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302 papers 100 to 500 followers NICU
By Barbara Aninakwa Advance Neonatal Nurse Practitioner
William W Hay, Kendra C Hendrickson
Whereas human milk is the recommended diet for all infants, preterm formulas are indicated for enteral feeding of preterm very low birth weight infants when sufficient maternal breast milk and donor human milk are not available. Feeding with preterm formulas helps to ensure consistent delivery of nutrients. The balance of risks and benefits of feeding preterm formulas versus supplemented maternal and donor breast milk for preterm infants, however, is uncertain. Numerous studies and extensive practice have shown improved growth with preterm formulas, but there is concern for increased risks of necrotizing enterocolitis, possibly from cow milk antigen in the formulas or from different gut microbiomes, increased duration of total parenteral nutrition, and increased rates of sepsis in infants receiving preterm formulas...
August 30, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jose C Aldana-Aguirre, Merlin Pinto, Robin M Featherstone, Manoj Kumar
CONTEXT: In spontaneously breathing preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure, a method of less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) using a thin catheter has been described as an alternative to endotracheal intubation for surfactant delivery to reduce lung injury. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LISA with the standard method of surfactant delivery for clinical outcomes...
January 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Bradley A Yoder, K H Albertine, D M Null
Non-invasive respiratory support is increasingly used in lieu of intubated ventilator support for the management of neonatal respiratory failure, particularly in very low birth weight infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The optimal approach and mode for non-invasive support remains uncertain. This article reviews the application of high-frequency ventilation for non-invasive respiratory support in neonates, including basic science studies on mechanics of gas exchange, animal model investigations, and a review of current clinical use in human neonates...
June 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jeffrey L Segar
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management is critical for optimal care of very low birth weight or sick infants. Delivery of such care requires an understanding of developmental changes in renal water and salt handling that occur with advancing gestational age as well as postnatal age. This review focuses on the principles of sodium homeostasis during fetal and postnatal life. The physiology of renal tubular transport mechanisms, as well as neurohumoral factors impacting renal tubular transport are highlighted...
November 20, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Annie Janvier, Barbara Farlow, Eduard Verhagen, Keith Barrington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Hisham Abdelrhim, Paul Anthony Heaton, Christine Routley, Siba Prosad Paul
Up to one in 10 neonates are investigated and treated for neonatal sepsis, although most are later found to be uninfected. This review discusses identifying and treating this emergency condition and how implementing NICE guidance could reduce treatment time in well babies and saveonatal sepsis resources without compromising care.
April 2, 2014: Nursing Times
Arindam Mukherjee, Babu Ramalingaiah, Nigel Kennea, Donovan Alistair Duffy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Stephanie J Schrag, Monica M Farley, Susan Petit, Arthur Reingold, Emily J Weston, Tracy Pondo, Jennifer Hudson Jain, Ruth Lynfield
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichia coli have historically dominated as causes of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Widespread use of intrapartum prophylaxis for GBS disease led to concerns about the potential adverse impact on E coli incidence. METHODS: Active, laboratory, and population-based surveillance for culture-positive (blood or cerebrospinal fluid) bacterial infections among infants 0 to 2 days of age was conducted statewide in Minnesota and Connecticut and in selected counties of California and Georgia during 2005 to 2014...
December 2016: Pediatrics
Emily A Oliver, Patricia B Reagan, Jonathan L Slaughter, Catalin S Buhimschi, Irina A Buhimschi
Objective To evaluate current patterns in empiric antibiotic use for early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study of newborns admitted on postnatal day 0 to 1 and discharged from NICUs participating in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS 2006-2013). Analyses included frequency of antibiotic initiation within 3 days of birth, duration of first course, and variation among hospitals. Results Of 158,907 newborns, 118,624 (74.7%) received antibiotics on or before postnatal day 3...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Marleen Kerste, Jellina Corver, Martine C Sonnevelt, Monique van Brakel, Paul D van der Linden, Babette A M Braams-Lisman, Frans B Plötz
OBJECTIVE: To compare actual antibiotic use to the stratification based on the sepsis calculator in newborns with suspected early onset sepsis (EOS). To investigate differences in EOS risk and vital signs between newborns that received early (<12 h) versus late antibiotics (≥12 h of life). METHODS: Newborns born ≥34 weeks gestation in 2014 treated with antibiotics started within 72 h after birth were included. We calculated the risk per 1000 live births and retrospectively assigned each newborn to one of four recommended categories using the sepsis calculator...
