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Historia y humanidades

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18 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Andrés Aranda Profesor del Departamento de Historia y Filosofía de la Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM.
Adriano Schimmenti, Chiara Caprì, Daniele La Barbera, Vincenzo Caretti
BACKGROUND: In popular culture, Mafia members are often portrayed as ruthless, callous and remorseless, but there is no empirical research on their personality traits. AIMS: The goal of this research was to examine levels of psychopathic traits among Mafia members who have been convicted of a criminal offence. METHODS: The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) rated 30 Italian adult male prisoners who had been convicted for Mafia-related crimes (86% resident in one 6-month period) and 39 next adjacent convicted men who were not enrolled in any criminal organisation...
December 2014: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Melissa A Carroll, Katherine Lawson
Few research articles have addressed the anatomical needs of entry-level occupational therapy students. Given this paucity of empirical evidence, there is a lack of knowledge regarding anatomical education in occupational therapy. This article will primarily serve as a retrospective look at the inclusion of anatomical education in the occupational therapy curriculum. Focusing on the historical inclusion is the first step to address the gap in existing knowledge. Examining the history of anatomy in occupational therapy provides an educational context for curricular developments and helps current anatomical educators understand the evolution of occupational therapy as a profession...
November 2014: Anatomical Sciences Education
Mohammed A R Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan Chamsi-Pasha
Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna, was the most famous and influential of all the Islamic philosopher-scientists. His most important medical works are the Canon of Medicine medical encyclopedia and a treatise on cardiac drugs. His Canon of Medicine remained the standard text in both the East and West until the 16(th) century. Avicenna's description of cardiac diseases was logically presented perhaps for the first time in the history of medicine. Avicenna was the first to describe carotid sinus hypersensitivity, which presents with vasovagal syncope...
January 2014: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
E Edison, R A Agha, C F Camm
It is an interesting quirk of medical history that the legacy of Norman Barrett most ostensibly lies in the name of a disease the he was quite emphatically wrong about, at least when he first described it. Indeed, there are those who argue to remove the eponym in favour of the title 'Columnar Lined Epithelium', in part because of what little Barrett actually had to do with the correct initial characterization of this disease. Yet the sum of Norman Barrett's contributions to modern medicine is much more than a mistaken characterization of a pathological process...
May 2013: Journal of Medical Biography
John A S Beard
The Medical Act of 1858 was the culmination of medical, political and social wrangling for several decades before its passage. This essay looks to place the Act in its correct historical context and will specifically consider whether it brought about unity to what was a disparate and factional profession. That it was an important piece of legislation in the history of British healthcare is unquestioned, but the extent to which it directly brought about change is more uncertain. In order to understand the background, content and repercussions of the Act, one must recognize the structure of the medical system at that time...
May 2013: Journal of Medical Biography
Gregor Babaryka
Max Borst was the pre-eminent tumour pathologist among Rudolf Virchow's (1821-1902) heirs. In his magnum opus of 1902 Borst established the first complete system of tumours based upon histogenetic and biological criteria. Borst was the Chairman of Pathology at Munich University from 1910-46, over a unique period in German history. In the 1930s he was the leading figure in German cancer research. Borst was no Nazi but neither did he join the Resistance. He came to an arrangement with the National Socialist regime, living with it in a relationship of mutual utilitarianism...
May 2013: Journal of Medical Biography
Raffi Gurunluoglu, Aslin Gurunluoglu, Susan A Williams, Safiye Cavdar
This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes...
November 2013: Journal of Medical Biography
Vivian Nutton
The De humani corporis fabrica [The Fabric of the Human Body], Basle, 1543, of Andreas Vesalius is deservedly famous as the first modern book of anatomy. A second edition was published in Basle in 1555, but little is known of Vesalius' activities after that date. This article discusses a recent find: Vesalius' own copy of the 1555 edition, heavily annotated in preparation for a never published third edition. Vesalius made hundreds of changes to the second edition, the great majority being stylistic, altering the Latin words but not the overall meaning...
October 2012: Medical History
Craig Sinclair, Jessica Smith, Yann Toussaint, Kirsten Auret
Western cultural practices and values have largely shaped advance care planning (ACP) policies across the world. Low uptake of ACP among ethnic minority groups in Western countries has been interpreted with reference to cultural differences. This paper adopts a life-history approach to explore attitudes towards ACP among older, first-generation Dutch-Australian and Italian-Australian migrants. Thirty people participated in extended ethnographic interviews (N = 17) and group discussions (N = 13) during 2012...
January 2014: Social Science & Medicine
Yong Gu, Jianping Chen, Jiangang Shen
Stroke is a debilitating disease for which limited therapeutic approaches are available currently. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapies for stroke. Astrocytes, endothelial cells and pericytes constitute a neurovascular network for metabolic requirement of neurons. During ischemic stroke, these cells contribute to post-ischemic inflammation at multiple stages of ischemic cascades. Upon ischemia onset, activated resident microglia and astrocytes, and infiltrated immune cells release multiple inflammation factors including cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, free radicals and other small molecules, not only inducing brain damage but affecting brain repair...
