain, Lucía Marrodan, Carolina Zandueta, Beatriz Vera, Leire Urquiza, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Mikel San Julián, Gemma Toledo, Juan Fueyo, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Wensceslao Torre, Fernando Lecanda, Ana Patiño-García, Marta M Alonso
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The presence of metastases and the lack of response to conventional treatment are the major adverse prognostic factors. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new treatment strategies that overcome both of these problems. Our purpose was to elucidate whether the use of the oncolytic adenovirus Δ24-RGD alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy would be effective, in vitro and in vivo, against osteosarcoma. Our results showed that Δ24-RGD exerted a potent antitumor effect against osteosarcoma cell lines that was increased by the addition of cisplatin...
October 2014: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Isolde Sommer, Heather Mackenzie, Carina Venter, Taraneh Dean
BACKGROUND: Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non-food-allergic teenagers...
May 2014: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Caron A Jacobson, Lixian Sun, Haesook T Kim, Sean M McDonough, Carol G Reynolds, Michael Schowalter, John Koreth, Corey S Cutler, Vincent T Ho, Edwin P Alyea, Philippe Armand, Bruce R Blazar, Robert J Soiffer, Joseph H Antin, Jerome Ritz, Stefanie Sarantopoulos
Excessive levels of B cell activating factor (BAFF) are found in patients with active chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). In mice, BAFF has been shown to be essential for B cell recovery after myeloablation. To assess how BAFF levels relate to transplantation factors and subsequent development of cGVHD, we prospectively monitored 412 patients in the first year after allogeneic peripheral blood or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and censored data at time of cGVHD onset. In patients who did not develop cGVHD, we affirmed a temporal pattern of gradually decreasing BAFF levels as B cell numbers increase after myeloablative conditioning...
May 2014: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Stephen J Jenkins, Dominik Ruckerl, Peter C Cook, Lucy H Jones, Fred D Finkelman, Nico van Rooijen, Andrew S MacDonald, Judith E Allen
A defining feature of inflammation is the accumulation of innate immune cells in the tissue that are thought to be recruited from the blood. We reveal that a distinct process exists in which tissue macrophages undergo rapid in situ proliferation in order to increase population density. This inflammatory mechanism occurred during T helper 2 (T(H)2)-related pathologies under the control of the archetypal T(H)2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and was a fundamental component of T(H)2 inflammation because exogenous IL-4 was sufficient to drive accumulation of tissue macrophages through self-renewal...
June 10, 2011: Science
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