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Reward dysfunction in AD/HD

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288 papers 500 to 1000 followers Several notable papers detailing recent and historical evidence for amotivational symptoms in AD/HD
Hitomi Sasamori, Yu Ohmura, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement, substance abuse, and suicide. However, only a few drugs are clinically available for the treatment of deficient impulse control. We recently proposed a strategy for identifying potential drugs to treat such disorders by investigating clinically available drugs that increase extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex and stimulate dopamine D1 -like receptors without increasing extracellular dopamine levels in the ventral striatum...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Katie L Bessette, Michael C Stevens
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) abnormalities in relationships between brain white matter structure and individual differences in several types of impulsive behavior. METHODS: Adolescents, n = 67 with ADHD combined subtype and n = 68 without ADHD, were given neuropsychological tests and underwent diffusion tensor imaging scans. Principal component analysis reduced test scores into factors representing different types of impulsive behavior...
September 29, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Nadja Freund, Chloe J Jordan, Jodi L Lukkes, Kevin J Norman, Susan L Andersen
RATIONALE: Both methylphenidate (MPH), a catecholamine reuptake blocker, and guanfacine, an alpha2A agonist, are used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Childhood impulsivity, including delay discounting, is associated with increased substance use during adolescence. These effects can be mitigated by juvenile exposure to MPH, but less is known about the long-term effects of developmental exposure to guanfacine in males and females. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine sex differences and dose-dependent effects of juvenile exposure to MPH or guanfacine on delay-discounting and later cocaine self-administration...
November 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jaime J Castrellon, Kendra L Seaman, Jennifer L Crawford, Jacob S Young, Christopher T Smith, Linh C Dang, Ming Hsu, Ronald L Cowan, David H Zald, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
Some people are more willing to make immediate, risky, or costly reward-focused choices than others, which has been hypothesized to be associated with individual differences in dopamine (DA) function. In two studies using PET imaging, one empirical (Study 1: N=144 males and females across 3 samples) and one meta-analytic (Study 2: N=307 across 12 samples), we sought to characterize associations between individual differences in DA and time, probability, and physical effort discounting in human adults. Study 1 demonstrated that individual differences in DA D2-like receptors were not associated with time or probability discounting of monetary rewards in healthy humans, and associations with physical effort discounting were inconsistent across adults of different ages...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Otmane Bouchatta, Houria Manouze, Rabia Bouali-Benazzouz, Nóra Kerekes, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Pascal Fossat, Marc Landry, Mohamed Bennis
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The "neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine" (6-OHDA) lesion is a commonly used model of ADHD in rat. However, a comprehensive assessment of ADHD-like symptoms is still missing, and data in mouse remain largely unavailable. Our aim was to analyse symptoms of ADHD in the mouse neonatal 6-OHDA model. 6-OHDA mice exhibited the major ADHD-like symptoms, i.e. hyperactivity (open field), attention deficit and impulsivity (five-choice serial reaction time task)...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joman Y Natsheh, Michael W Shiflett
Aside from its clinical symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, patients with Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) display reward and motivational impairments. These impairments may reflect a deficit in action control, that is, an inability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing consequences. We previously showed that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an inbred rodent model of ADHD, show impairments in goal-directed action control, and instead are predominated by habits. In this study, we examined the effects of specific dopamine receptor sub-type (D1 and D2) agonists and antagonists on goal-directed behavior in SHR and the normotensive inbred control strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Wan-Ling Tseng, Christen M Deveney, Joel Stoddard, Katharina Kircanski, Anna E Frackman, Jennifer Y Yi, Derek Hsu, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Laura Donahue, Alexandra Roule, Gretchen Perhamus, Richard C Reynolds, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Childhood irritability is a common, impairing problem with changing age-related manifestations that predict long-term adverse outcomes. However, more investigation of overall and age-specific neural correlates is needed. Because youths with irritability exhibit exaggerated responses to frustrating stimuli, the authors used a frustration functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to examine associations between irritability and neural activation and tested the moderating effect of age. METHOD: The authors studied a transdiagnostic sample of 195 youths with varying levels of irritability (disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, N=52; anxiety disorder, N=42; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, N=40; and healthy volunteers, N=61)...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Shen Qu, Weidong Le, Xiong Zhang, Wenjie Xie, Aijun Zhang, William G Ondo
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic condition involving iron and dopamine systems. We sought to create an animal model consistent with RLS based on current understanding of human pathology. We performed bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning in the A11 nucleus of C57BL/6 mice and deprived a subset of mice from dietary iron to observe whether these manipulations can increase motor activity. Iron levels in serum, brain, and especially spinal cord were significantly decreased after iron deprivation...
May 2007: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Sarah Baumeister, Isabella Wolf, Sarah Hohmann, Nathalie Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis
Neurofeedback (NF) is a non-pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is targeting self-regulation, is efficacious when standard protocols are used and induces partly specific neurophysiological changes in the inhibitory network. However, its effects on reward processing, which is also considered an important aspect of ADHD and has been linked to neurophysiological deficits, remain unknown. Children with ADHD (N = 15, mean age 11.8, SD 1.52) were randomly assigned to either slow cortical potential NF (n = 8) or EMG biofeedback control training (n = 7) and received 20 sessions of training under comparable conditions...
September 17, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Daniel Augusto Utsumi, Mônica Carolina Miranda
INTRODUCTION: Temporal discounting (TD) describes how a certain reward is seen as less valuable the more its delivery is postponed. There are two main types of TD tasks, hypothetical and real, both of which use monetary rewards. Over the last few years, however, variants of these tasks have been adjusted to assess clinical groups of children showing impulsivity as found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss studies conducted over the last 10 years on the use of TD tasks in the assessment of pediatric patients with ADHD...
