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Principles of medical education

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149 papers 1000+ followers Key papers used in the Principles of medical education: maximizing your teaching skills CME course -
By Shapiro Institute Education Institute at BIDMC and HMS, Boston
J M Monica van de Ridder, William C McGaghie, Karel M Stokking, Olle T J ten Cate
CONTEXT: Feedback is considered important in medical education. The literature is not clear about the mechanisms that contribute to its effects, which are often small to moderate and at times contradictory. A variety of variables seem to influence the impact of feedback on learning. The aim of this study was to determine which variables influence the process and outcomes of feedback in settings relevant to medical education. METHODS: A myriad of studies on feedback have been conducted...
July 2015: Medical Education
Marjorie D Wenrich, Molly Blackley Jackson, Ramoncita R Maestas, Ineke H A P Wolfhagen, Albert J J Scherpbier
BACKGROUND: Medical students learn clinical skills at the bedside from teaching clinicians, who often learn to teach by teaching. Little is known about the process of becoming an effective clinical teacher. Understanding how teaching skills and approaches change with experience may help tailor faculty development for new teachers. Focusing on giving feedback to early learners, the authors asked: What is the developmental progression of clinician-teachers as they learn to give clinical skills feedback to medical students? METHOD: This qualitative study included longitudinal interviews with clinician-teachers over five years in a new clinical skills teaching program for preclinical medical students...
November 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
David A Cohen, Lori R Newman, Laurie N Fishman
The authors share twelve practical tips on writing a case that engages learners in active learning and discussion. They first advise that, during the initial preparation of the case, authors should (1) identify the case goals and objectives, and (2) identify the level of the learners. When writing the case, authors should (3) use active and colorful language; (4) use patients' own descriptions rather than medical language; (5) allow the learners to interpret data themselves; (6) allow for natural discovery rather than presenting information chronologically; and (7) be realistic about interruptions in patient care...
February 2017: Medical Teacher
Yu-Fen Chen, Xuan-Yi Huang, Ching-Hui Chien, Jui-Fen Cheng
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness on reducing anxiety of a diaphragmatic breathing relaxation (DBR) training program. DESIGN AND METHODS: This experimental, pre-test-post-test randomized controlled trial with repeated measures collected data using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and biofeedback tests for skin conductivity, peripheral blood flow, heart rate, and breathing rate. FINDINGS: The experimental group achieved significant reductions in Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (p < ...
October 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
Kelly J Caverzagie, Thomas G Cooney, Paul A Hemmer, Lee Berkowitz
PURPOSE: The Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine charged its Education Redesign Committee with the task of assisting internal medicine residency program directors in meeting the challenges of competency-based assessment that were part of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME's) Next Accreditation System. METHOD: Recognizing the limitations of the ACGME general competencies as an organizing framework for assessment and the inability of the milestones to provide the needed context for faculty to assess residents' competence, the Education Redesign Committee in 2011 adopted the work-based assessment framework of entrustable professional activities (EPAs)...
April 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
John Sandars, Rakesh S Patel, Poh Sun Goh, Patricia K Kokatailo, Natalie Lafferty
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing use of technology for teaching and learning in medical education but often the use of educational theory to inform the design is not made explicit. The educational theories, both normative and descriptive, used by medical educators determine how the technology is intended to facilitate learning and may explain why some interventions with technology may be less effective compared with others. AIMS: The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of medical educators making explicit the educational theories that inform their design of interventions using technology...
2015: Medical Teacher
Barbara J Daley, Dario M Torre
OBJECTIVES As the medical profession continues to change, so do the educational methods by which medical students are taught. Various authors have acknowledged the need for alternative teaching and learning strategies that will enable medical students to retain vast amounts of information, integrate critical thinking skills and solve a range of complex clinical problems. Previous research has indicated that concept maps may be one such teaching and learning strategy. This article aims to: (i) review the current research on concept maps as a potential pedagogical approach to medical student learning, and (ii) discuss implications for medical student teaching and learning, as well as directions for future research...
May 2010: Medical Education
Johnathan D Tune, Michael Sturek, David P Basile
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a traditional lecture-based curriculum versus a modified "flipped classroom" curriculum of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal physiology delivered to first-year graduate students. Students in both courses were provided the same notes and recorded lectures. Students in the modified flipped classroom were required to watch the prerecorded lectures before class and then attend class, where they received a quiz or homework covering material in each lecture (valued at 25% of the final grade) followed by a question and answer/problem-solving period...
December 2013: Advances in Physiology Education
Jacqueline E McLaughlin, Mary T Roth, Dylan M Glatt, Nastaran Gharkholonarehe, Christopher A Davidson, LaToya M Griffin, Denise A Esserman, Russell J Mumper
Recent calls for educational reform highlight ongoing concerns about the ability of current curricula to equip aspiring health care professionals with the skills for success. Whereas a wide range of proposed solutions attempt to address apparent deficiencies in current educational models, a growing body of literature consistently points to the need to rethink the traditional in-class, lecture-based course model. One such proposal is the flipped classroom, in which content is offloaded for students to learn on their own, and class time is dedicated to engaging students in student-centered learning activities, like problem-based learning and inquiry-oriented strategies...