December 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Martin Drageset, Jon Widding Fjalstad, Sven Mortensen, Claus Klingenberg
AIM: This study compared the management and outcomes of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in two tertiary neonatal units in Denmark and Norway. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all infants diagnosed with EONS between April 2010 and March 2013 and managed at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and the University Hospital of North Norway, Norway. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from patient records. RESULTS: We identified 137 EONS cases in Denmark and 101 in Norway...
December 9, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Wendy van Herk, Martin Stocker, Annemarie M C van Rossum
Early diagnosis and timely treatment of early onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) are essential to prevent life threatening complications. Subtle, nonspecific clinical presentation and low predictive values of biomarkers complicate early diagnosis. This uncertainty commonly results in unnecessary and prolonged empiric antibiotic treatment. Annually, approximately 395,000 neonates (7.9% of live term births) are treated for suspected EOS in the European Union, while the incidence of proven EOS varies between 0.01 and 0...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Infection
A R Bedford Russell, R Kumar
Early onset neonatal sepsis is persistently associated with poor outcomes, and incites clinical practice based on the fear of missing a treatable infection in a timely fashion. Unnecessary exposure to antibiotics is also hazardous. Diagnostic dilemmas are discussed in this review, and suggestions offered for practical management while awaiting a more rapidly available 'gold standard' test; in an ideal world, this test would be 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the presence of organisms.
July 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Charles L Sprung, Roland M H Schein, Robert A Balk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Tuğba Acer, İbrahim Ötgün, Müge Sağnak Akıllı, Esra Elif Gürbüz, Lütfi Hakan Güney, Akgün Hiçsönmez
There are case reports of duplication of the colon, rectum, anus, urinary system, lower genital tract, and external genitalia, spinal anomalies, and abdominal wall defects. However, it is rare to encounter a single newborn with all of the mentioned abnormalities, which have been defined as the caudal duplication syndrome (CDS). Herein, we present a newborn with an omphalocele, duplex external genitalia (with duplex labia minora and labia majora), duplex urethral orifices, duplex vaginal orifices, and duplex anal dimple with imperforate anus and rectovestibular fistula on both sides...
May 2013: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Samir Gupta, Steven M Donn
Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly used for respiratory support in preterm babies at birth and after extubation from mechanical ventilation. Various CPAP devices are available for use that can be broadly grouped into continuous flow and variable flow. There are potential physiologic differences between these CPAP systems and the choice of a CPAP device is too often guided by individual expertise and experience rather than by evidence. When interpreting the evidence clinicians should take into account the pressure generation sources, nasal interface, and the factors affecting the delivery of pressure, such as mouth position and respiratory drive...
June 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Huayan Zhang, Jie Zhang, Shunying Zhao
Over the past four decades, advances in neonatal intensive care have led to the survival of smaller and more immature infants. The improved survival of very low birth weight infants is associated with long term respiratory morbidity, most frequently in the form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In this review, we will discuss the pathogenesis, risk factor as well as management of commonly seen acquired airway disorders associated with prematurity, prolonged intubation and ventilation.
August 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
S J Steggerda, G van Wezel-Meijler
Cranial ultrasonography (CUS) is a reliable and non-invasive tool to detect frequently occurring brain abnormalities and to monitor brain development and maturation in high risk neonates. Standard CUS views are obtained through the anterior fontanel. However, evaluation of the posterior fossa is often suboptimal with this approach. Cerebellar injury occurs frequently in preterm infants and has important prognostic consequences. Early detection is therefore important. This review focuses on techniques that optimize the performance of CUS when studying the preterm cerebellum, including the use of the mastoid fontanel and the adaptation of focus points and scan frequencies...
October 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Nidhi Agrawal Shah, Courtney J Wusthoff
Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonate. Subgaleal, subdural, subarachnoid, and intraventricular hemorrhage have varying pathophysiology, but each can have serious long-term consequences. This article reviews the pathophysiology, presentation, and outcomes for intracranial hemorrhage in the newborn, as well as potential therapeutic interventions.
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
Dawn Gano
Preterm newborns are highly susceptible to brain injury. White matter injury is among the dominant patterns of brain injury in preterm newborns. the purpose of this review is to discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and prevention of white matter injury in premature newborns. the long-term outcome of white matter injury in children born prematurely is also addressed.
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
2016-05-20 17:41:05
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