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By Jose M. Barria Castro MD from Panama
Nalini Vadivelu, Leandro Lumermann, Richard Zhu, Gopal Kodumudi, Amir O Elhassan, Alan David Kaye
Drug addiction is present in a significant proportion of the population in the USA and worldwide. Drug addiction can occur with the abuse of many types of substances including cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, opioids, and tranquilizers. There is a high likelihood that clinicians will encounter patients with substance abuse disorders on a regular basis with the prevalence of the use of illicit substances and the high rate of abuse of prescription drugs. The use of abuse deterrent formulations of prescription opioid agents, pill counts, and urine drug abuse screenings are all useful strategies...
May 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Richard H Sterns, Marvin Grieff, Paul L Bernstein
Treatment options for hyperkalemia have not changed much since the introduction of the cation exchange resin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Covis Pharmaceuticals, Cary, NC), over 50 years ago. Although clinicians of that era did not have ready access to hemodialysis or loop diuretics, the other tools that we use today-calcium, insulin, and bicarbonate-were well known to them. Currently recommended insulin regimens provide too little insulin to achieve blood levels with a maximal kalemic effect and too little glucose to avoid hypoglycemia...
March 2016: Kidney International
Meghan Delaney, Silvano Wendel, Rachel S Bercovitz, Joan Cid, Claudia Cohn, Nancy M Dunbar, Torunn O Apelseth, Mark Popovsky, Simon J Stanworth, Alan Tinmouth, Leo Van De Watering, Jonathan H Waters, Mark Yazer, Alyssa Ziman
Blood transfusion is one of the most common procedures in patients in hospital so it is imperative that clinicians are knowledgeable about appropriate blood product administration, as well as the signs, symptoms, and management of transfusion reactions. In this Review, we, an international panel, provide a synopsis of the pathophysiology, treatment, and management of each diagnostic category of transfusion reaction using evidence-based recommendations whenever available.
April 12, 2016: Lancet
Farhad Safari, Reza Aminnejad, Seyed Amir Mohajerani, Farshad Farivar, Kamran Mottaghi, Hasan Safdari
BACKGROUND: Addicted patients have innate tolerance to local anesthetics in both neuraxial and peripheral blocks. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a highly selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist used as additive to increase quality and duration of peripheral nerve blocks. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl additives on bupivacaine to prolong the duration of block and minimizing side effects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were candidates for elective surgery less than three hours of lower abdomen or lower extremities surgeries...
February 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Nikita R Bhatt, Amy Gillis, Craig O Smoothey, Faisal N Awan, Paul F Ridgway
BACKGROUND: There are no evidence-based guidelines to dictate when Gallbladder Polyps (GBPs) of varying sizes should be resected. AIM: To identify factors that accurately predict malignant disease in GBP; to provide an evidence-based algorithm for management. METHODS: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was performed using terms "gallbladder polyps" AND "polypoid lesion of gallbladder", from January 1993 and September 2013. Inclusion criteria required histopathological report or follow-up of 2 years...
October 2016: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Julie L Huffmyer, Matthew Moncrief, Jessica A Tashjian, Amanda M Kleiman, David C Scalzo, Daniel J Cox, Edward C Nemergut
BACKGROUND: Residency training requires work in clinical settings for extended periods of time, resulting in altered sleep patterns, sleep deprivation, and potentially deleterious effects on safe performance of daily activities, including driving a motor vehicle. METHODS: Twenty-nine anesthesiology resident physicians in postgraduate year 2 to 4 drove for 55 min in the Virginia Driving Safety Laboratory using the Driver Guidance System (MBFARR, LLC, USA). Two driving simulator sessions were conducted, one experimental session immediately after the final shift of six consecutive night shifts and one control session at the beginning of a normal day shift (not after call)...
June 2016: Anesthesiology
Martin C J Kneyber
Invasive mechanical ventilation is required when children undergo general anesthesia for any procedure. It is remarkable that one of the most practiced interventions such as pediatric mechanical ventilation is hardly supported by any scientific evidence but rather based on personal experience and data from adults, especially as ventilation itself is increasingly recognized as a harmful intervention that causes ventilator-induced lung injury. The use of low tidal volume and higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure became an integral part of lung-protective ventilation following the outcomes of clinical trials in critically ill adults...
September 2015: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
Faraj W Abdallah, Tim Dwyer, Vincent W S Chan, Ahtsham U Niazi, Darrell J Ogilvie-Harris, Stephanie Oldfield, Rajesh Patel, Justin Oh, Richard Brull
BACKGROUND: Perineural and IV dexmedetomidine have each been suggested to prolong the duration of analgesia when administered in conjunction with peripheral nerve blocks. In the first randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled trial to date, the authors aimed to define and compare the efficacy of perineural and IV dexmedetomidine in prolonging the analgesic duration of single-injection interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) for outpatient shoulder surgery. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients were randomized to receive ISB using 15 ml ropivacaine, 0...
