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By Ikhlad Mahawe Specialist gynaecologist in baghdad
Alexander Burges, Barbara Schmalfeldt
BACKGROUND: Patients with ovarian cancer usually present to a family physician with nonspecific symptoms, most often abdominal pain. The outcome depends above all on the stage of the disease when it is diagnosed and on the quality of treatment. METHODS: This article is based on a review of selected publications from 2000 to 2010 that were retrieved by an automated search in Medline on the terms "ovarian cancer," "screening," "diagnosis," "treatment," and "prognosis," as well as the interdisciplinary S2k guideline Diagnostik und Therapie maligner Ovarialtumoren (the diagnosis and treatment of malignant ovarian tumors) issued in 2007 by the Ovarian Tumor Committee of the German Consortium of Gynecologic Oncology (AGO) and the Committee's updated recommendations of 2009...
September 2011: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
M Boulvain, O Irion, S Marcoux, W Fraser
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of sweeping of the membranes to prevent post-term pregnancy and to induce labour. DESIGN: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Potentially eligible trials were identified in Medline and in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Inclusion of studies and data extraction were performed by two reviewers working independently. Summary estimates of the effect of the intervention were computed as relative risks, risk differences and weighted mean differences...
May 1999: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
M Boulvain, C Stan, O Irion
BACKGROUND: This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. Sweeping of the membranes, also commonly named stripping of the membranes, is a relatively simple technique usually performed without admission to hospital. During vaginal examination, the clinician's finger is introduced into the cervical os. Then, the inferior pole of the membranes is detached from the lower uterine segment by a circular movement of the examining finger...
2001: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Boulvain, C Stan, O Irion
BACKGROUND: Sweeping of the membranes, also named stripping of the membranes, is a relatively simple technique usually performed without admission to hospital. During vaginal examination, the clinician's finger is introduced into the cervical os. Then, the inferior pole of the membranes is detached from the lower uterine segment by a circular movement of the examining finger. This intervention has the potential to initiate labour by increasing local production of prostaglandins and, thus, reduce pregnancy duration or pre-empt formal induction of labour with either oxytocin, prostaglandins or amniotomy...
2005: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fakiha Ifnan, M B Jameel
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and safety of hydrostatic membrane sweeping versus Foley's catheter ballooning alone in unripe cervix for induction of labour. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Labour room, department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit - II, Nishtar Medical College and Hospital, Multan, from 2003 to 2004. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty medically fit women admitted for normal delivery requiring induction of labour with singleton live pregnancy, Bishop score <6, aged 20-35 years, gestational age > or = 37 weeks and vertex presentation were randomized into two groups for cervical ripening by Foley's catheter ballooning method (group-A) and by hydrostatic membrane sweeping (group-B)...
May 2006: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Katherine D Crew
Vitamin D deficiency is a potentially modifiable risk factor that may be targeted for breast cancer prevention and treatment. Preclinical studies support various antitumor effects of vitamin D in breast cancer. Numerous observational studies have reported an inverse association between vitamin D status, including circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and breast cancer risk. The relationship between vitamin D and mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer risk, remains unclear. Studies analyzing the link between genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes and breast cancer incidence and prognosis have yielded inconsistent results...
2013: ISRN Oncology
Małgorzata Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Paweł Sadłecki, Paweł Walentowicz, Marek Grabiec
The review evaluates the role of vitamin D in carcinogenesis. Based on ecological studies, the incidence of many cancers has been shown to be higher in northern countries, suggesting an association with latitude and solar radiation. Vitamin D produced in skin under the influence of sun exposure may play a protective role in the process leading to cancer. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a pandemic, mainly due to lack of knowledge that sun exposure in moderation is the major source of vitamin D for most humans...
April 2013: Ginekologia Polska
April A N Rose, Christine Elser, Marguerite Ennis, Pamela J Goodwin
Vitamin D regulates expression of genes important in development and progression of breast cancer. The association of vitamin D with breast cancer outcomes among breast cancer patients is controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of this association in early stage breast cancer outcome. We searched MEDLINE (1982-May 1, 2013), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (2009-2012), and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (2010-2012) for abstracts, using the following keywords: "breast cancer" and "prognosis" or "survival", and "vitamin D" or" calcitriol" to identify studies reporting the associations of blood vitamin D levels (drawn close to diagnosis) with breast cancer outcomes...
October 2013: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Alexander N Comninos, Channa N Jayasena, Waljit S Dhillo
BACKGROUND: Reproductive function is tightly regulated by nutritional status. Indeed, it has been well described that undernutrition or obesity can lead to subfertility or infertility in humans. The common regulatory pathways which control energy homeostasis and reproductive function have, to date, been poorly understood due to limited studies or inconclusive data. However, gut hormones and adipose tissue hormones have recently emerged as potential regulators of both energy homeostasis and reproductive function...
March 2014: Human Reproduction Update
Stephen T Chasen
In the first and second trimesters, chemicals produced by the fetoplacental unit are measured to assess risks of fetal abnormalities. Consistent associations between levels of these proteins in such pregnancies enable these biomarkers to be used to calculate risk for Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities in individual pregnancies. Special consideration may be required when assessing risk in multiple pregnancies and pregnancies achieved with infertility therapy.
