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A Primer on Psychiatry

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269 papers 1000+ followers Created for Psychiatric residents. Useful for any interested mental health professional.
By Edwin Kim Resident Physician, Aspiring Addiction Psychiatrist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017623/the-genealogy-of-the-clinical-syndrome-of-mania-signs-and-symptoms-described-in-psychiatric-texts-from-1880-to-1900
#1
K S Kendler
In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627029/going-beyond-classic-descriptions-to-future-phenomenology-of-schizophrenia
#2
Manuel J Cuesta, Victor Peralta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538954/understanding-the-association-between-personality-and-severe-mental-illness
#3
Richard P Bentall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577609/the-early-origins-of-autism
#4
REVIEW
John N Constantino, Natasha Marrus
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders whose core features of impaired social communication and atypical repetitive behaviors and/or restrictions in range of interests emerge in toddlerhood and carry significant implications at successive stages of development. The ability to reliably identify most cases of the condition far earlier than the average age of diagnosis presents a novel opportunity for early intervention, but the availability of such an intervention is disparate across US communities, and its impact is imperfectly understood...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/2035713/the-serotonin-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
H Sternbach
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: A review of the literature on the serotonin syndrome in animals and human beings was conducted, and 12 reports of 38 cases in human patients were then analyzed to determine the most frequently reported clinical features and drug interactions, as well as the incidence, treatment, and outcome of this syndrome. FINDINGS: The serotonin syndrome is most commonly the result of the interaction between serotonergic agents and monoamine oxidase inhibitors...
June 1991: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330588/why-serious-mental-illness-should-be-designated-a-health-disparity-and-the-paradox-of-ethnicity
#6
Stephen J Bartels, Peter DiMilia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8149108/lessons-learned-from-deinstitutionalisation-in-the-us
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
H R Lamb
Deinstitutionalisation is at an advanced stage in the US, both in duration, and in reduction in state hospital beds. The new generation of chronically and severely mentally ill persons has posed the greatest problems. They no longer receive life-long hospital admission and thus permanent asylum from the demands of the world. Resistance to treatment and substance abuse are problems. Early proponents of deinstitutionalisation believed it would be cheaper, better, and give the mentally ill their freedom. In reality, good community care does not cost less...
May 1993: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24686574/prevalence-of-mental-illnesses-in-us-state-prisons-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Seth J Prins
Two federal reports dating from 1999 and 2006 are by far the most widely cited sources for the prevalence of mental illness among persons in U.S. jails and prisons. To provide a broader picture of the issue, the author undertook a systematic review of 28 articles published between 1989 and 2013. Not only did the review confirm the high prevalence of mental illnesses among prisoners, it identified a litany of health problems associated with the incarceration of persons with mental illness and profound difficulties in finding housing and employment after release...
July 2014: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21885577/substance-use-disorder-among-people-with-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-course-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Jennifer P Wisdom, Jennifer I Manuel, Robert E Drake
OBJECTIVE: People experiencing a first episode of psychosis frequently have co-occurring substance use disorders, usually involving alcohol and cannabis, which put them at risk for prolonged psychosis, psychotic relapse, and other adverse outcomes. Yet few studies of first-episode psychosis have addressed the course of substance use disorders and the response to specialized substance abuse treatments. METHODS: The authors searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and other medical databases for English-language articles published between 1990 and 2009...
September 2011: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153929/hallucinations-in-borderline-personality-disorder-and-common-mental-disorders
#10
Ian Kelleher, Jordan E DeVylder
Hallucinations are classically associated with psychotic disorders. Recent research, however, has highlighted that hallucinations frequently occur outside of the context of psychosis. Despite this, to our knowledge, there has been no epidemiological research to compare the prevalence of hallucinations across common mental disorders with the prevalence in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n = 7403), we investigated the prevalence of hallucinations in individuals with a range of mental disorders and BPD...