March 2016: Anesthesiology
Elske Sitsen, Erik Olofsen, Agnes Lesman, Albert Dahan, Jaap Vuyk
BACKGROUND: Neuraxial blockade reduces the dose requirements of sedative agents. It is unclear whether neuraxial blockade affects the pharmacokinetics and/or the pharmacodynamics of IV hypnotics. We therefore studied the influence of epidural blockade on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in patients scheduled for general surgery. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were randomly divided into 4 groups, in a double-blind manner, to receive 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg epidural ropivacaine...
May 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Byung Hoon Kim, Sangseok Lee, Byunghoon Yoo, Woo Yong Lee, Yunhee Lim, Mun-Cheol Kim, Jun Heum Yon, Kye-Min Kim
BACKGROUND: Hip fracture surgery on elderly patients is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors related to the postoperative mortality and complications following hip fracture surgery on elderly patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the medical records of elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) who underwent hip fracture surgery from January 2011 to June 2014 were reviewed. A total of 464 patients were involved...
December 2015: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Albert Dahan, Dirk P Engberts, Marieke Niesters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Anesthesiology
Paul E Marik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Critical Care Medicine
C Frerk, V S Mitchell, A F McNarry, C Mendonca, R Bhagrath, A Patel, E P O'Sullivan, N M Woodall, I Ahmad
These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction...
December 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Kentaro Ouchi, Kazuna Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Incorrect endobronchial placement of the tracheal tube can lead to serious complications. Hence, it is necessary to determine the accuracy of tracheal tube positioning. Markers are included on tracheal tubes, in the process of their manufacture, as indicators of approximate intubation depth. In addition, continuous chest auscultation has been used for determining the proper position of the tube. We examined insertion depth using the cuff depth and continuous chest auscultation method (CC method), compared with insertion depth determined by the marker method, to assess the accuracy of these methods...
April 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Ushma Shah, Jean Wong, David T Wong, Frances Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity along with its pathophysiological changes increases risk of intraoperative and perioperative respiratory complications. The aim of this review is to highlight recent updates in preoxygenation techniques and intraoperative ventilation strategies in obese patients to optimize gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics and reduce pulmonary complications. RECENT FINDINGS: There is no gold standard in preoxygenation or intraoperative ventilatory management protocol for obese patients...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Daniel J Johnson, Andrew V Scott, Viachaslau M Barodka, Sunhee Park, Jack O Wasey, Paul M Ness, Tom Gniadek, Steven M Frank
BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that increased transfusion volumes are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but dose-response relations between high- and very-high-dose transfusion and clinical outcomes have not been described previously. In this study, the authors assessed (1) the dose-response relation over a wide range of transfusion volumes for morbidity and mortality and (2) other clinical predictors of adverse outcomes. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records for 272,592 medical and surgical patients (excluding those with hematologic malignancies), 3,523 of whom received transfusion (10 or greater erythrocyte units throughout the hospital stay), to create dose-response curves for transfusion volumes and in-hospital morbidity and mortality...
February 2016: Anesthesiology
George S Bause
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Anesthesiology
Sayaka Ishigaki, Kenichi Masui, Tomiei Kazama
BACKGROUND: Circulatory factors modify the onset time of neuromuscular-blocking drugs. Therefore, we hypothesized that infusion of a saline flush immediately after rocuronium administration would shorten the onset time without influencing the duration of the rocuronium effect. METHODS: Forty-eight patients were randomly allocated to the control or saline flush group. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil, and all patients received 0...
March 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
M del-Rio-Vellosillo, J J Garcia-Medina
BACKGROUND: HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) is an obstetric complication with heterogonous presentation and multisystemic involvement. It is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes by intravascular breakdown of fibrin in hepatic sinusoids and reduction of platelet circulation by its increased consumption. METHODS: In terms of these patients' anesthetic management, it is essential to consider some details: (1) effective, safe perioperative management by a multidisciplinary approach, and quick, good communication among clinical specialists to achieve correct patient management; (2) neuroaxial block, particularly spinal anesthesia, is the first choice to do the cesarean if there is only moderate, but not progressive thrombocytopenia; (3) if a general anesthesia is required, it is necessary to control the response to stress produced by intubation, especially in patients with either severe high blood pressure or neurological signs, or to prevent major cerebral complications; (4) invasive techniques, e...
February 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
2015-11-28 05:10:12
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