March 2014: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
E Mozurkewich, J Chilimigras, E Koepke, K Keeton, V J King
BACKGROUND: Rates of labour induction are increasing. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence supporting indications for induction. SEARCH STRATEGY: We listed indications for labour induction and then reviewed the evidence. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library between 1980 and April 2008 using several terms and combinations, including induction of labour, premature rupture of membranes, post-term pregnancy, preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM), multiple gestation, suspected macrosomia, diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, fetal anomalies, systemic lupus erythematosis, oligohydramnios, alloimmunization, rhesus disease, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (IHCP), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)...
April 2009: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Kjell Haram, Einar Svendsen, Ulrich Abildgaard
BACKGROUND: The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10-20% of cases with severe preeclampsia. The present review highlights occurrence, diagnosis, complications, surveillance, corticosteroid treatment, mode of delivery and risk of recurrence. METHODS: Clinical reports and reviews published between 2000 and 2008 were screened using Pub Med and Cochrane databases...
2009: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Bill Giannakopoulos, Steven A Krilis
This article discusses how we approach medical decision making in the treatment of the various facets of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), including secondary prophylaxis in the setting of venous and arterial thrombosis, as well as treatment for the prevention of recurrent miscarriages and fetal death. The role of primary thromboprophylaxis is also discussed in depth. Great emphasis is given to incorporating the most up-to-date and relevant evidence base both from the APS literature, and from large, recent, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of primary and secondary thrombotic prophylaxis in the general population setting (ie, the population that has not been specifically investigated for APS)...
September 3, 2009: Blood
Adam D Schaffner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2013: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Reshef Tal, James H Segars
BACKGROUND: It is well established that tumors are dependent on angiogenesis for their growth and survival. Although uterine fibroids are known to be benign tumors with reduced vascularization, recent work demonstrates that the vasculature of fibroids is grossly and microscopically abnormal. Accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenic growth factor dysregulation may be implicated in these vascular and other features of fibroid pathophysiology. METHODS: Literature searches were performed in PubMed and Google Scholar for articles with content related to angiogenic growth factors and myometrium/leiomyoma...
March 2014: Human Reproduction Update
Diana W Bianchi, R Lamar Parker, Jeffrey Wentworth, Rajeevi Madankumar, Craig Saffer, Anita F Das, Joseph A Craig, Darya I Chudova, Patricia L Devers, Keith W Jones, Kelly Oliver, Richard P Rava, Amy J Sehnert
BACKGROUND: In high-risk pregnant women, noninvasive prenatal testing with the use of massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA testing) accurately detects fetal autosomal aneuploidy. Its performance in low-risk women is unclear. METHODS: At 21 centers in the United States, we collected blood samples from women with singleton pregnancies who were undergoing standard aneuploidy screening (serum biochemical assays with or without nuchal translucency measurement)...
February 27, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
H Ijäs, M Vääräsmäki, L Morin-Papunen, R Keravuo, T Ebeling, T Saarela, T Raudaskoski
OBJECTIVE: To examine if oral metformin is as effective as insulin in the prevention of fetal macrosomy in pregnancies complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). DESIGN: Open-label prospective randomised controlled study. SETTING: Maternity outpatient clinics in a secondary and tertiary level hospital in Finland. SAMPLE: One hundred women with GDM who did not attain euglycaemia with diet. METHODS: Women were randomised to therapy with insulin (n = 50) or oral metformin (n = 50)...
June 2011: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Leontine Alkema, Vladimira Kantorova, Clare Menozzi, Ann Biddlecom
BACKGROUND: Expansion of access to contraception and reduction of unmet need for family planning are key components to improve reproductive health, but scarce data and variability in data sources create difficulties in monitoring of progress for these outcomes. We estimated and projected indicators of contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We obtained data from nationally representative surveys, for women aged 15-49 years who were married or in a union...
May 11, 2013: Lancet
Mona R Prasad, Edmund Funai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Charles W Nager, Linda Brubaker, Heather J Litman, Halina M Zyczynski, R Edward Varner, Cindy Amundsen, Larry T Sirls, Peggy A Norton, Amy M Arisco, Toby C Chai, Philippe Zimmern, Matthew D Barber, Kimberly J Dandreo, Shawn A Menefee, Kimberly Kenton, Jerry Lowder, Holly E Richter, Salil Khandwala, Ingrid Nygaard, Stephen R Kraus, Harry W Johnson, Gary E Lemack, Marina Mihova, Michael E Albo, Elizabeth Mueller, Gary Sutkin, Tracey S Wilson, Yvonne Hsu, Thomas A Rozanski, Leslie M Rickey, David Rahn, Sharon Tennstedt, John W Kusek, E Ann Gormley
BACKGROUND: Urodynamic studies are commonly performed in women before surgery for stress urinary incontinence, but there is no good evidence that they improve outcomes. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial involving women with uncomplicated, demonstrable stress urinary incontinence to compare outcomes after preoperative office evaluation and urodynamic tests or evaluation only. The primary outcome was treatment success at 12 months, defined as a reduction in the score on the Urogenital Distress Inventory of 70% or more and a response of "much better" or "very much better" on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement...
May 24, 2012: New England Journal of Medicine
2014-03-07 14:05:37
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