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A Primer on Psychiatry

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261 papers 1000+ followers Created for Psychiatry residents but useful and interesting for any mental health professional
By Edwin Kim Resident Physician, Aspiring Addiction Psychiatrist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21885577/substance-use-disorder-among-people-with-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-course-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer P Wisdom, Jennifer I Manuel, Robert E Drake
OBJECTIVE: People experiencing a first episode of psychosis frequently have co-occurring substance use disorders, usually involving alcohol and cannabis, which put them at risk for prolonged psychosis, psychotic relapse, and other adverse outcomes. Yet few studies of first-episode psychosis have addressed the course of substance use disorders and the response to specialized substance abuse treatments. METHODS: The authors searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and other medical databases for English-language articles published between 1990 and 2009...
September 2011: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153929/hallucinations-in-borderline-personality-disorder-and-common-mental-disorders
#2
Ian Kelleher, Jordan E DeVylder
Hallucinations are classically associated with psychotic disorders. Recent research, however, has highlighted that hallucinations frequently occur outside of the context of psychosis. Despite this, to our knowledge, there has been no epidemiological research to compare the prevalence of hallucinations across common mental disorders with the prevalence in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 7403), we investigated the prevalence of hallucinations in individuals with a range of mental disorders and BPD...
February 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138104/mechanisms-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis-and-prevention-the-brain-neural-pathology-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-tau-protein-and-other-risk-factors
#3
REVIEW
Sayad Kocahan, Zumrut Doğan
The characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the appearance of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the intracellular environment, neuronal death and the loss of synapses, all of which contribute to cognitive decline in a progressive manner. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain AD. Abnormal tau phosphorylation may contribute to the formation of abnormal neurofibrillary structures. Many different structures are susceptible to AD, including the reticular formation, the nuclei in the brain stem (e...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25772766/the-navigate-program-for-first-episode-psychosis-rationale-overview-and-description-of-psychosocial-components
#4
Kim T Mueser, David L Penn, Jean Addington, Mary F Brunette, Susan Gingerich, Shirley M Glynn, David W Lynde, Jennifer D Gottlieb, Piper Meyer-Kalos, Susan R McGurk, Corinne Cather, Sylvia Saade, Delbert G Robinson, Nina R Schooler, Robert A Rosenheck, John M Kane
Comprehensive coordinated specialty care programs for first-episode psychosis have been widely implemented in other countries but not in the United States. The National Institute of Mental Health's Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE) initiative focused on the development and evaluation of first-episode treatment programs designed for the U.S. health care system. This article describes the background, rationale, and nature of the intervention developed by the RAISE Early Treatment Program project-known as the NAVIGATE program-with a particular focus on its psychosocial components...
July 2015: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26481174/comprehensive-versus-usual-community-care-for-first-episode-psychosis-2-year-outcomes-from-the-nimh-raise-early-treatment-program
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
John M Kane, Delbert G Robinson, Nina R Schooler, Kim T Mueser, David L Penn, Robert A Rosenheck, Jean Addington, Mary F Brunette, Christoph U Correll, Sue E Estroff, Patricia Marcy, James Robinson, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Jennifer D Gottlieb, Shirley M Glynn, David W Lynde, Ronny Pipes, Benji T Kurian, Alexander L Miller, Susan T Azrin, Amy B Goldstein, Joanne B Severe, Haiqun Lin, Kyaw J Sint, Majnu John, Robert K Heinssen
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to compare the impact of NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, team-based treatment approach for first-episode psychosis designed for implementation in the U.S. health care system, with community care on quality of life. METHOD: Thirty-four clinics in 21 states were randomly assigned to NAVIGATE or community care. Diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, and clinical outcomes were assessed via live, two-way video by remote, centralized raters masked to study design and treatment...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12511175/clozapine-treatment-for-suicidality-in-schizophrenia-international-suicide-prevention-trial-intersept
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Herbert Y Meltzer, Larry Alphs, Alan I Green, A Carlo Altamura, Ravi Anand, Alberto Bertoldi, Marc Bourgeois, Guy Chouinard, M Zahur Islam, John Kane, Ranga Krishnan, J P Lindenmayer, Steven Potkin
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder attempt suicide, and approximately 10% die of suicide. Study results suggest that clozapine therapy significantly reduces suicidal behavior in these patients. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, international, 2-year study comparing the risk for suicidal behavior in patients treated with clozapine vs olanzapine was conducted in 980 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 26...
