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UBC Endocrinology Professor Rounds

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104 papers 25 to 100 followers Weekly Professor Rounds at the UBC Division of Endocrinology
By Ehud Ur Professor and Head, Endocrinology, UBC, Vancouver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965211/gotta-catch-em-all-pok%C3%A3-mon-go-and-physical-activity-among-young-adults-difference-in-differences-study
#1
Katherine B Howe, Christian Suharlim, Peter Ueda, Daniel Howe, Ichiro Kawachi, Eric B Rimm
OBJECTIVE:  To estimate the effect of playing Pokémon GO on the number of steps taken daily up to six weeks after installation of the game. DESIGN:  Cohort study using online survey data. PARTICIPANTS:  Survey participants of Amazon Mechanical Turk (n=1182) residing in the United States, aged 18 to 35 years and using iPhone 6 series smartphones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:  Number of daily steps taken each of the four weeks before and six weeks after installation of Pokémon GO, automatically recorded in the "Health" application of the iPhone 6 series smartphones and reported by the participants...
December 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289041/coadministration-of-canagliflozin-and-phentermine-for-weight-management-in-overweight-and-obese-individuals-without-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Priscilla Hollander, Harold E Bays, Julio Rosenstock, Mary Ellen Frustaci, Albert Fung, Frank Vercruysse, Ngozi Erondu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of coadministration of canagliflozin (CANA) and phentermine (PHEN) compared with placebo (PBO) and CANA or PHEN monotherapies in individuals who were overweight and obese without type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This 26-week, phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, PBO-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study enrolled individuals who were obese or overweight without type 2 diabetes (N = 335, age 18-65 years, BMI ≥30 to <50 kg/m(2) or BMI ≥27 to <50 kg/m(2) with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia)...
March 13, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298470/genetically-driven-hyperglycemia-increases-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-separately-from-type-2-diabetes
#3
Jordi Merino, Aaron Leong, Daniel C Posner, Bianca Porneala, Lluís Masana, Josée Dupuis, Jose C Florez
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that genetically raised hyperglycemia increases coronary artery disease (CAD) risk separately from the risk conferred by type 2 diabetes as a whole. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using summary-level statistics from the largest published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) (n = 133,010 participants free of diabetes) and CAD (n = 63,746 case subjects and 130,681 control subjects) of predominantly European ancestry...
March 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169086/basal-insulin-treatment-intensification-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-comprehensive-systematic-review-of-current-options
#4
REVIEW
D Raccah
AIM: As type 2 diabetes mellitus progresses, most patients require treatment with basal insulin in combination with another agent to achieve recommended glycaemic targets. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the evidence supporting the use of the available add-on treatments [rapid-acting insulin (RAI), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors] to basal insulin...
February 3, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895075/associations-of-specific-types-of-sports-and-exercise-with-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-a-cohort-study-of-80%C3%A2-306-british-adults
#5
Pekka Oja, Paul Kelly, Zeljko Pedisic, Sylvia Titze, Adrian Bauman, Charlie Foster, Mark Hamer, Melvyn Hillsdon, Emmanuel Stamatakis
BACKGROUND/AIM: Evidence for the long-term health effects of specific sport disciplines is scarce. Therefore, we examined the associations of six different types of sport/exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk in a large pooled Scottish and English population-based cohort. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the associations between each exposure and all-cause and CVD mortality with adjustment for potential confounders in 80 306 individuals (54% women; mean±SD age: 52±14 years)...
November 28, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114680/association-of-patient-physician-language-concordance-and-glycemic-control-for-limited-english-proficiency-latinos-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Melissa M Parker, Alicia Fernández, Howard H Moffet, Richard W Grant, Antonia Torreblanca, Andrew J Karter
Importance: Providing culturally competent care to the growing number of limited-English proficiency (LEP) Latinos with diabetes in the United States is challenging. Objective: To evaluate changes in risk factor control among LEP Latinos with diabetes who switched from language-discordant (English-only) primary care physicians (PCPs) to language-concordant (Spanish-speaking) PCPs or vice versa. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pre-post, difference-in-differences study selected 1605 adult patients with diabetes who self-identified as Latino, whose preferred language was Spanish, and who switched PCPs between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001453/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-smaller-cortical-bone-size-in-non-diabetic-men-at-the-age-of-peak-bone-mass
#7
Charlotte Verroken, Hans-Georg Zmierczak, Stefan Goemaere, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Bruno Lapauw
CONTEXT: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fracture risk is increased despite preserved areal bone mineral density. Although this apparent paradox may in part be explained by insulin resistance affecting bone structure and/or material properties, few studies have investigated the association between insulin resistance and bone geometry. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore this association in a cohort of non-diabetic men at the age of peak bone mass. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 996 non-diabetic men aged 25-45 years were recruited in a cross-sectional, population-based sibling-pair study at a university research center...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959767/variation-in-pcsk9-and-hmgcr-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-diabetes
#8
Brian A Ference, Jennifer G Robinson, Robert D Brook, Alberico L Catapano, M John Chapman, David R Neff, Szilard Voros, Robert P Giugliano, George Davey Smith, Sergio Fazio, Marc S Sabatine
Background Pharmacologic inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) are being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The effect of lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by inhibiting PCSK9 on the risk of cardiovascular events or diabetes is unknown. Methods We used genetic scores consisting of independently inherited variants in the genes encoding PCSK9 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR; the target of statins) as instruments to randomly assign 112,772 participants from 14 studies, with 14,120 cardiovascular events and 10,635 cases of diabetes, to groups according to the number of LDL cholesterol-lowering alleles that they had inherited...