February 2014: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Klara K Papp, Grace C Huang, Laurie M Lauzon Clabo, Dianne Delva, Melissa Fischer, Lyuba Konopasek, Richard M Schwartzstein, Maryellen Gusic
Critical thinking is essential to a health professional's competence to assess, diagnose, and care for patients. Defined as the ability to apply higher-order cognitive skills (conceptualization, analysis, evaluation) and the disposition to be deliberate about thinking (being open-minded or intellectually honest) that lead to action that is logical and appropriate, critical thinking represents a "meta-competency" that transcends other knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors required in health care professions...
May 2014: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Chaoyan Dong, Poh Sun Goh
Videos can promote learning by either complementing classroom activities, or in self-paced online learning modules. Despite the wide availability of online videos in medicine, it can be a challenge for many educators to decide when videos should be used, how to best use videos, and whether to use existing videos or produce their own. We outline 12 tips based on a review of best practices in curriculum design, current research in multimedia learning and our experience in producing and using educational videos...
February 2015: Medical Teacher
Neel Sharma, C S Lau, Iain Doherty, Darren Harbutt
Flipping the classroom centres on the delivery of print, audio or video based material prior to a lecture or class session. The class session is then dedicated to more active learning processes with application of knowledge through problem solving or case based scenarios. The rationale behind this approach is that teachers can spend their face-to-face time supporting students in deeper learning processes. In this paper we provide a background literature review on the flipped classroom along with a three step approach to flipping the classroom comprising implementing, enacting and evaluating this form of pedagogy...
April 2015: Medical Teacher
Jennifer Moffett
The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. The following tips outline the steps involved in making a successful transition to a flipped classroom approach. The tips are based on the available literature alongside the author's experience of using the approach in a medical education setting. Flipping a classroom has a number of potential benefits, for example increased educator-student interaction, but must be planned and implemented carefully to support effective learning...
April 2015: Medical Teacher
Elizabeth R Van Horn, Yolanda M Hyde, Anita S Tesh, Donald D Kautz
The depth and breadth of pathophysiology content, foundational for nursing practice, is well suited for traditional lecture delivery. Use of creative strategies can deepen students' understanding while respecting students' diverse talents and ways of learning. The authors discuss strategies they used, including case studies, questions asked during lecture using immediate feedback technology, creative visual demonstrations, group pathophysiologic theory projects, short videos, and games, to enhance students' understanding and retention of content...
January 2014: Nurse Educator
Daniel R George, Tomi D Dreibelbis, Betsy Aumiller
BACKGROUND: Medical education is evolving to include active learning approaches, yet some courses will remain lecture-based. Social media tools used by students may foster collaborative learning during lectures. AIM: We present preliminary results from a pilot study that integrated two 'social' technologies, Google Docs and SurveyMonkey, into 22 hour-long lectures for a course called "Social Influences on Health" attended by 154 students. METHODS: At the conclusion of the semester, we reviewed student usage patterns with both technologies and collected data from students via course evaluations that included a standard Likert Scale...
December 2013: Medical Teacher
Cynthia J Miller, Jacquee McNear, Michael J Metz
In engaging lectures, also referred to as broken or interactive lectures, students are given short periods of lecture followed by "breaks" that can consist of 1-min papers, problem sets, brainstorming sessions, or open discussion. While many studies have shown positive effects when engaging lectures are used in undergraduate settings, the literature surrounding use of the learning technique for professional students is inconclusive. The novelty of this study design allowed a direct comparison of engaging physiology lectures versus didactic lecture formats in the same cohort of 120 first-year School of Dentistry DMD students...
December 2013: Advances in Physiology Education
Alam Sher Malik, Rukhsana Hussain Malik
BACKGROUND: Retaining lectures in problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum places new demands on lecturers. In addition to subject knowledge, the lecturers must know the overall aims of the lectures, their context in the course, their relation to the subsequent examinations and the underlying educational philosophy. AIM: Aim of this communication is to propose ways that will transform the traditional didactic lectures into PBL-compliant teaching/learning sessions...
2012: Medical Teacher
Robert D Keegan, Gary R Brown, Aifang Gordon
Research suggests that simulation technology has potential to enhance student achievement, particularly for students having a preference for hands-on learning. The aim of this study was to compare ventilation learning outcomes in students attending traditional lecture versus students using an active learning ventilation simulation. A computer simulation was developed to advance students' learning of mechanical ventilation. Forty-one students were divided into upper and lower strata based on performance rankings and were then randomly assigned to first complete a simulation scenario or view a lecture...
2012: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Paras Singh Minhas, Arundhati Ghosh, Leah Swanzy
Active learning is based on self-directed and autonomous teaching methods, whereas passive learning is grounded in instructor taught lectures. An animal physiology course was studied over a two-year period (Year 1, n = 42 students; Year 2, n = 30 students) to determine the effects of student-led seminar (andragogical) and lecture (pedagogical) teaching methods on students' retention of information and performance. For each year of the study, the course was divided into two time periods. The first half was dedicated to instructor-led lectures, followed by a control survey in which the students rated the efficiency of pedagogical learning on a five-point Likert scale from one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree)...
July 2012: Anatomical Sciences Education
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Shaikh Shahabuddin, Abeer A Al Masri, Shaikh Mujeeb Ahmed, Mansoor Aqil, Muhammad Akmal Anwer, Abdul Majeed Al-Drees
OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of the PowerPoint multimedia presentation and chalkboard in teaching by assessing the knowledge based on the marks obtained. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from December 2007 - June 2009. METHODOLOGY: Three-hundred male medical students were divided into three groups and a selected content-based lecture in physiology was delivered...
January 2013: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
2014-09-10 19:05:04
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