July 2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Nathalie E Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Erika Hohm, Arlette F Buchmann, Dorothea Blomeyer, Sarah Baumeister, Michael M Plichta, Günter Esser, Martin Schmidt, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Manfred Laucht
Reward processing is altered in various psychopathologies and has been shown to be susceptible to genetic and environmental influences. Here, we examined whether maternal care may buffer familial risk for psychiatric disorders in terms of reward processing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during a monetary incentive delay task was acquired in participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth (N = 172, 25 years). Early maternal stimulation was assessed during a standardized nursing/playing setting at the age of 3 months...
November 8, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Mauricio Scopel Hoffmann, Pedro Mario Pan, Gisele Gus Manfro, Jair de Jesus Mari, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Luis Augusto Rohde, Giovanni Abrahão Salum
Here we evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between temperament and mental disorders in adolescents. Temperament was assessed in a cohort of 1540 youths by the revised self-report Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire (EATQ-R) at baseline and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the best empirical model. Mental disorders were assessed by parental interview using the Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Participants were grouped into Typically Developing Comparisons, Phobias, Distress, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD)...
September 26, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Kariina Laas, Diva Eensoo, Marika Paaver, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Jaanus Harro
Administration of neuropeptide S (NPS) elicits anxiolysis, arousal and higher activity in rodents. In humans, the NPS receptor (NPSR1) gene rs324981 A/T (Asn(107)Ile) polymorphism is associated with fear responses and anxiety. We have recently revealed an association of NPSR1 with impulsivity-related traits and psychopathology. In the present study the association of the NPSR1 genotype with impulsivity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms was re-examined in two independent non-clinical cohorts...
August 2015: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Allison M Daurio, Sean A Aston, Melanie L Schwandt, Mohammad O Bukhari, Sofia Bouhlal, Mehdi Farokhnia, Mary R Lee, Lorenzo Leggio
BACKGROUND: While the role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been established, the underlying pathways connecting the two are still not fully understood. Overlapping constructs such as impulsivity may explain the increased risk for developing AUD in individuals with ADHD. METHODS: In this study, we assessed whether adult ADHD symptoms increase the odds of having a diagnosis of AUD. Furthermore, we tested whether facets of impulsivity explained the relationship between ADHD symptoms and alcohol dependence (AD) severity...
January 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Inge Antrop, Ann Buysse, Herbert Roeyers, Paulette Van Oost
BACKGROUND: According to the optimal stimulation theory and the delay aversion hypothesis, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience difficulties when they are confronted with low levels of stimulation and delay, respectively. AIM: This study investigated the activity level of children with ADHD during waiting situations in the classroom. Three series of hypothesis were made: (1) with respect to the comparison between waiting and non-waiting intervals, (2) with respect to the effects of non-temporal stimulation, and (3) with respect to the effects of temporal stimulation on behaviour during waiting...
March 2005: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Susanne Steinlechner, Norbert Brüggemann, Vera Sobottka, Alexander Benthien, Birte Behn, Christine Klein, Gabriele Schmid, Rebekka Lencer
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder with estimated prevalence of 5% in children and 3.4% in adults. Psychiatric disorders are a frequent concomitant feature. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) may mimic the symptoms of ADHD. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether the presence of RLS predicts occurrence of psychiatric disorders in parents of children with ADHD. Thirty-seven parents of 26 children with ADHD were examined for RLS and for lifetime prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and personality disorders based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnoses (SCID)...
June 2011: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
M Moreno, D Economidou, A C Mar, C López-Granero, D Caprioli, D E Theobald, A Fernando, A H Newman, T W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley
RATIONALE: Previously we demonstrated reduced D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum of hyper-impulsive rats on the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). However, the anatomical locus of D2/3 receptor dysfunction in high impulsive (HI) rats is unknown. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated whether D2/3 receptor dysfunction in HI rats is localised to the core or shell sub-regions of the nucleus accumbens (NAcb). METHODS: Rats were selected for low (low impulsive, LI) and high impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT and implanted with guide cannulae targeting the NAcb core and shell...
July 2013: Psychopharmacology
T Sagvolden, M A Metzger, G Sagvolden
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a strain that is a potential animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/childhood hyperkinesis/disturbance of activity and attention, as SHR exhibit both hyperactivity and attention problems. Altered reinforcement (reward) processes have been suggested as the mechanism for the development of hyperactivity in SHR and ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to analyze basic reinforcement and response processes in the hyperactive SHR and in the progenitor Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control strain...
May 1993: Behavioral and Neural Biology
Carlin J Miller, Scott R Miller, Dione M Healey, Katie Marshall, Jeffrey M Halperin
Temperament and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both typically viewed as biologically based behavioural constructs. There is substantial overlap between ADHD symptoms and specific temperamental traits, such as effortful control, especially in young children. Recent work by Martel and colleagues ( 2009 , 2011 ) suggests that cognitive control temperamental processes are more closely related to inattention symptoms, whereas stimulus-driven temperamental processes are linked to hyperactivity-impulsivity...
2013: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Joaquim Alves da Silva, Fatuel Tecuapetla, Vitor Paixão, Rui M Costa
Deciding when and whether to move is critical for survival. Loss of dopamine neurons (DANs) of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease causes deficits in movement initiation and slowness of movement. The role of DANs in self-paced movement has mostly been attributed to their tonic activity, whereas phasic changes in DAN activity have been linked to reward prediction. This model has recently been challenged by studies showing transient changes in DAN activity before or during self-paced movement initiation...
February 8, 2018: Nature
2018-09-18 19:18:09
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