December 1, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941935/renal-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-considerations-of-sglt2-inhibition
#9
REVIEW
Ralph A DeFronzo, Luke Norton, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
The kidney has a pivotal role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by using glucose as a metabolic fuel, by producing glucose through gluconeogenesis, and by reabsorbing all filtered glucose through the sodium-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 located in the proximal tubule. In patients with diabetes, the maximum glucose reabsorptive capacity (TmG) of the kidney, as well as the threshold for glucose spillage into the urine, are elevated, contributing to the pathogenesis of hyperglycaemia. By reducing the TmG and, more importantly, the threshold of glucosuria, SGLT2 inhibitors enhance glucose excretion, leading to a reduction in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels and improvements in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881565/low-dose-aspirin-for-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-10-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Yoshihiko Saito, Sadanori Okada, Hisao Ogawa, Hirofumi Soejima, Mio Sakuma, Masafumi Nakayama, Naofumi Doi, Hideaki Jinnouchi, Masako Waki, Izuru Masuda, Takeshi Morimoto
BACKGROUND: The long-term efficacy and safety of low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are still inconclusive. METHODS: The JPAD trial (Japanese Primary Prevention of Atherosclerosis With Aspirin for Diabetes) was a randomized, open-label, standard care-controlled trial examining whether low-dose aspirin affected cardiovascular events in 2539 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without preexisting cardiovascular disease...
February 14, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929713/postoperative-thyroglobulin-and-neck-ultrasound-in-the-risk-re-stratification-and-decision-to-perform-131-i-ablation
#11
Antonio Matrone, Carla Gambale, Paolo Piaggi, David Viola, Carlotta Giani, Laura Agate, Valeria Bottici, Francesca Bianchi, Gabriele Materazzi, Paolo Vitti, Eleonora Molinaro, Rossella Elisei
CONTEXT: For many years, total thyroidectomy (TTx) and radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) represented the initial treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). There is currently much debate surrounding the clinical impact of RRA, particularly in low (LR) and intermediate (IR) risk DTC. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of postoperative High-Sensitive Thyroglobulin on L-thyroxine (LT4-HSTg) and postoperative neck ultrasound (nUS) in risk re-stratification and decision to perform RRA...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450696/therapy-of-endocrine-disease-improvement-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-after-adrenalectomy-in-patients-with-adrenal-tumors-and-subclinical-cushing-s-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Irina Bancos, Fares Alahdab, Rachel K Crowley, Vasileios Chortis, Danae A Delivanis, Dana Erickson, Neena Natt, Massimo Terzolo, Wiebke Arlt, William F Young, M Hassan Murad
OBJECTIVE: Beneficial effects of adrenalectomy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) are uncertain. We sought to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (i) determine the effect of adrenalectomy compared with conservative management on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SCS and (ii) compare the effect of adrenalectomy on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with SCS vs those with a nonfunctioning (NF) adrenal tumor...
December 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811940/the-endocrine-manifestations-of-anorexia-nervosa-mechanisms-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Melanie Schorr, Karen K Miller
Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by altered body image, persistent food restriction and low body weight, and is associated with global endocrine dysregulation in both adolescent girls and women. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis includes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with relative oestrogen and androgen deficiency, growth hormone resistance, hypercortisolaemia, non-thyroidal illness syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypooxytocinaemia. Serum levels of leptin, an anorexigenic adipokine, are suppressed and levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic gut peptide, are elevated in women with anorexia nervosa; however, levels of peptide YY, an anorexigenic gut peptide, are paradoxically elevated...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27654602/effect-of-wearable-technology-combined-with-a-lifestyle-intervention-on-long-term-weight-loss-the-idea-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
John M Jakicic, Kelliann K Davis, Renee J Rogers, Wendy C King, Marsha D Marcus, Diane Helsel, Amy D Rickman, Abdus S Wahed, Steven H Belle
Importance: Effective long-term treatments are needed to address the obesity epidemic. Numerous wearable technologies specific to physical activity and diet are available, but it is unclear if these are effective at improving weight loss. Objective: To test the hypothesis that, compared with a standard behavioral weight loss intervention (standard intervention), a technology-enhanced weight loss intervention (enhanced intervention) would result in greater weight loss...