March 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138104/mechanisms-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis-and-prevention-the-brain-neural-pathology-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-tau-protein-and-other-risk-factors
#11
REVIEW
Sayad Kocahan, Zumrut Doğan
The characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the appearance of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the intracellular environment, neuronal death and the loss of synapses, all of which contribute to cognitive decline in a progressive manner. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain AD. Abnormal tau phosphorylation may contribute to the formation of abnormal neurofibrillary structures. Many different structures are susceptible to AD, including the reticular formation, the nuclei in the brain stem (e...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25772766/the-navigate-program-for-first-episode-psychosis-rationale-overview-and-description-of-psychosocial-components
#12
Kim T Mueser, David L Penn, Jean Addington, Mary F Brunette, Susan Gingerich, Shirley M Glynn, David W Lynde, Jennifer D Gottlieb, Piper Meyer-Kalos, Susan R McGurk, Corinne Cather, Sylvia Saade, Delbert G Robinson, Nina R Schooler, Robert A Rosenheck, John M Kane
Comprehensive coordinated specialty care programs for first-episode psychosis have been widely implemented in other countries but not in the United States. The National Institute of Mental Health's Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE) initiative focused on the development and evaluation of first-episode treatment programs designed for the U.S. health care system. This article describes the background, rationale, and nature of the intervention developed by the RAISE Early Treatment Program project-known as the NAVIGATE program-with a particular focus on its psychosocial components...
July 2015: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26481174/comprehensive-versus-usual-community-care-for-first-episode-psychosis-2-year-outcomes-from-the-nimh-raise-early-treatment-program
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
John M Kane, Delbert G Robinson, Nina R Schooler, Kim T Mueser, David L Penn, Robert A Rosenheck, Jean Addington, Mary F Brunette, Christoph U Correll, Sue E Estroff, Patricia Marcy, James Robinson, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Jennifer D Gottlieb, Shirley M Glynn, David W Lynde, Ronny Pipes, Benji T Kurian, Alexander L Miller, Susan T Azrin, Amy B Goldstein, Joanne B Severe, Haiqun Lin, Kyaw J Sint, Majnu John, Robert K Heinssen
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to compare the impact of NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, team-based treatment approach for first-episode psychosis designed for implementation in the U.S. health care system, with community care on quality of life. METHOD: Thirty-four clinics in 21 states were randomly assigned to NAVIGATE or community care. Diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, and clinical outcomes were assessed via live, two-way video by remote, centralized raters masked to study design and treatment...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12511175/clozapine-treatment-for-suicidality-in-schizophrenia-international-suicide-prevention-trial-intersept
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Herbert Y Meltzer, Larry Alphs, Alan I Green, A Carlo Altamura, Ravi Anand, Alberto Bertoldi, Marc Bourgeois, Guy Chouinard, M Zahur Islam, John Kane, Ranga Krishnan, J P Lindenmayer, Steven Potkin
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder attempt suicide, and approximately 10% die of suicide. Study results suggest that clozapine therapy significantly reduces suicidal behavior in these patients. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, international, 2-year study comparing the risk for suicidal behavior in patients treated with clozapine vs olanzapine was conducted in 980 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 26...
January 2003: Archives of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672165/the-terrorist-inside-my-husband-s-brain
#15
EDITORIAL
Susan Schneider Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521153/elucidating-the-association-between-depressive-symptoms-coronary-heart-disease-and-stroke-in-black-and-white-adults-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-study
#16
Nathalie Moise, Yulia Khodneva, Joshua Richman, Daichi Shimbo, Ian Kronish, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: Depression is a relapsing and remitting disease. Prior studies on the association between depressive symptoms and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been limited by single measurements, and few if any have examined both incident coronary heart disease and stroke in a large biracial national cohort. We aimed to assess whether time-dependent depressive symptoms conferred increased risk of incident CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2003 to 2007, 22 666 black and white participants (aged ≥45 years) without baseline CVD in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study were recruited...
August 12, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338965/cannabis-use-disorder-in-adolescence
#17
REVIEW
Annabelle K Simpson, Viktoriya Magid
Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population...
July 2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604932/how-to-raise-a-genius-lessons-from-a-45-year-study-of-super-smart-children
#18
Tom Clynes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347442/alice-in-wonderland-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jan Dirk Blom
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS), a disorder characterized by distortions of visual perception, the body schema, and the experience of time. RECENT FINDINGS: On the basis of 169 published case descriptions, the etiology of AIWS is divided into 8 main groups, with neurologic disorders affecting mostly adults and elderly patients and encephalitides affecting mostly patients aged ≤18 years. Symptoms of AIWS are also experienced in the general population, with up to 30% of adolescents reporting nonclinical symptoms...
June 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487174/an-update-on-pharmacotherapy-for-personality-disorders
#20
Marianna Mazza, Giuseppe Marano, Luigi Janiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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