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Vaccines

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17 papers 1000+ followers A collection based around the efficacy of vaccines as well as vaccines in the public spotlight.
By M N A resident in pediatrics.
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24843056/safety-of-rotavirus-vaccine-in-the-nicu
#1
Heather M Monk, Adam J Motsney, Kelly C Wade
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus vaccination is discouraged during hospitalization given concerns regarding live attenuated virus transmission, although recommended upon discharge. Infants should have vaccination initiated by 104 days of age or they become age-ineligible. Our institution believed the known risk of severe disease in unvaccinated infants outweighed the theoretical risk of transmission. We routinely administer RotaTeq (RV5) to age-eligible hospitalized infants on enteral feeds...
June 2014: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24843064/timely-versus-delayed-early-childhood-vaccination-and-seizures
#2
Simon J Hambidge, Sophia R Newcomer, Komal J Narwaney, Jason M Glanz, Matthew F Daley, Stan Xu, Jo Ann Shoup, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Nicola P Klein, Grace M Lee, Jennifer C Nelson, Marlene Lugg, Allison L Naleway, James D Nordin, Eric Weintraub, Frank DeStefano
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the timing of childhood vaccination and postvaccination seizures. METHODS: In a cohort of 323 247 US children from the Vaccine Safety Datalink born from 2004 to 2008, we analyzed the association between the timing of childhood vaccination and the first occurrence of seizure with a self-controlled case series analysis of the first doses of individual vaccines received in the first 2 years of life. RESULTS: In infants, there was no association between the timing of infant vaccination and postvaccination seizures...
June 2014: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24795202/united-states-private-schools-have-higher-rates-of-exemptions-to-school-immunization-requirements-than-public-schools
#3
Jana Shaw, Boldtsetseg Tserenpuntsag, Louise-Anne McNutt, Neal Halsey
OBJECTIVE: To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. STUDY DESIGN: Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test...
July 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24347574/childhood-vaccination-coverage-by-ethnicity-within-london-between-2006-2007-and-2010-2011
#4
Karen S Wagner, Johan C J van Wijgerden, Nick Andrews, Khushbu Goulden, Joanne M White
OBJECTIVES: To assess childhood vaccination coverage at first, second and fifth birthdays by ethnicity in London between 2006/2007 and 2010/2011 and identify factors relating to lower coverage. DESIGN: Data concerning receipt of diphtheria-containing vaccines were extracted from child health information systems (CHISs) and sent to the Health Protection Agency. SETTING: Nine London Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). PARTICIPANTS: Records for 315 381 children born April 2001-March 2010...
April 2014: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24257032/the-role-of-media-and-the-internet-on-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-a-case-study-of-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#5
Jan M Eberth, Kimberly N Kline, David A Moskowitz, Jane R Montealegre, Michael E Scheurer
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the temporal association of print media coverage and Internet search activity with adverse events reports associated with the human papillomavirus vaccine Gardasil (HPV4) and the meningitis vaccine Menactra (MNQ) among United States adolescents. METHODS: We used moderated linear regression to test the relationships between print media reports in top circulating newspapers, Internet search activity, and reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for HPV4 and MNQ during the first 2...
March 2014: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24590750/economic-evaluation-of-the-routine-childhood-immunization-program-in-the-united-states-2009
#6
Fangjun Zhou, Abigail Shefer, Jay Wenger, Mark Messonnier, Li Yan Wang, Adriana Lopez, Matthew Moore, Trudy V Murphy, Margaret Cortese, Lance Rodewald
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the economic impact of the 2009 routine US childhood immunization schedule, including diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, inactivated poliovirus, measles/mumps/rubella, hepatitis B, varicella, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, and rotavirus vaccines; influenza vaccine was not included. METHODS: Decision analysis was conducted using population-based vaccination coverage, published vaccine efficacies, historical data on disease incidence before vaccination, and disease incidence reported during 2005 to 2009...
April 2014: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24190677/the-architecture-of-provider-parent-vaccine-discussions-at-health-supervision-visits
#7
Douglas J Opel, John Heritage, James A Taylor, Rita Mangione-Smith, Halle Showalter Salas, Victoria Devere, Chuan Zhou, Jeffrey D Robinson
OBJECTIVE: To characterize provider-parent vaccine communication and determine the influence of specific provider communication practices on parent resistance to vaccine recommendations. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in which we videotaped provider-parent vaccine discussions during health supervision visits. Parents of children aged 1 to 19 months old were screened by using the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey. We oversampled vaccine-hesitant parents (VHPs), defined as a score ≥50...
December 2013: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24590751/effective-messages-in-vaccine-promotion-a-randomized-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Brendan Nyhan, Jason Reifler, Sean Richey, Gary L Freed
OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of messages designed to reduce vaccine misperceptions and increase vaccination rates for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR). METHODS: A Web-based nationally representative 2-wave survey experiment was conducted with 1759 parents age 18 years and older residing in the United States who have children in their household age 17 years or younger (conducted June-July 2011). Parents were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 interventions: (1) information explaining the lack of evidence that MMR causes autism from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; (2) textual information about the dangers of the diseases prevented by MMR from the Vaccine Information Statement; (3) images of children who have diseases prevented by the MMR vaccine; (4) a dramatic narrative about an infant who almost died of measles from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention fact sheet; or to a control group...