June 2014: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Miral Dizdaroglu
PURPOSE: This article reviews the early history of ionizing radiation-induced sugar damage in DNA in dedication to Prof. Clemens von Sonntag, who recently passed away. It covers the time between 1968 and 1978, during which most of the work on the ionizing radiation-induced damage to polyalcohols, carbohydrates and the 2'-deoxyribose moiety in DNA was performed. Methodologies using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were developed to identify and quantify the radiation-induced products that had previously remained elusive...
June 2014: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Hafid Laayouni, Marije Oosting, Pierre Luisi, Mihai Ioana, Santos Alonso, Isis Ricaño-Ponce, Gosia Trynka, Alexandra Zhernakova, Theo S Plantinga, Shih-Chin Cheng, Jos W M van der Meer, Radu Popp, Ajit Sood, B K Thelma, Cisca Wijmenga, Leo A B Joosten, Jaume Bertranpetit, Mihai G Netea
Recent historical periods in Europe have been characterized by severe epidemic events such as plague, smallpox, or influenza that shaped the immune system of modern populations. This study aims to identify signals of convergent evolution of the immune system, based on the peculiar demographic history in which two populations with different genetic ancestry, Europeans and Rroma (Gypsies), have lived in the same geographic area and have been exposed to similar environments, including infections, during the last millennium...
February 18, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jayanth R Banavar, Todd J Cooke, Andrea Rinaldo, Amos Maritan
Despite the vast diversity of sizes and shapes of living organisms, life's organization across scales exhibits remarkable commonalities, most notably through the approximate validity of Kleiber's law, the power law scaling of metabolic rates with the mass of an organism. Here, we present a derivation of Kleiber's law that is independent of the specificity of the myriads of organism species. Specifically, we account for the distinct geometries of trees and mammals as well as deviations from the pure power law behavior of Kleiber's law, and predict the possibility of life forms with geometries intermediate between trees and mammals...
March 4, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrea A Conti
Medical rehabilitation is the process targeted to promote and facilitate the recovery from physical damage, psychological and mental disorders, and clinical disease. The history of medical rehabilitation is closely linked to the history of disability. In the ancient western world disabled subjects were excluded from social life. In ancient Greece disability was surmounted only by means of its complete removal, and given that disease was considered a punishment attributed by divinities to human beings because of their faults and sins, only a full physical, mental, and moral recovery could reinsert disabled subjects back in the society of "normal" people...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Xiaoqing Gao, Julia Chiesa, Daphne Maurer, Louis A Schmidt
To examine individual differences in adults' sensitivity to facial expressions, we used a novel method that has proved revealing in studies of developmental change. Using static faces morphed to show different intensities of facial expressions, we calculated two measures: (1) the threshold to detect that a low intensity facial expression is different from neutral, and (2) accuracy in recognizing the specific facial expression in faces above the detection threshold. We conducted two experiments with young adult females varying in reported temperamental shyness and sociability - the former trait is known to influence the recognition of facial expressions during childhood...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Halima Muller, Simon Regard, Nicole Petriccioli, Omar Kherad
A 42-year-old man from Bhutan was admitted to the emergency department with a 5-day history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Enhanced abdominal CT scan was found negative, however laboratory tests showed hemolytic anemia and basophilic stippling which are often seen in lead and heavy metal poisoning. Additional tests revealed a high level of lead in blood and urine. The patient was administered a chelator treatment with rapid improvement of the symptoms. A detailed interview revealed that the patient had been taking daily Bhutanese traditional medicines to treat a Bell's palsy from which he had been suffering for a few months...
2013: F1000Research
Hector E Castro, María Fernanda Briceño, Claudia P Casas, Juan David Rueda
First evidence of cases of haemophilia dates from ancient Egypt, but it was when Queen Victoria from England in the 19th century transmitted this illness to her descendants, when it became known as the "royal disease". Last decades of the 20th century account for major discoveries that improved the life expectancy and quality of life of these patients. The history and evolution of haemophilia healthcare counts ups and downs. The introduction of prophylactic schemes during the 1970s have proved to be more effective that the classic on-demand replacement of clotting factors, nevertheless many patients managed with frequent plasma transfusions or derived products became infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus during the 1980s and 1990s...
March 2014: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Yujing Liu, Selena Ahmed, Bo Liu, Zhiyong Guo, Weijuan Huang, Xianjin Wu, Shenghua Li, Jiangju Zhou, Qiyi Lei, Chunlin Long
BACKGROUND: Dyes derived from plants have an extensive history of use for coloring food and clothing in Dong communities and other indigenous areas in the uplands of China. In addition to use as coloring agents, Dong communities have historically utilized dye plants for their value for enhancing the nutritive, medicinal and preservative properties of foods. However, the persistence of plant-derived dyes and associated cultural practices and traditional knowledge is threatened with rapid socio-economic change in China...
2014: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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