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Autoimmune disease

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7 papers 100 to 500 followers
Tien V Nguyen, Edward W Cowen, Kieron S Leslie
Autoinflammation is characterized by aberrant regulation of the innate immune system and often manifests as periodic fevers and systemic inflammation involving multiple organs, including the skin. Mutations leading to abnormal behavior or activity of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß)-processing inflammasome complex have been found in several rare autoinflammatory syndromes, for which anticytokine therapy such as IL-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alfa inhibition may be effective. It is becoming clear that features of autoinflammation also affect common dermatoses, some of which were previously thought to be solely autoimmune in origin (eg, vitiligo, systemic lupus erythematosus)...
May 2013: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Gail Faller, Bhadrish J Mistry, Mohammed Tikly
BACKGROUND: To describe Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) that has rarely been reported in Sub-Saharan Africa in children. METHODS: Retrospective record review of children with JDM attending a tertiary hospital in South Africa. RESULTS: Twenty-one children (16 female, five male) with JDM had a mean (SD) age at presentation of 9.8 (3.3) years. Mean follow-up period was 2.6 (2.2) years. The commonest presenting features were skin rash (71%), muscle weakness (71%), inflammatory arthritis (42%) and calcinosis (29%)...
2014: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Matam Vijay-Kumar, Jesse D Aitken, Frederic A Carvalho, Tyler C Cullender, Simon Mwangi, Shanthi Srinivasan, Shanthi V Sitaraman, Rob Knight, Ruth E Ley, Andrew T Gewirtz
Metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity-related metabolic abnormalities that increase an individual's risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we show that mice genetically deficient in Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), a component of the innate immune system that is expressed in the gut mucosa and that helps defend against infection, exhibit hyperphagia and develop hallmark features of metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and increased adiposity...
April 9, 2010: Science
Shradha Agarwal, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immune defect. Although the hallmark of CVID is hypogammaglobulinemia, the intrinsic dysregulation of the immune system leads to defective T-cell activation and proliferation, as well as dendritic cell and cytokine defects. Although 70% to 80% of patients have had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, autoimmunity and inflammatory complications are also common. The most common autoimmune conditions are immune thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia, but other autoimmune complications arise, including rheumatoid arthritis, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroiditis, sicca syndrome, systemic lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease...
September 2009: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
P Devaraju, T Witte, R E Schmidt, R Gulati, V S Negi
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder with complex etiology. Loss of immune tolerance against self-antigens results in activation of the immune system to produce autoantibodies, which in turn contribute to the clinical manifestations of the disease. Immune cells harbor a plethora of regulatory receptors. Immunoglobulin-like transcripts (ILTs) exhibit both immune activation and inhibitory properties. Genetic defects in genes encoding these receptors may predispose to development of autoimmune diseases secondary to loss of their function...
October 2014: Lupus
L López-López, M Nieves-Plaza, M del R Castro, Y M Font, C A Torres-Ramos, L M Vilá, S Ayala-Peña
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared to healthy subjects and to determine the factors associated with mtDNA damage among SLE patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 86 SLE patients (per American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) and 86 healthy individuals matched for age and gender. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from subjects to assess the relative amounts of mtDNA damage...
October 2014: Lupus
Marie Wahren-Herlenius, Thomas Dörner
Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and dermatomyositis are systemic autoimmune diseases that develop after environmental triggering of genetically susceptible individuals. The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to autoimmune disease, and what factors determine which organs are involved, remain poorly understood. Recent insights into genetic susceptibility now make obvious that environmental triggers often act via cellular pathways containing disease-associated polymorphisms. In the breaking of tolerance, the initiating tissue--including dendritic cells--provides a decisive microenvironment that affects immune-cell differentiation, leading to activation of adaptive immunity...
August 31, 2013: Lancet
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