April 2014: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24570246/live-vaccine-against-measles-mumps-and-rubella-and-the-risk-of-hospital-admissions-for-nontargeted-infections
#9
Signe Sørup, Christine S Benn, Anja Poulsen, Tyra G Krause, Peter Aaby, Henrik Ravn
IMPORTANCE: In low-income countries, live measles vaccine reduces mortality from causes other than measles infection. Such nonspecific effects of vaccines might also be important for the health of children in high-income settings. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is associated with lower rates of hospital admissions for infections among children in Denmark. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study of Danish children born 1997-2006 and followed up from ages 11 months to 2 years (last follow-up, August 31, 2008)...
February 26, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24565424/pertussis-a-persistent-cause-of-morbidity-and-mortality-in-young-infants
#10
Joseph B Cantey, Pablo J Sánchez, Judy Tran, Wendy Chung, Jane D Siegel
In 2012, a pertussis outbreak in Dallas County resulted in the deaths of 4 children (3, unvaccinated; 2, <60 days of age). Despite recommendations that include immunization of women preferably during the third trimester of pregnancy or postpartum, household contacts ("cocooning"), and infants as early as 42 days of age, challenges in pertussis prevention remain.
June 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24571755/an-inactivated-enterovirus-71-vaccine-in-healthy-children
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rongcheng Li, Longding Liu, Zhaojun Mo, Xuanyi Wang, Jielai Xia, Zhenglun Liang, Ying Zhang, Yanping Li, Qunying Mao, Jingjing Wang, Li Jiang, Chenghong Dong, Yanchun Che, Teng Huang, Zhiwei Jiang, Zhongping Xie, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Yan Liang, Yi Nong, Jiansheng Liu, Hongling Zhao, Ruixiong Na, Lei Guo, Jing Pu, Erxia Yang, Le Sun, Pingfang Cui, Haijing Shi, Junzhi Wang, Qihan Li
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children and may be fatal. A vaccine against EV71 is needed. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial involving healthy children 6 to 71 months of age in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Two doses of an inactivated EV71 vaccine or placebo were administered intramuscularly, with a 4-week interval between doses, and children were monitored for up to 11 months...
February 27, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24571750/enterovirus-vaccines-for-an-emerging-cause-of-brain-stem-encephalitis
#12
Peter C McMinn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24571754/efficacy-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-enterovirus-71-vaccine-in-china
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Fengcai Zhu, Wenbo Xu, Jielai Xia, Zhenglun Liang, Yan Liu, Xuefeng Zhang, Xiaojuan Tan, Ling Wang, Qunying Mao, Junyu Wu, Yuemei Hu, Tianjiao Ji, Lifei Song, Qi Liang, Baomin Zhang, Qiang Gao, Jingxin Li, Shenyu Wang, Yuansheng Hu, Shanru Gu, Jianhua Zhang, Genhong Yao, Jianxiang Gu, Xushan Wang, Yuchun Zhou, Changbiao Chen, Minglei Zhang, Minquan Cao, Junzhi Wang, Hua Wang, Nan Wang
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease or herpangina worldwide. This phase 3 trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of an EV71 vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in which 10,007 healthy infants and young children (6 to 35 months of age) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular doses of either EV71 vaccine or placebo, 28 days apart...
February 27, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24567011/vaccine-financing-from-the-perspective-of-primary-care-physicians
#14
Sean T O'Leary, Mandy A Allison, Megan C Lindley, Lori A Crane, Laura P Hurley, Michaela Brtnikova, Brenda L Beaty, Christine I Babbel, Andrea Jimenez-Zambrano, Stephen Berman, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: Because of high purchase costs of newer vaccines, financial risk to private vaccination providers has increased. We assessed among pediatricians and family physicians satisfaction with insurance payment for vaccine purchase and administration by payer type, the proportion who have considered discontinuing provision of all childhood vaccines for financial reasons, and strategies used for handling uncertainty about insurance coverage when new vaccines first become available...
March 2014: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24126936/effect-of-age-on-the-risk-of-fever-and-seizures-following-immunization-with-measles-containing-vaccines-in-children
#15
Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Bruce Fireman, Edwin Lewis, James Nordin, Allison Naleway, Steven J Jacobsen, Lisa A Jackson, Alison Tse, Edward A Belongia, Simon J Hambidge, Eric Weintraub, Roger Baxter, Nicola P Klein
IMPORTANCE The first dose of live attenuated measles-containing vaccines is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization among 12- to 23-month-old children. The combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization compared with the separately administered measles, mumps, and rubella and varicella vaccines. It is unknown whether the magnitude of these increased risks depends on age at immunization...
December 2013: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24515506/a-6-month-old-with-vaccine-hesitant-parents
#16
Douglas J Opel, Kristen A Feemster, Saad B Omer, Walter A Orenstein, Monica Richter, John D Lantos
Many primary care pediatricians find vaccine hesitancy to be one of the most frustrating situations that they face. Parents who refuse to vaccinate their children implicitly call into question an intervention that most pediatricians see as one of the safest and most effective health care interventions of all time. Many pediatricians respond by refusing to care for children whose parents refuse vaccines, and some may consider that the parent's refusal warrants referral to child protective services. We present a case in which a pediatrician faces this dilemma, with responses from pediatricians in academia and private practice...
March 2014: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24515514/duration-of-protection-after-first-dose-of-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-in-infants
#17
Helen E Quinn, Thomas L Snelling, Kristine K Macartney, Peter B McIntyre
OBJECTIVE: Data on the effectiveness of the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in the first 4 years of life are sparse. We evaluated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 1 and 2 doses of DTaP before 6 months of age and of 3 doses from 6 months of age in Australia, where, since 2003, a fourth dose is not given until 4 years. METHODS: We matched reported pertussis cases aged 2 to 47 months between January 2005 and December 2009 to controls from a population-based immunization register by date of birth and region of residence...
March 2014: Pediatrics
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