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Reward dysfunction in AD/HD

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269 papers 500 to 1000 followers Several notable papers detailing recent and historical evidence for amotivational symptoms in AD/HD
Joaquim Alves da Silva, Fatuel Tecuapetla, Vitor Paixão, Rui M Costa
Deciding when and whether to move is critical for survival. Loss of dopamine neurons (DANs) of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease causes deficits in movement initiation and slowness of movement. The role of DANs in self-paced movement has mostly been attributed to their tonic activity, whereas phasic changes in DAN activity have been linked to reward prediction. This model has recently been challenged by studies showing transient changes in DAN activity before or during self-paced movement initiation...
February 8, 2018: Nature
A Ross Otto, Nathaniel D Daw
A spate of recent work demonstrates that humans seek to avoid the expenditure of cognitive effort, much like physical effort or economic resources. Less is clear, however, about the circumstances dictating how and when people decide to expend cognitive effort. Here we adopt a popular theory of opportunity costs and response vigor and to elucidate this question. This account, grounded in Reinforcement Learning, formalizes a trade-off between two costs: the harder work assumed necessary to emit faster actions and the opportunity cost inherent in acting more slowly (i...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Michael C Stevens, Godfrey D Pearlson, Vince D Calhoun, Katie L Bessette
BACKGROUND: A challenge facing clinical neuroscientists is how best to synthesize diverse and sometimes inconsistent evidence for neuropsychological deficits and brain system dysfunction found in psychiatric disorders into models that guide etiological and treatment research. Multiple-pathway models suggest that psychiatric symptoms might arise from pathophysiology in different neural systems. This study tested dual-pathway model predictions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that reward and executive function cognitive deficits should be related to abnormalities in corresponding functionally specialized neural systems...
August 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Gabry W Mies, Erik de Water, Jan R Wiersema, Anouk Scheres
Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to have stronger preferences for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards in delay discounting tasks than their peers, which has been argued to reflect delay aversion. Here, participants performed a delay discounting task with gains and losses. In this latter condition, participants were asked whether they were willing to wait in order to lose less money. Following the core assumption of the delay aversion model that individuals with ADHD have a general aversion to delay, one would predict adolescents with ADHD to avoid waiting in both conditions...
August 15, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Emi Furukawa, Brent Alsop, Egas M Caparelli-Dáquer, Erasmo Barbante Casella, Raquel Quimas Molina da Costa, Priscila de Moura Queiroz, Paula Almeida Galvão, Lúcia Rios da Silva Benevides, Helena Pinheiro Jucá-Vasconcelos, Gail Tripp
Altered reinforcement sensitivity is hypothesized to underlie symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we evaluate the behavioral sensitivity of Brazilian children with and without ADHD to a change in reward availability. Forty typically developing children and 32 diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different frequencies of reinforcement. The response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched, without warning, after 30 rewards were delivered...
September 6, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Ann-Marie Low, Julijana le Sommer, Signe Vangkilde, Birgitte Fagerlund, Birte Glenthøj, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Thomas Habekost, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen
Background: ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder, associated with deficits in motivation (e.g., delay aversion) and cognition. Methylphenidate is recommended as a first line treatment for ADHD symptoms, but little is known about its non-acute effects on motivational and cognitive deficits, particularly in adults with ADHD. Methods: We utilized a prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded, six-week follow-up design with 42 initially stimulant medication-naïve adult patients with moderate to severe ADHD, and 42 age- and parental education-matched healthy controls...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Zoe R Smith, Joshua M Langberg
Preeminent theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that motivation deficits are core underlying features of the disorder. However, it is currently unclear whether empirical evidence supports the assertion that significant group (ADHD v. comparison) differences in motivation exist or that problems with motivation contribute to the functional impairments that youth with ADHD experience. Accordingly, this review focused on evaluating and summarizing the empirical literature on the presence of motivation deficits and their association with functional outcomes in samples of youth with ADHD...
August 23, 2018: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
Joshua D Berke
Dopamine is a critical modulator of both learning and motivation. This presents a problem: how can target cells know whether increased dopamine is a signal to learn or to move? It is often presumed that motivation involves slow ('tonic') dopamine changes, while fast ('phasic') dopamine fluctuations convey reward prediction errors for learning. Yet recent studies have shown that dopamine conveys motivational value and promotes movement even on subsecond timescales. Here I describe an alternative account of how dopamine regulates ongoing behavior...
June 2018: Nature Neuroscience
H C Jackson, I Kitchen
The behavioural effects of selective mu-, kappa- and delta-opioid agonists in 5-, 10- and 20-day-old rats were investigated by observational analysis. The predominant response to mu-agonists was behavioural depression. High doses (10 mg/kg IP) of morphine and DAGO (D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin) produced overt sedation in all the age groups and also induced catalepsy which was particularly apparent in the 5- and 10-day-old animals. These compounds did not produce any signs of behavioural activation in the neonatal rats...
1989: Psychopharmacology
M J Groom, G M Jackson, T G Calton, H K Andrews, A T Bates, P F Liddle, C Hollis
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the areas of executive function, verbal memory and attention. Subtle deficits have been shown in healthy first-degree relatives of patients, suggesting that they may be trait markers. The specificity of these markers for schizophrenia compared with another neurodevelopmental disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has not been reliably established. METHODS: The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), FAS Test of orthographic verbal fluency (FAS) and Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP) were administered to adolescent schizophrenia spectrum patients (SZ; n=30), adolescent siblings of schizophrenia spectrum patients (SZ-SIB; n=36), healthy control participants (HC; n=72); a neurodevelopmental comparison group of adolescents with ADHD (n=27)...
