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evolutionary development/psychology

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13 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Grant D. Nelson, PhD Professor & Clinician of Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine
Leda Cosmides, John Tooby
Evolutionary psychology is the second wave of the cognitive revolution. The first wave focused on computational processes that generate knowledge about the world: perception, attention, categorization, reasoning, learning, and memory. The second wave views the brain as composed of evolved computational systems, engineered by natural selection to use information to adaptively regulate physiology and behavior. This shift in focus--from knowledge acquisition to the adaptive regulation of behavior--provides new ways of thinking about every topic in psychology...
2013: Annual Review of Psychology
David M Althoff, Kari A Segraves, Marc T J Johnson
Coevolutionary diversification is cited as a major mechanism driving the evolution of diversity, particularly in plants and insects. However, tests of coevolutionary diversification have focused on elucidating macroevolutionary patterns rather than the processes giving rise to such patterns. Hence, there is weak evidence that coevolution promotes diversification. This is in part due to a lack of understanding about the mechanisms by which coevolution can cause speciation and the difficulty of integrating results across micro- and macroevolutionary scales...
February 2014: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
J Arvid Ă…gren
The history of life has been characterised by evolutionary transitions in individuality, the grouping together of independently replicating units into new larger wholes: genes to chromosomes, chromosomes in genomes, up to three genomes in cells, and cells in multicellular organisms that form groups and societies. Central to understanding these transitions is to determine what prevents selfish behaviour at lower levels from disrupting the functionality of higher levels. Here, I review work on transposable elements, a common source of disruption at the genome level, in light of the evolutionary transitions framework, and argue that the rapid influx of data on transposons from whole-genome sequencing has created a rich data source to incorporate into the study of evolutionary transitions in individuality...
February 2014: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Randolph M Nesse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2013: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
R L Burgess
Increasing numbers of young mothers in the work force, more and more children requiring extrafamilial care, high rates of divorce, lower rates of remarriage, increasing numbers of female-headed households, growing numbers of zero-parent families, and significant occurrences of child maltreatment are just some of the social indicators indicative of the family in a changing world. These trends and their consequences for children are described and then examined from the perspectives of microeconomic theory, the relative-income hypothesis, sex-ratio theory, and one form of modernization theory...
June 1994: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Kathleen E Lynch, Darrell J Kemp
Quantitative geneticists traditionally attribute phenotypic variation to genetic or environmental sources. New findings with near-clonal mice raised in a single enriched environment demonstrated significant developmental and behavioural divergence. This suggests intriguing possibilities for how (epi)genomes and environments might interact to drive phenotypic individuality, thus shaping evolutionary pathways.
January 2014: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
T Bereczkei, A Csanaky
An evolutionary theory of socialization suggests that children from father-absent families will mature earlier, and form less-stable pair bonds, compared with those from father-present families. Using a sample of about 1,000 persons the recent study focuses on elements of father-absent children's behavior that could be better explained by a Darwinian approach than by rival social science theories. As a result of their enhanced interest in male competition, father-absent boys were found to engage in rule-breaking behavior more intensively than father-present boys...
September 1996: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Robert Lanfear, Hanna Kokko, Adam Eyre-Walker
Does evolution proceed faster in larger or smaller populations? The relationship between effective population size (Ne) and the rate of evolution has consequences for our ability to understand and interpret genomic variation, and is central to many aspects of evolution and ecology. Many factors affect the relationship between Ne and the rate of evolution, and recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown some surprising and sometimes counterintuitive results. Some mechanisms tend to make the relationship positive, others negative, and they can act simultaneously...
January 2014: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Patrick Bateson, Kevin N Laland
This year is the 50th anniversary of Tinbergen's (1963) article 'On aims and methods of ethology', where he first outlined the four 'major problems of biology'. The classification of the four problems, or questions, is one of Tinbergen's most enduring legacies, and it remains as valuable today as 50 years ago in highlighting the value of a comprehensive, multifaceted understanding of a characteristic, with answers to each question providing complementary insights. Nonetheless, much has changed in the intervening years, and new data call for a more nuanced application of Tinbergen's framework...
December 2013: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Ashlea M Klahr, S Alexandra Burt
Decades of research have indicated the foundational importance of parenting to offspring outcomes during childhood and beyond. Unearthing the specific origins of parenting is therefore a critically important research objective. Extant research on this topic has suggested that parenting behaviors are multidetermined (Belsky, 1984) and are associated with a wide range of contextual and familial characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, community, family financial stress), as well as characteristics of the parents (e...
March 2014: Psychological Bulletin
Peter T Saunders
While Darwinism has contributed much to our understanding of the living world, it has not given us an adequate account of why organisms are the way they are and how they came to be that way. For that we will need all of science, not just a single algorithm. The crucial contribution of Darwinism to biology is that it explains how we can have functional physical traits without a creator. This is less important in psychology because no one is surprised when people behave in ways that work to their advantage. Evolutionary psychology nevertheless follows the Darwinian model...
2013: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Paul E Griffiths, James Tabery
We examine developmental systems theory (DST) with two questions in mind: What does DST explain? How does DST explain it? To answer these questions, we start by reviewing major contributions to the origins of DST: the introduction of the idea of a "developmental system", the idea of probabilistic epigenesis, the attention to the role of information in the developmental system, and finally the explicit identification of a DST. We then consider what DST is not, contrasting it with two approaches that have been foils for DST: behavioral genetics and nativist cognitive psychology...
2013: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Karl Friston
This paper presents a heuristic proof (and simulations of a primordial soup) suggesting that life-or biological self-organization-is an inevitable and emergent property of any (ergodic) random dynamical system that possesses a Markov blanket. This conclusion is based on the following arguments: if the coupling among an ensemble of dynamical systems is mediated by short-range forces, then the states of remote systems must be conditionally independent. These independencies induce a Markov blanket that separates internal and external states in a statistical sense...
September 6, 2013: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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