January 2003: Archives of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672165/the-terrorist-inside-my-husband-s-brain
#7
EDITORIAL
Susan Schneider Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521153/elucidating-the-association-between-depressive-symptoms-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-in-black-and-white-adults-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#8
Nathalie Moise, Yulia Khodneva, Joshua Richman, Daichi Shimbo, Ian Kronish, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: Depression is a relapsing and remitting disease. Prior studies on the association between depressive symptoms and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been limited by single measurements, and few if any have examined both incident coronary heart disease and stroke in a large biracial national cohort. We aimed to assess whether time-dependent depressive symptoms conferred increased risk of incident CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2003 to 2007, 22 666 black and white participants (aged ≥45 years) without baseline CVD in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study were recruited...
August 12, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338965/cannabis-use-disorder-in-adolescence
#9
REVIEW
Annabelle K Simpson, Viktoriya Magid
Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population...
July 2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604932/how-to-raise-a-genius-lessons-from-a-45-year-study-of-super-smart-children
#10
Tom Clynes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
8, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347442/alice-in-wonderland-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#11
Jan Dirk Blom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS), a disorder characterized by distortions of visual perception, the body schema, and the experience of time. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of 169 published case descriptions, the etiology of AIWS is divided into 8 main groups, with neurologic disorders affecting mostly adults and elderly patients and encephalitides affecting mostly patients aged ≤18 years. Symptoms of AIWS are also experienced in the general population, with up to 30% of adolescents reporting nonclinical symptoms...
June 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487174/an-update-on-pharmacotherapy-for-personality-disorders
#12
Marianna Mazza, Giuseppe Marano, Luigi Janiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349358/anxiety
#13
REVIEW
Michelle G Craske, Murray B Stein
Anxiety disorders (separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalised anxiety disorder) are common and disabling conditions that mostly begin during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. They differ from developmentally normative or stress-induced transient anxiety by being marked (ie, out of proportion to the actual threat present) and persistent, and by impairing daily functioning. Most anxiety disorders affect almost twice as many women as men...
17, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491532/longitudinal-course-of-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Rianne M van der Linde, Tom Dening, Blossom C M Stephan, A Matthew Prina, Elizabeth Evans, Carol Brayne
BACKGROUND: More information about the pattern of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in the course of dementia is needed to inform patients and clinicians and to design future interventions. AIMS: To determine the persistence and incidence of BPSD and their relation to cognitive function, in individuals with dementia or in cohorts investigated for dementia onset. METHOD: A systematic literature review analysed the baseline prevalence, persistence and incidence of 11 symptoms...
November 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464332/benign-ethnic-neutropenia-and-clozapine-use-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-and-treatment-recommendations
#15
REVIEW
Peter Manu, Nilofar Sarvaiya, Liliana M Rogozea, John M Kane, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiology, pathobiology, and management of benign ethnic neutropenia and determine the extent to which these factors should influence measures designed to avoid clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. DATA SOURCES: A structured MEDLINE search with no language limitation was performed from database inception until March 31, 2015, using the terms clozapine and benign ethnic neutropenia. Retrieved articles were cross-checked for additional relevant studies...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056050/why-psychiatry-needs-to-remember-its-history
#16
Laura D Hirshbein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26234595/john-and-alicia-nash-a-beautiful-love-story
#17
Nancy C Andreasen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193027/mental-disorders-top-the-list-of-the-most-costly-conditions-in-the-united-states-201%C3%A2-billion
#18
Charles Roehrig
Estimates of annual health spending for a comprehensive set of medical conditions are presented for the entire US population and with totals benchmarked to the National Health Expenditure Accounts. In 2013 mental disorders topped the list of most costly conditions, with spending at $201 billion.
June 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138588/the-phenomenology-of-major-depression-and-the-representativeness-and-nature-of-dsm-criteria
#19
Kenneth S Kendler
How should DSM criteria relate to the disorders they are designed to assess? To address this question empirically, the author examines how well DSM-5 symptomatic criteria for major depression capture the descriptions of clinical depression in the post-Kraepelin Western psychiatric tradition as described in textbooks published between 1900 and 1960. Eighteen symptoms and signs of depression were described, 10 of which are covered by the DSM criteria for major depression or melancholia. For two symptoms (mood and cognitive content), DSM criteria are considerably narrower than those described in the textbooks...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133416/the-american-psychiatric-association-practice-guideline-on-the-use-of-antipsychotics-to-treat-agitation-or-psychosis-in-patients-with-dementia
#20
Victor I Reus, Laura J Fochtmann, A Evan Eyler, Donald M Hilty, Marcela Horvitz-Lennon, Michael D Jibson, Oscar L Lopez, Jane Mahoney, Jagoda Pasic, Zaldy S Tan, Cheryl D Wills, Richard Rhoads, Joel Yager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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