September 20, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700539/is-a-normal-tsh-synonymous-with-euthyroidism-in-levothyroxine-monotherapy
#15
Sarah J Peterson, Elizabeth A McAninch, Antonio C Bianco
CONTEXT: Levothyroxine (LT4) monotherapy is the standard of care for hypothyroidism. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether LT4 at doses that normalize the serum TSH is associated with normal markers of thyroid status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2012) was used to evaluate 52 clinical parameters. LT4 users were compared to healthy controls and controls matched for age, sex, race, and serum TSH...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633186/semaglutide-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Steven P Marso, Stephen C Bain, Agostino Consoli, Freddy G Eliaschewitz, Esteban Jódar, Lawrence A Leiter, Ildiko Lingvay, Julio Rosenstock, Jochen Seufert, Mark L Warren, Vincent Woo, Oluf Hansen, Anders G Holst, Jonas Pettersson, Tina Vilsbøll
Background Regulatory guidance specifies the need to establish cardiovascular safety of new diabetes therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to rule out excess cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular effects of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue with an extended half-life of approximately 1 week, in type 2 diabetes are unknown. Methods We randomly assigned 3297 patients with type 2 diabetes who were on a standard-care regimen to receive once-weekly semaglutide (0.5 mg or 1.0 mg) or placebo for 104 weeks...
November 10, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643842/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-disease-state-clinical-review-diagnosis-of-recurrence-in-cushing-disease
#17
Maria Fleseriu, Amir H Hamrahian, Andrew R Hoffman, Daniel F Kelly, Laurence Katznelson
Recurrence of hypercortisolemia after initial treatment of Cushing disease (CD) is more common than previously thought, with a third of patients suffering a recurrence over their lifetime. Awareness of this high rate and delayed timeline (sometimes decades) of potential recurrence is critical and patients with CD should be monitored at regular intervals throughout their lives. In this manuscript, we review the complex evaluation needed for defining CD remission versus persistent disease after surgery, and focus on challenges in diagnosing early recurrent hypercortisolemia...
December 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662440/the-desmopressin-test-predicts-better-than-basal-cortisol-the-long-term-surgical-outcome-of-cushing-s-disease
#18
D A Vassiliadi, M Balomenaki, A Asimakopoulou, E Botoula, M Tzanela, S Tsagarakis
CONTEXT: Cushing's disease (CD) has a significant relapse rate after successful transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Many CD patients respond aberrantly to the desmopressin test (DT). Disappearance of this response after surgery may suggest complete removal of abnormal corticotrophs and a lower possibility of recurrence. OBJECTIVE: The utility of postoperative DT to predict long-term outcome compared to the widely used postoperative cortisol level. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009625/effects-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-cardiovascular-events-death-and-major-safety-outcomes-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Jason H Y Wu, Celine Foote, Juuso Blomster, Tadashi Toyama, Vlado Perkovic, Johan Sundström, Bruce Neal
BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are known to reduce glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and weight, but to increase LDL cholesterol and the incidence of urogenital infections. Protection against cardiovascular events has also been reported, as have possible increased risks of adverse outcomes such as ketoacidosis and bone fracture. We aimed to establish the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events, death, and safety outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes, both overall and separately for individual drugs...
May 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26831302/glp-1-receptors-exist-in-the-parietal-cortex-hypothalamus-and-medulla-of-human-brains-and-the-glp-1-analogue-liraglutide-alters-brain-activity-related-to-highly-desirable-food-cues-in-individuals-with-diabetes-a-crossover-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Olivia M Farr, Michail Sofopoulos, Michael A Tsoukas, Fadime Dincer, Bindiya Thakkar, Ayse Sahin-Efe, Andreas Filippaios, Jennifer Bowers, Alexandra Srnka, Anna Gavrieli, Byung-Joon Ko, Chrysoula Liakou, Nickole Kanyuch, Sofia Tseleni-Balafouta, Christos S Mantzoros
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that has been demonstrated to successfully treat diabetes and promote weight loss. The mechanisms by which liraglutide confers weight loss remain to be fully clarified. Thus, we investigated whether GLP-1 receptors are expressed in human brains and whether liraglutide administration affects neural responses to food cues in diabetic individuals (primary outcome). METHODS: In 22 consecutively studied human brains, expression of GLP-1 receptors in the hypothalamus, medulla oblongata and parietal cortex was examined using immunohistochemistry...
May 2016: Diabetologia
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