February 2008: Schizophrenia Research
Nicoletta Adamo, John Hodsoll, Philip Asherson, Jan K Buitelaar, Jonna Kuntsi
Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been linked to increased reaction time variability (RTV), a marker of attentional fluctuation. Here we test whether specificity to either trait emerges when we examine (1) detailed ex-Gaussian and frequency RTV subcomponents, (2) effects while controlling for the other trait and (3) improvement in the RTV measures following rewards or a faster event rate. 1110 children aged 7-10 years from a population-based sample completed a Go/No-Go task under three conditions (slow, fast and incentives)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Jana Tegelbeckers, Martin Kanowski, Kerstin Krauel, John-Dylan Haynes, Carolin Breitling, Hans-Henning Flechtner, Thorsten Kahnt
Alterations in motivated behavior are a hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a key role in controlling goal-directed behavior, but the link between OFC dysfunction and behavioral deficits in ADHD, particularly in adolescence, remains poorly understood. Here we used advanced high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human OFC in adolescents with ADHD and typically developing (TD) controls ( N = 39, age 12-16, all male except for one female per group) to study reward-related OFC responses and how they relate to behavioral dysfunction in ADHD...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gabry W Mies, Ili Ma, Erik de Water, Jan K Buitelaar, Anouk Scheres
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with ADHD have a relatively strong preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards (steep delay discounting). It is unknown whether such steep discounting of rewards is specific for delayed rewards, i.e., supporting the delay aversion account of ADHD, or whether it is also present for effortful rewards, i.e., representing general reward insensitivity. Therefore, this study examined behavioral and BOLD responses during delay discounting (DD) and effort discounting (ED) in ADHD...
September 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Andan Qian, Jiejie Tao, Xin Wang, Huiru Liu, Lingxiao Ji, Chuang Yang, Qiong Ye, Chengchun Chen, Jiance Li, Jingliang Cheng, Meihao Wang, Ke Zhao
Objective : Genetic variation, especially polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), has been linked to deficits in self-regulation and executive functions and to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and is related to the structural and functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN), the executive control network (ECN) and the sensorimotor network (SMN). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the 2-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene on brain network connectivity and behaviors in children with ADHD...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bernis Sutcubasi, Baris Metin, Cumhur Tas, Fatma Keskin Krzan, Berna A Sarı, Betul Ozcimen, Nevzat Tarhan
Alterations in reward processing are frequently reported in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One important factor affecting reward processing is the quality of reward as social and monetary rewards are processed by different neural networks. However, the effect of reward type on reward processing in ADHD has not been extensively studied. Hence, in the current study, an exploratory research was conducted to investigate the effect of reward type (i.e., social or monetary) on different phases of reward processing...
October 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Muhammad A Parvaz, Kristen Kim, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Iliyan Ivanov
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with elevated risk for later development of substance use disorders (SUD), specifically because youth with ADHD, similar to individuals with SUD, exhibit deficits in learning abilities and reward processing. Another known risk factor for SUD is familial history of substance dependence. Youth with familial SUD history show reward processing deficits, higher prevalence of externalizing disorders, and higher impulsivity scores...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Clara Pretus, Marisol Picado, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Susana Carmona, Vanesa Richarte, Jordi Fauquet, Óscar Vilarroya
AIM: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) neuroimaging studies have identified substantial differences in reward-related circuits on a trial-by-trial basis. However, no research to date has evaluated the effect of motivational context on neural activity in settings with intermittent reward in ADHD. The present study was designed to identify neural processes underlying both immediate effects of reward and sustained effects of reward associated with motivational context in adult ADHD patients...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hossein Aleyasin, Meghan E Flanigan, Sam A Golden, Aki Takahashi, Caroline Menard, Madeline L Pfau, Jacob Multer, Jacqueline Pina, Kathryn A McCabe, Naemal Bhatti, Georgia E Hodes, Mitra Heshmati, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller, Scott J Russo
A growing number of studies implicate the brain's reward circuitry in aggressive behavior. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms within brain reward regions that modulate the intensity of aggression as well as motivation for it have been underexplored. Here, we investigate the cell-type-specific influence of ΔFosB, a transcription factor known to regulate a range of reward and motivated behaviors, acting in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key reward region, in male aggression in mice. We show that ΔFosB is specifically increased in dopamine D1 receptor (Drd1)-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) in NAc after repeated aggressive encounters...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Johanna Inhyang Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Inkyung Shin, Bung-Nyun Kim
OBJECTIVES: Environmental factors may interact with genetic factors via the epigenetic process, and this interaction can contribute to inter-individual variability in the treatment response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction effects between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) methylation and prenatal maternal stress on the methylphenidate (MPH) response of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This study was an 8-week open-label trial of MPH that included 74 ADHD youth...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Young-Cho Kim, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Considerable evidence has shown that prefrontal neurons expressing D1-type dopamine receptors (D1DRs) are critical for working memory, flexibility, and timing. This line of work predicts that frontal neurons expressing D1DRs mediate cognitive processing. During timing tasks, one form this cognitive processing might take is time-dependent ramping activity-monotonic changes in firing rate over time. Thus, we hypothesized the prefrontal D1DR+ neurons would strongly exhibit time-dependent ramping during interval timing...
June 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
2018-06-18 16:39:33
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